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Wood and Manufutures of Wood. of Baltimore amount to twenty-two, All the branches of this manulacture are seventeel of which have together a capi. carried to a high degree of perfection, tal of 187,000 dollars, and tan annually supply the whole demand of the United 19,000 hides, and 25,000 calf skins. States, and consist principally of cabinet Morocco is also made in several placés, ware, and other household furniture, partly from imported goat skins, and coaches and carriages, either for pleasure principally from sheep skins. And it or transportation, and ship-building. may be proper here to add, that deer
The ships and vessels abore twenty skins, which form an article of esportatons burthen, built in the United States. tion, are dressed and manufactured in during the years 1801 a 1807, measured the United States to the amount required 774,922 tons, making on an average for the consumption of the country. about 110,000 tous a-year, and worth The principal manufactures of leather more than six millions of dollars. About are those of shoes and boots, harness, and two-thirds were registered for the foreign saddles. Some inconsiderable quants trade, and the remainder licensed for the tics of the two last arlicies are both imconsting trade and fisheries.
ported and exported. The annual imOf the other branches, no particular portation of foreign boots and shoes, account can be given. But the annual amounts to 3,250 pair boots and 59,000 exportations of furniture and carriages pair of shoes, principally kid and mo. aniount to 170,000 dollars. The value rocco. The annual exportation of the of the whole, including ship building, same articles of American manufacture, cannot be less than twenty millions of to 8,500 pair of boots and 127,000 pair dullars a year.
of shoes. The sboe manufactures of Under this head may also be menti. New Jersey are extensive. That of oned pot and pcail-ash, of which, be- Lyon), in Massachusetts, makes 100,000 sides supplyirg the internal demand, pair of women's shoes annually, 7,400 tons are annually exported,
The value of all the articles annuall Leather and Manufactures of Leather. manufactured in the United States, -Tanneries are established in every part which are embraced under this head of the United States, some of them on a (leather), may be estimated at twenty very large scale; the capital employed in millions of dollars. a single establishment amounting to one Soap and Tallow Candles.--A great hundred thousand dollars. A few bides portion of the soap and candles used in are exported, and it is stated that one- the United States, is a family manufacthird of those used in the great tanneries ture. But there are also several esta. of the Atlantic states, are imported from blishments on an extensive scale in all Spanish America. Some superior or the large cities, and several other places, particular kinds of English leather, and Those of the village of Roxbury near of inoroco, are still imported; but Boston, einploy alone a capital of one about 350,000lbs.* of American leather hundred thousand dollars, and make anare annually exported. The bark is nually 370,000 pounds candles, S80,000 abundant and cheap; and it appears pounds brown soap, and 50,000 pounds that hires cost in America 54 cents, and Windsor and fancy soap, with a profit, it in England seven cents a pound; that the is said, of 15 per centuin on the capital bark used for tanning, costs in England, employed, nearly as much as the hides, and in The annual importations of foreign America not ove-tenth part of that sum. manufacture, are candles 158,000 It is at the saine time acknowledged that pounds, soap 470,000 pounds. much American leather is brought to The annual exportations of domestic market of an inferior quality, and that manufacture, are candles 1,775,000 better is generally made in the middle pounds, soap 2,290,000lbs. than in the northern or southern states. The annual value manufactured in the The tanneries of the state of Delanare United States, and including the quan. employ collectively a capital of one hun. tity made in private fainilies for their dred and twenty thousand dollars, and own use, cannot be estimated less than ninety workmen, and make annually eight millions of dollars. 100,000 dollars-worth of leatber. Those Spermacetz Oil and Candles.--The
establishments for this manufacture are . Unless otherwise stated, the impor. at Nantucket and New Bedford in Mal tations and exportations are, in this Report, sochusetts, and at Hudson in New York. ta on on the average of the years 1806 agd Besides supplying the whole of the do.
mestic consumption, they furnished ap.
nually dually, for exportation to foreign coun- commenced in Rhode Island, and one in tries, 230,000 pounds of candies, and Connecticut; making altogether fifteen 44,000 gallons of oil. The whole quan- mills erected before the year 1808, worktity annually manufactured amounted to ing at that time about eight' thousand about 300,000 dollars. But the exclus spindles, and producing about three hun. $ion from foreign markets has lately dred thousand pounds of yarn a-year' affected the manufacture,
Returns bave been received of eightyRefined Sugar.-The annual importa- seven mills which were erected at the end uons of foreign refined sugar, amount, for of the year 1809; sixty-two of which (48 the years 1803 to 1807, 1h 47,000/bs. water and 14 borse mills,) were in opera.
