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to be applicable to the treatment of impedi- above the level of the deck; and, if spe meats. In the mean time I am yet free to cifically lighter than water, should be reknowledge, that, on the subject of what fastened to the sides, in, or under the the compiler has called the “ orthoe pical water. The very crew should immerse junction of words,” the Grammar of Eng. their bodies to their chins, and nothing lish Pronunciation, (though not free from should be allowed to reman: above the mistakes and (allacies) may be consulted with some advantage. If the last chapter had

surface that can be conveniently imbeen done as well, I might bave passed over

mersed. '. Of course, as much iron-work, the plagiary in silence : for the interests of

and other bodies specifically heavier science would not then have been essentially

than water, as possible, should be deinjured ; and me, most assuredly, it is not tached and thrown over-board. By due in the power of Mr. S. to injure.

attention to this principle, I should preOctober 22, 1810. J. THILWALL. sume, a priori, that no ship could foun

der simply from a leak, or from falling To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, with water. SIR,

• 2. With respect to a boat, the prin. T OFTEN puzzle persons, who in ge- ciple is the same. If a boat springs a I neral reason closely, by asking them, leak, or from any other cause fills with Why a boat sinks when a hole is made in water, the passengers should instantly lie the bottom

down, and keep nothing but their faces Many of your readers, from habitually above the water. Every thing heavier considering this cause aird effect as inse than water should be thrown overboard, parable, will be disposed to smile at the and norbing be allowed to stand above question. I will, however, prove its claim the level of the water, or on the top of to consideration, by reminding them, that the boat. the boat, which sinks when there is a 3. By attending to the same prina hole in the bottom, is specifically ligliter ciple, persons may olteu adoid being then water: that is, we have in this lact, drowned. The total of the human body, the philosophical para lox of a body sinke in vital action, is specifically lighter than ing in a fluid of greater specific gravity! water; a living human body therefore

The cause is worthy of consideration, will swim in water, provided it is not because, as boats and marine vessels in sunk by parts of it being protruded above general are of great importance to man, the water, which unimmersed parts force deductions and interences may arise from down the parts under the water, till the its explication, of considerable practical internal cavities fill. If a person who utility. The ship-builder and the na- falls into water, holds his breath, till, by vigator may avail themselves of it in a the laws of specific gravity, he rises again way which I cannot bastily anticipate; to the surface, and then protrudes no part and the principle may, in various re- of his body above the surface besides his spects, prore of consequence to mankind, face, he cannot sink again. But the

In brief then: a boat, or ship, the ma. weighit of his arms alone, if protruded terials of which are specifically lighter out of the water, or even the entire of than water, sinks when a hole is made in his head, without appropriate action, il below the water, by the pressure of the will be sufficient to sink him. Men are parts of the vessel which are out of or drowned, and all animals swin, when above the water, upon the parts which are thrown into water; simply because men immersed.

are able to raise their fore-limbs above This principle being understood, nu. their heads, and animals are not able to merous practical inferences flash on the do so. The animal sinks to the level mind; and I shall briefly state those ascertained by his own specific gravity, which at this moinent occur to me. and that of the fluid, which leaves per

1. When a biy springs a dangerous haps nothing but his hose above the leak, the true way to prevent her siok- water; and then, to rey in the shore, he ing is to diminish her height, and vo-' exerts the same action with his linbs as luntarily sink all that is possible' of her be does in walking, lfmen were to rebulk in the water. Whatever belongs main passive, keep down their hands, 19 her which is specifically lighter than trust to the laws of specific gravity, and water, should be cast over-board, with. put themselves in the attitude of walkout being detached from the ship's bouly. ing, the same resulıs, and the same tee The masts should be cut away and fas. curity, would, in general, be the con.. tened along side, on or under the water. sequence. Savages swim from their in. Every thing sbould be removed which is fancy on the same principle; and civi

lized man may, in this respect, conde- worms are never likely to be bred with scend to take a lesson from savage and profit in this country. Not on account animal lifeor, in other words, from of the climate, which is even more fapure nature. .

vourable to thein than that of Italy or · Tor the present, I am content with India, but from the impossibility of supplye having, through your Magazine, submit- ing them with suitable fond except at an ted these ideas to the world, and I leave enormous expence. Other trials conit to the leisure, opportunity, patriotisin, fium his experience, that the mulberry is or benerolence, of others, to apply them the only plant upon whose leaves they to all their beneficial purposes.

thrive. At present so few of these trees COMMON SEXSE. are in existence in Britain, that perhaps

no district of twenty miles in circumfe· N. B. It concerns me to observe, by the rence could furnish leaves for the worms records of mortality in your Magazine, that necessary to spin five pounds of silk. fumérous females were burnt to death during “ But more might be grown?" True, the last winter, not withstanding I pointed but pot proficably, as a very short caleut an infallible means of avoiding such ac- culation will shew. The silk spun by a cidents in a formet paper. As thuse means

single sill-worn weighs on the average

inwies cannot 100 often be published, I shall remind

less then three grains, A thousand your readers that they consist simply in the

worms therefore are necessary to furnish party lying down, as soon as the clothes are discovered to be on fire. A lady's muslin: a pound of silk, Worth, we will say, thirtydress, which might take fire at the skirt, five shillings. But a mulberry-tree capa. would burn from top to bottom, and produce ble of supplying food for so many must a fatal density of fame in half a minute, be of at least seven or eight years' growth, while she is standing upright; but if she When, therefore, we take into account were instantly to lie down, even though she that these trees require a good soil; that Rook no pains leisurely to extinguish the the cost of planting them would be cr :Lames, ten minutes wouid elapse before her siderable, while little or no return would dress could be consumed, and the flame would be received during the above period, be such as might, at any instant, be extin- and that the expence of attending the guished by che thumb and fingers. Is it not

worms, preparing the silk, &c., would then most afflicting, that iatal accidents should arise frum a cause so easily averted ?

not be trifling, it is clear that no profit

could attend the speculation. This is To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

me not at all to be lamented. He is quite

" right in condemning that rage which na SIB,

tions have for producing every thing at n NR. of your correspondents in your last Number, vates the great obu

home; which, if it could be realized, stacle in the way of rearing silk-worms

would prove the destruction of com

of merce, and put a stop to the progress of in this country, to be the difficulty of retarding the hatching of the eggs until C

il civilization. In this view many of the the lace period at which mulberry leaves premiums of the Society of Arts bave al. appear. It may be useful to him, and

ways seemed to me injudiciously directed, to such of your readers as are inclined why, should we be desirous of growing to amuse theinselves with breeding these madder, pruducing silk, &c. &c. when insects, to be inforined that the exclusion

we can procure those articles so cheap

froin oor weiglibours, and get them in of tiie eggs entirely depends upon the degree of temperature to which they are ex

exchange for our own manufactures? If posed, and may be regulated at pleasure.

we could succeed in our wishes, we In the East Indies they hatch in a week

should find, like those notable housewives or two; here not for some inonths, com.

who boast of having every thing within monly six or seven. By inclosing them

themselves," that our maiders and our in a dry phial, tightly corked, and kept

u silk would cost us twice as much as if porin a cellar, they may be preserved in a

chased in the markets of Holland and dormant state for a much longer period;

• Italy.. Happily nature bas put a clieck and may be hatched' at any time in a

to these vagaries, in rendering different few days by exposure to the sun. There

countries dependent on each other; and

whatever may be the boasts of the Mo. is no reason to doubt that if placed in as: ire-house, their exclusion might be re

niteur, we may salely predict that tarded for upwards of a year.

Buonaparte's grape-sugar and endise Though your correspondent is mise

roof coffee will share the fate of Inken on this head, he is quite right "

the silk speculations of our James I. is coming to the conclusion that silka *

. at Chelven.

PAXPHILA.

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For the Monthly Magazine. and even in Switzerland, many years beOR REPOEM in the REPRESENTATION of

fore his death, if it had been so long the CUMMONS in PARLIAMENT,

previously to that event, in use in Ger

many. No. IV. I NOW proceed to some account, such

CLAVI-CYLINDER. 1 as imperfect recollection will enable This instrument, by its description, me to give, of a plan of reforin proposed by seems a variation, and probably an in. Mr. Horne Tooke, about the year 1783. provement, on the aieuton of Mr. Clag.

I have made what enquiry I could gett. I judge this from the account of after two tracts of his, about that time, its mode of action, and the circumstance with a view, if possible, to state it in his stated of its being never out of tune. own words. I have been hitherto un. A friend, who is a great inusical theo. successful. They are his Letter to Mr. rist, and a very respectable both com. Dunning; and his Pair of Portraits. poser and perforiner, had an exceed

I shall be much obliged to any of your ingly large opinion of the merit of the correspondents, who will supply a more instrument of Mr. Claggett. It had in full and accurate statement. Perbaps power, dignity, and solemnity of tone, Mr. Horne Tooke hiinselt will, if this a great resemblance to the organ, free, should fall under his eye.

by its construction, from the only chaMy recollection of it, is that it consi- racteristic imperfection of that dederably indeed increased the qualifica lightful and sublime instrument. The tion required by 8 H. VI. (I am fearful of inventor gave it the name which has been saying from memory, how considerably) mentioned, from its being alet Sulovov, * and proposed on the plan of the votes of always in good tune. The Celestina meproprietors of East India stock, accu. chanism of the instrument, acted by mulative votes according to the property; pressure on a system of metallic bars, so that the holder of double the property, (or pitch-forks). It is evident, that the entitled to one vote, should have two: mass of metal exempted these from any and thus on progressively.

sensible change of tone, such as the changes of the atmosphere must always

produce in wires, or strings. At the INTRODUCTION of the PIANO-PORTE. same time, the very nature of the con.