The annual exportations of American tioni, and worked at that time thirty-one refined sugar, amount, for the same years, thousand spindles. The other twentyto 150,000lbs.
five will all be in operation in the course The then existing duty was, in the vear ofahis year, and together with the foriner 1801, collected on 3,827,000 pounds; ones (alinost all of which are increasing and, as the manufacture has kepi pace their machinery,) will, by the estimate. with the increase of populauon, the received, work more than eighty thou. quantity now annualiv inade may be sand spindles at the cominencement of estimated at five millions of pounds, the year 1811. worth one million of dollars. The capia The capical required to carry on the tal employed is stated at three iniilions manufacture on the best terins, is estiand a ball of dollars; and, as the esta- mated at the rate of one bundred dollars blishments have incieased in number, for each spindle; including both the some of them bare declmed in busmess. fixed capital applied to the purchase of It is believed that if a drawback, equie tre muill-scars, and to the construction of valent to the duty paid on the importa. the wils and machinery, and that ende tion of the brown sugar used in the re- ployed in wages, repairs, raw materials, fined sugar exported, was again allowed, gnous on hand, and contingencies. But the foreign demand, particularly of Ruse it is believed that no more than at the Sie, would give a great extension to this rate of sisty dollars for each spindle is branch. A special report has been made generally actually employed. Forty-five on that subject to the Conmittee of pounds of cotton, worth about 20 cents Commerce and Manufactures,
à-pound, are on an average annually COTTON, WOOL AND FLAX. used for each spindle; and these produce I. Spinning Mills, and Manufacturing about thirty-six pounds of yarn of diseEstablishments. The first cotton mil rent qualities, worth on an averago lille was erected in the state of Rhode Island, doilar and 124 cents a point. Pigit in the year 1791; another in the same bundred spindes employ toriy peisoins, Slate, in the year 1795; and two inore in viz. five men, and thiriy-five women and the state of Massachusetts, in the years children. On those data, the general 1803 and 1804. During the three suc- results for the year 1311, are estinated ceeding years ten more were erected or in the following table:
87 80,000 4,800,000 3,600,000 720,000 2,880,000 3,240,000 500
The increase of carding and spinning Tle seventeen mills in the state of of cotton by machinery, in establishe Rhode Island, worked 14,290 spindles in ments for that purpose, and exclusisely the vear 1809, are also stated to have of that done in privaie families, has there used, during that year, 640,000 pounds fore been fourtuld during the two last of cotton, wbich produced 510.000 years, and will have been tentold in three pounds of yarn; of which, 121,000 pounds years. The greater number is in the were sold for thread and knitting; 200,000 vicinity of Providence, in Rhode Island ;' pounds were used in manufactures aithey are scattered, and extending through- lached to, or in the vicinity of, the mills out all the states,
And the residue was either sold for wick, and for the use of family manufactures, Manufacturing establishments for spin. or exported to other parts. Eleven ring and weaving flax, are yet but few bundred looms are said to be employed in the state of New York, there is one in weaving the yaru spun by those mille which employs a capital of 18,000 dollars, into goods, principal.y of the following and twenry six persons, and in which descriptions, viz.
about ninery thousand pounds of fax are Bed ticking, sold at 55 to 90 cents p yard. annually spun and wore into canvas, Stripes and checks - 30 to 42 do. do. and other coarse linen. Information has Ging bams - 40 to 50 do. do, been received respecting two in the vis Cloths for shirts and
cinity of Philadelphia, one of which pro. sheețing S5 to 75 do.. do.
duces annua ly 72,000 yards of canvas Counterpanes at 8 dollars each
marle of flax and cotton; in the other, Those several goods are already equal
ihe flax is both hackled and spun by main appearance to the English iinported
chinery; thirty looms are employed, and articles of the same description, and sur
it is said, that 500,000 yards of cotton perior in durability; and the finishing is
bagging, sail-chith, and coarse linen, may still improving. The proportion of fine.
be made atinually. yarns is also increasing..