I am much obliged to your correspon. Struction would cause the instrument dent, R. K, D.

to have a somewhat bard tone, and to I think the result very nearly esta. speak slowly; but for andante, adagio, blishes the introduction of this elégant and largo, movements, such as are yeand expressive instrument, which seems nerally the sublimest and most pathetic to me, and to many, to have so much in the serious opera, and the most ad. improved on the harpsichord, to have mirable in oratorio music, (the two taken place in this country probably, highest departments of this divine art); and almost certainly, in 1766, and to it seems probable that this instrument have been completed in 1768. Its im- would have had the advantage over every provement in two years, seeins to make other. The clearness, parity, and it probable that it was even invented fullness of tone, the beauty of swell here. And this appears the more pro. and diminution, which distinguish it, bable, as I find no indication that Rous. were inconceivable. The invention of seau was acquainted with it. If he had, Mr. Claggett may have been unknown I presume be would bave been too to Mr. Chladni, from whom I am sure greatly interested in it to have passed it I have no disposition to detract. On the in silence. During his stay in England, contrary, I learn with great pleasure the he spent so much of his time at a diso introduction of an instrument from tance from the metropolis, and I believe which so much may be expected. in society not particularly musical, tbat At the same time, I wish to do justice it was very likely that lie should not hear to a man of very interesting manners, of it. But if it had been introduced first and respectable character, who disine in Germany, and before 1766, it is al- terestedly devoted many years of his life Inost impos-ible that Rousseau, who died to the improvement both of keyed and July 4, 1778, should not have heard of wind instruments; whose merit in it. It could hardly have failed to have been known in Paris, through France,

Aiei cutonon. MONTHLY Mac. No. 205,

2 R

both

Lothi was acknowledged by unquestion. For the Monthly Magazine. able judges; whose science, and taste, On a peculiar MILITARY ACCEPTATION and judyinent, accompanied him to the of the word Massacrés," in FRENCH. grave, with liule earthly reward. Some QEVERAL vears past, I noted in the memoir of Mr. Claygelt from some of Monthly Magazine, that our party your musical correspondents, could not Newspapers, eagerly catching hold of fail to be useful and instructing

every object of reproach and contumely And I should think it would be gra. against their enemies, the French, accused tifying, if any one would lay before the thein frequently of massacres, when a public some account of Zumpe.

body of men had been by the French put These notices,

to the sword in battle, merely because the

French writers themselves made use of --- qui solus bonor tellure sub ima, are not useless to the living.

the term, massacrés. To this our newese

writers were accustomed to add, by way Troston-hall.

CAPEL Lofft.

of giving force to their insinuation, notes

of admiration--Massacred !!! A curre. For the Monthly Magazine.

spondent of the Magazine replied to ine,

denying that the word in French had any Information requested on the ORIGINALS other than the usual signification, for

of the HOLY SCRIPTURES of the NEW example, as applied to the revolutionary TESTAMENT.

massacres. I was, however, at no rate I TAVING of late, from motives of convinced by that argument, since the 11 curiosity, for the first time in any French themselves apply the term in the lite looked into the opinions of learned offensive signification, to men cut down men as to the antiquity of the manu. in the defence of a military post? It was scripts of the Hebrew and Christian obvious they meant, put to the sword; Scriptures, 1 find, in respect to the latter, but in a very sharp conflict, none perhaps the late Dr. Harwood assured himself being saved, or as we should say in Eng. that Beza's manuscripts, and the Clei. Jish, a mere carnage was made of them mont manuscript, approach the nearest they were cut to pieces. In this way, of any manuscripts now known in the the French described several of their world, to the original text of the sacred conflicts with the Mamalukes in Egypt; records.

and what confirmis ine in my old opinion We also learn, from the best autho- as to this use of the word Massacrés, I rities, as lately collated by Mr. Dyer, have lately found it repeated in the same that there was scarcely such a thing to sense, in the Moniteur. te found as manuscripts in the fourth

NORMA LOQUENDI. century; higher none at all: that the Codex Beza is of the fifth century, and For the Monthly Magasine. generally believed to be the most an- The case of Mr. GASCOIGNE'S DAUGHTER cient Greek manuscript in the world.