Hosiery may also be considered as al. The same articles are manufactured in
most exclusively a household manufac. several other places, aud particularly at
ture. That of Gerinantown has de Philadelphia, where are also made from
clined, and it does not appear to have the savie material, webbing and coach
been attempted on a large scale in other laces, (which articies have also excluded,
as places. There are, however, some exor will soon exclude, similar foreign im
ceptions; and it is stated, that the island portations, table and other diaper cloth,
"I of Martha's Vineyard exports annually jeans, vest patterns, cotton kerseymeres,
nine thousand pair of stockings. and blankets. The manufacture of fus
• II. Household Manufactures, -But by tians, cords, and velvet, has also been
far the greater part of the goods made of commenced in the interior and western
those materials (cotton, flax, and wool), parts of Pennsylvania, and in Kentucky,
are manntactured in private families, Some of the mills above-mentioned,
e mostly for their own use, and partly for are also employed in carding and spin sale. They consist principally of coarse ning wool, ihough not to a considerable
cloth, Aannel, cotton stuffs, and stripes amount. But alriost the whole of that
of every description, linen, and mixtures material is spun and wove in private
of wool with fax or cotton. The infore families; and there are yet but few esta,
mation received from every state, and blistinents for the manufacture of woollen cloths. Some information has, however,
from more than sixty different places,
concurs in establishing the fact of an ex. been received respecting fourteen of
traordinary increase during the two last these, manalacturing each, on an average, ten thousand yards of cloth a-year,
years, and in rendering it probable that worth from one to ten dollars a yard. It
about two-thirds of the clothing, inclue is believed, that there are others from
ding hosiery, and of the house and tablewhich no information has been obtained ;
1. linen worn and used by the inhabitants and it is known that several establishi.
of the United States, who do not reside
in cities, is the product of family manuments, on a smaller scale, exist in Phila
. factures. delphia, Baltimore, and some other pla
. In the eastern and middle states, card. ces. All those cloths, as well as those' manufactured in private families, are
ing machines, worked by water, are generally superior in quality, though
every where established, and they are somewhat inferior in appearance to inn
rapidly extending southwardly and west. ported cloths of the same price. The
wardly. Jennies, other family spinning principal obstacle to the extension of the
machines, and Aying shuttles, are also manufacture, is the want of wool, which
introduced in many places; and as many is still deficient both in quality and quan
fulling-mills are erected, as are required tity. But those defects are daily and
for finishing all the cloth which is woven rapidly lessened by the introduction of
in private familes.
private sheep of the Merino, and other superior contrived to ruin the woollen manufaeturers' breeds, ly the great demand for the ar- of England, and it may be years before they ticle, and by the attention now.every recover the blow. The indiscreet discount where paid hy farmers to the increase of that bank, granted to monopolists, bankers, and improvement of their focks.*
and speculators only, will, in due cime, doo
stroy every branch of trade and manufacturer • The Bank of England, by discounting of Great Britain, if not checked by parliaaccommodation bills for woolstaplers, laseiy mento
Difficult as it is to form an estimate, ally 35,000 bats, at five dollars a-piece, it is inferred from a comparison of all and to employ 150 workmen. the facts which have been communi- . The quantity made in Rhode Island, cated, with the population of the United is stated at 50,000, worth tive dullars States (estimated at six millions of each, exclusively of felt hats. Conneca white, and twelve hundred thousand ticut and New York, make more than is black persons), that the value of all the necessary for their consumption; the goods made of cotton, wool, and fax, largest establishment being that of Dan. which are annually manufactured in the bury, where 200 persons are employed. United States, exceeds forty millions of and to the amount of 130,000 dollars dollars.
annually manufactured. In Vermont, The manufacture of cards and wire, is the manufacture supplies the consum!) intimately connected with this part of the tion. It is stated by the hatters of Plg. subject." 'Whitemore's machine for ladelphia, that 92,000 hats, worth five making cards, has completely excluded dollars each, are annually made there; in foreign importations of that article. The addition to which, 50,000 country hate. capital employed in that branch may be worth three dollars each, are annually estimated at 200,000 dollars; and that sold in the city. In various quarters, the the annual consumption amounted, till scarcity of wool is complained of, as lately, to twenty thousand dozen pair of preventing the making of a sufficient band cards, and twenty thousand square quantity of coarse hats. From ali the feet of cards for machines, worth to- information which has been received, it gether about 200.000 dollars. The de- is believed that the value of all the hats mand of last year was double that of annually made in the United States, is 1808, and is still rapidly increasing. But near.ten millions of dollars. the wire itself is altogether imported,
(To be continued.) and a very serious inconveniency night. arise from any regulation which would To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, check or prevent the exportation from SIR, foreign countries. It appears, however, TINDERSTANDING that the very by the communication, that the manu U ample reply to Mr. H. B. Smart's facture may, and would be immediately very round assertions in your last Maya. established, so as to supply the demand zine, which I troubled you with at the both for cards and other objects, provided beginning of the month, has by some the same duty were imposed on wire, now accident been mislaid, and deeming it imported duty free, which is laid on other pot proper that the public should suspect articles made of the same material. The me of one hour's avoidable delay in re. whole amount of wire apnually used for futing a statement, which, if true, must cards, does not at present exceed twenty- impeach my veracity; I request you to five tons, worth about 40,000 dollars. let it be known, through the medium of
Hats. -The annual importations of your correspondence, that I have put . foreign hats amount to 350,000. The into your hands what appears to be a annual exportation of American hats, complete detection in the first place, of to 100,000.
: Mr. S's positive declaration, that there The domestic manufacture is therefore is not a single portion of his book that is nearly equal to the home consumption, not founded on the authority of Walker, The number made in the state of Massa. Herries, Nares, Sheridan, and Rice; chusetts is estimated by the hat company and, in the second place, of his very coile of Boston, at four times the number re- sistent appendix to that declaration, quired for the consumption of the state: wherein he lays claim to certain essential and from other information it would ap- portions as having “ coine into his head," pear, that in that state alone, the capital and been “derived froin his own expeapplied to that branch is near three rience." millions of Jollars, the number of persons I hope, sir, that the reply referred to, enployed about four thousand, and the of which I have unfortunately no copy; noinber of hats annually made 1,550,000; will yet come to hand, and inake in apa of wbich 1,150,000 are fine hats, worth pearance in a future Number. In the on an average four dollars each, and mean time, I will thank you to insert the 400.000 feit hats, worth one dollar cach. following postscript, (though it will be That the manufacture is stili profitable, putting the cart before the horse), the appears from a late establishment on substance of which it was my intention Charles river, calculated to make appu, to bave added to that coinmunication :
as it contains particular referentes to the words, all differences of auditory impression documents, in which my prior claims are removed between monosyllabic and poly. will be found to those parts of the doc- syllabic composition." The article also trines of ihe “ Grammar of English Pro. contains a very particular description of the Runciation," for which Mi. S. could
process, by which this combination of appa.
rentiy separate words, is to be effected; with have an authority in the authors to whoin
illustrations the most explicit and unequihe refers.
vocal. Under the title “ Elocution," in P.S. That I may not be suspected of shel.