CONSIDERED. Information is requested of the learn. ALTHOUGII I cannot boast of being ed, as to the original text of those sacred A learned in any other laws than records to which the Coder Beza is those of justice and common sense, supposed to approach so nearly: what I must crave permission to give my ground we have of assurance that such ori- opinion on this case, so very intere ginals really existed in the times, or within esting to humanity. J. W. Gascoigne's the memory, of contemporaries of Jesus unfortunate situation, indubitably caused and the Apostles: in what country, and to devolve upon the officers their legal in whose power, such originals were de- right of putting his daughter in a way to posited: or whether, since no manu- earn her living, without being burdensome scripts were ever to be found of higher to the parish, and also a considerable antiquity than the fourth century, the discretion in the exercise of that right; first manuscripts were copied from oral but I apprehend not to the extent of detradition, delivered through a succession priving the parents of all vote, or choice, of generations, during between three and in the destination of their child at the four hundred years after the persons had early age of eleven years. I am not lived, and the reported facts had hap- aware that the law confers any such pened. Lastly, under what autbority power, which however being granted, lewere the Codex Beza, and the Clermont gality and justice are by no means to be manuscript, written, or supposed to be taken for synonimes. Much has been written,

IN DOCT UG,

written

written and said, and with justice, against crossed a dreary uninviting tract of coun. the common practice of transporting cry, which continued for several miles, such numbers of infant paupers to the we descended a hill, and entered on cotton manufactories, where they have the rich and fertile vale that extends on been too generally doomed to a life of either side the little town of Bakewell, misery. Such a destination indeed for which contains a few good-looking their necessary maintenance would be houses, and a handsome church, with a unobjectionable, on the conditions of tolerable inn, and a pleasing appearance their parent's approbation, and the oblie altogether of peculiar neatness, cleanlia gayons of those who have so great a pro- Dess, and beauty. fit on the labour of the children, to take Passing by the ancient mansion be. , due care of them, and to provide, in cer- longing to the Rutland family, called tair cases, for their return to their na Haddon Hall, we pursued our route froin tive home. As to the power of parish. Bakewell through a charming valley to officers to take childen against the con- the village of Worksworth, when, entersent of their parents, and send them to a ing on the narrow glen where Matlock's distant part of the country, into an em- picturesque romantic dwellings adorn ployment unfavourable to their health, the mountain's side, we shortly came in and probably for their lives, it too inuch sight of that enchanting spot so freresembles the sale of young slaves in our quently described by tourists, and so colonies, and is a practice on which the universally admired by every one possesfriends of humanity should keep a watch. sing, or professing to possess, a taste for ful eye. In J. W. Gi's case, indepene the picturesque beauties of nature. . dently of right, surely the indulgence Some years ago, I am assured, that would have been reasonable, of the friend Matlock was infinitely more deserving of who offered, being permitted to take and admiration, than since the increase of its provide for the girl,

buildings, and its having become the With respect to a remedy, perhaps, on resort of gay and fashionable visitors. application, the magistracy would inter Be that as it may, it still possesses a fere; or a court of justice could give re. thousand charms, of which it is scarcely lief; as the judge would, in a late in. possible for the pen or pencil to convey stance, have compelled the restoration a just representation. The waters are of the young Jew convert to his father, efficacious in cases of rheumatism, but for the boy's own discretion, he scurvy, and bile. The baths are convehaving attained his fourteenth year. But niently situated, and well attended; and the best advice in niy power to give, is the 'water at the spring, has neither a an application of the father to sir Francis smeli nor taste that is disagreeable. At Burdett, the friend and patron of the Buxton, there are hotels and private poor, who would, should it appear to him lodying-houses, good public tables, and eligible, undoubtedly move the House accomodations for persons of different of Commons on the subject, and get classes and inclinations. relief, if relief be attainable, from the Hasing partaken of a slight repast, we fountain-head; a mode wbich, beside, ordered supper at a late hour in the erenmight have the farther and general ing, and coinmenced our rambles round use of settling the point of legality, and the environs of this so justly celebrated of checking those oppressions which place, in which there is as singular a must almost unavoidably take place, of combination of grandeur and simplicity the poor and helpless. It is one of our as it is possible to conceive. The vale, common-place boasts, that the law of on one side of whose boundary the houses England is equally just to the rich and are entirely placed, is about three miles the poor; at any rate, it ought to be our in length, in general narrow, and Jiverperpetual endeavour to realize in prac- sified by woods of finest verdure, rocks, tice, as far as possible, so just and excelwild and juicing precipices, and small lent a maxim.

LIBER HUMO. enclosures fringed witlt trees of various

kinds; while, in the centre of the narrow For the Monthly Magazine. plain, the Derwent smoothily Bows along, LETTERS OF A WANDERER. overhung by a profusion of luxuriant

LETTER III.-To a Friend, beech, and other drooping trees; or here I TAVING formed a party to visit and there, with haste impetuous, dashes

1 Matlock, we proceeded at an over fallen fragments of the adjacent preearly hour ove charming morning, to- cipices, forming mininture cascades, and wards that delightful spot, and baving contributing, by the whiteness of its foam,

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