the second column of the second pa e of the dering myself under the vazue pretence of same volume, will be found as explicit statereferences to works, through the whole of ment of my principle, relative to the treat
hich few persons can be expected to wade ment of impediments, by applying the laws merely for satisfaction on such points, of musical proportion to the utteraace of < seekiny (according to the old proverb) for speech. And in that article. will also be a needle in a bottle of hay," it may not be found, some statement of the physiological amiss to particularize the grounds of my bases, upon which the principle is founded. claims by title, date, and page. In the The reader who will turn to the Monthly orinted prospectus, or outines, which, tor Magazine for iune, 1801, vol. xvii. Qeveral years, I have been in the habit of p. 466, col. 1. vol. xix, p. 348, and vol. asing, binding up with my books of selec- XXV. p. 204, col. 1, or to the collection tions, and otherwise amply distributing, pe of miscellaneous articles on this subject, 29 to 31, and particularly at the bottom of reprinted in the Appendix to my Letter to p. 32, will be found sufficient evidence of the Mr.
Mr. Cline; or to the Introductory Discourse rese laid on the quantity of the consonant printed in 1806, (2, 6 and 7) that has accom. elements. In “ Dr. Rees's New Cyclo.
panied all my volumes of selections and ex* nædia," vol. xii. part ii. title “ Element in ercises, &c.; or p. 13, of a more recent edi, The Science of Elocation,” will be found tion of the name, accompanying "the Ves some specific references to this document, tibule of Eloqucore,” will find, that six years with quotations, &c., ayowedly from iny pen.
ago Mr. S. might have adopted that idea from in the Prospectus (some copies of which,
me, which he tells us, came into his head; printed as early as in the month of March,
and that since that time, be has had abun. 1803, are still in my possession) and which
dant opportunities of baving his memory rebas been multiplied through several editions,
freshed upon the subject, without even the each consisting of some thousand copies,
necessity of one actuai attendance in my lecthe " implication, or vocal combination of
ture-room, In vol. 23, p. 581, of the same words," and the principle of " continuous
M. N. will be found a general, and in vol. harmony" (or uninterrupted flow of the
21, p. 41, a more particular, account of a Stream of voice through the respective mem.
public exhibition of the pupils of my instibers of a sentence), as removing the hypercri
turion, on the 19th of June, 1807; in which, cical “ prejudices about monosyllables," &c.
not only this principle was explained, but its are expressly laid down as subjects to be de
efficiency practically demonstrated. And scanted upon in my lectures ; and in 1807, a
lectures: and in 1001, A perhaps some persons there may be, who, copy of this announcenient was circulated to
while they are perusing the last of these ar. every known seminary, and almost every
ticles, may be disposed to think it not very public and private teacher in and around the
extraordinary, if I should have suspected that metropolis. In the lectures so announced, this
the account of this exhibition was among the principle was not only fully explained, but
circumstances present in the imagination of it was frequently and ardently contended, Mr. S. when he talked of 6 the plan having that in point of monosyllabic or polysyllabic been found to answer.” In the said M. M. structure, the English language and the vol. xxii. p. 29, cul. 2, will be also found, Greek. (when the former is rightly under. whence might have been derived the disting stood, and well delivered) differ only to the tion between loudness and force, in all the ameve, and not to the car; my regular definition, plitude of its explanation. When Mr. S. shall of the perfection of elocutionary, utterance as particularly point out any passages in any of being, that it consisted in “a mode of speake the authors he has quoted, or in any other au• ing or of reading, that combined the utmost thors, from which he can pretend to bave decontradistinctness of element, with the most rived any of the doctrines to which I lay claim uninterrupted flow of vocal sound." Under (in the letter this P.S. refers to); then, and not the title « Enunciation," in the above quo
till then, I shall chink him worthy of further ted Cyclopædia, vol. xiii. part i. will he
repis. I may, however, think it necessary, if found ( with the formal avowal of my name, time will permit, (in order to warn tbe public and relerence to my lectures) a still more
against the mischievous consequences that ample and explicit elucidation of this princi- might result from the misapplication of what ple of " implication, or the combination of
appears to me an important doctrine) tu trou. words in oral utterance, which are graphically ble either you, or iny publishers, with a more Bevarated; and by which, without injury to particular outline of that system of musical he intelligible distinctness of the respective or cadential proportion, which I have found