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enlarging their knowledge and exciting or referred to the decision of the overnor their industry; and, above all, in esta of the fort. blishing such a government and police In the case of convictions for witchy as shall secure them in the enjoyment craft, the family of the convict is inof what they may acquire by their eser. volved in his punishment: it even extions.
tends to all persons residing under his The government, political institutions, roof, on pretence that all in any way con and laws of Agoona, resemble, in a great nected with him must possess a certain degree, those which are described in the portion of his malign influence. Since account of the Fantees. In some cases the abolition of the slave-trade, howthe caboceers, or chiefs of petty districts, ever, no convictions of this sort bave are hereditary, in others they are elected taken place, by the people. Those chiefs occasion. Hereditary feuds are common among ally asuine a despotic power, but in ge. this people; and the way in which they neral they do not retain it long; the peo- usually proceed in the prosecution of ple frequently revolting iir such cases, hostilities is, to seize by surprise, and and expelling, or otherwise punishing, the carry off, persons belonging to the state usurper. The chiefs are assisted in the or district with which they are at enmity, administration of the laws by a kind of or to any state in alliance with it; for judicial senate; the members of which, they seldom engage in enterprises of a called Pynins, are chosen by the people daring kind; nor is personal courage a from among the elders of the district; striking feature in their character. Aland it is their office to hear and decide most all their wars are of this predatory causes, and pronounce the sentence of description; and the prisoners taken the law. They must be considered as become the slaves of the captors, and having an interest in condemniog persons are completely at their disposal. They who are accused, as they have a share of are sometimes killed in the heat of pasall fines and forfeitures. The Pynins are sion, but generally are preserved, with a the only depositaries of the laws; and in view to profit. Prisoners are seldom order to preserve and transmit the me- exchanged. Sometimes two or more snory of them, they hold frequent meet slaves are given for the ransom of an in. ings, at which the laws are promulged, or dividual; but this is unusual. rather rehearsed.
The people of this country are black, Almost all crimes, great and small, are of the middle stature, in general wellpunishable by fine or slavery, which, in- made, vigorous, and capable of underdeed, are almost the same punishment; going great labour. For the most part for if the convict cannot pay his fine, he they have a pleasing and open expression becomes by law a slave. Even murder of countenance, and are of a gay and (a criine of rare occurrence), though the cheerful turn. They manifest a certain law says it shall be punished wil death, slowness of comprehension when new may be compensated by seven slaves. subjects are brought before them: and All criininal charges are tried by the yet this is hardly to be ascribed to any Pynins, who hear and weigh the evi. peculiar dullness or stupidity, as they dence produced. But if there be no shew a sufficient degree of quickness in evidence, the cause is decided by a spe- matters with which they are conversant. cies of ordeal called Doom, which con. They cannot be said to be warm in their sists in administering to the person accu- affections; and though occasionally riosed a certain quantity of the bark of a lent and impetuous in their temper, yet tree deemed poisonous. If he retain it they are more commonly slow and deli. on his stonnach, he is pronounced guilty; berate in their proceedings. Hospitality if otherwise, innocent. The refusal to is carried aipong them to a great extent: submit to this ordeal is considered as a all strangers and travellers are admitted decisive proof of guill, and the judges freely to partake of whatever the family proceed accordingly. The Pynins, who board affords. coinbine the offices both of judge and The natives of Agoona inay he consijury, are supposed to be very accessible dered, on the whole, as an industrious to bribes; and no person who is liberal people; particularly those who are en in bis gifts, is likely to be found guilty. gaged in fishing. With respect to those In some cases, however, where partia engaged in agriculture, as all their wants lity is strongly suspected, the cause is are supplied with little labour, it cannot tried by the Pynins of anotber district, be expected that, in the existing stato
of things among them, they should make fice of a deer made to the Fetish. Huany great exertions beyond what is neces- man sacrifices take place only when a man sary to that object.
of eminence dies. The victiins are se. The moral standard of this people is lected from among the slaves of the de extremely low. They appear to have no ceased, and are generally old and infirm idea of restraint, beyond what their own persons. Such sacrifices, however, very interests or the dread of punishment im- seldom occur in Agoona. When a vica poses; and besides that their laws are tim has been selected for this purpose, both too loosely framedl, and too par- it is believed that he cannot be retially executed, to have a very powerful deemed. effect in curbing men's passions, it is to With respect to intellectual capacity, be considered that no laws can provide an this people do not discover any natural effectual check for that class of offences inferiority to Europeans; at the same which may be comprised under the head time their attainments are as low as can of immorálities. They are without any be imagined, their minds not being in education or discipline of a moral kind; proved by any kind of culture. They and from their earliest infancy are babi- are wholly ignorant of letters; and their tuated to examples of inhumanity, fraud, language, which is the Fantee, has never and licentiousness. In short, the moral been reduced to writing. The language principle is not cultivated among them: itself is soft and harmonious. The fol so that there is hardly any act which will lowing short specimen of it gives the proattach disgrace or infamy to the indivi. per names of men and women, according dual, or even bring reproach upon him, to the day of the week on which they are if he do but pay the penalty of the law. born: Their religious system has no tendency Day of the week. Men.
Woment whatever to improve their morality. It Sunday Quashie Aquies wa consists almost entirely in a superstitious
Aduah dread of suffering from some malign in.
Tuesday Quanino Abinebah Auence, and in the faith they repose in
Wedn sday Quacow Eccoab
Thursday the Fetishes, or charms, wbich are fur.
Estuah nished by their Fetishmen or priests,
Saturday Quamina Ambah for the purpose of warding off the dreaded
Arts and manufactures are in a low evil. The people in general do not
state among them. They make canoes, appear to engage in any kind of worship;
fishingneis, hooks and lines, hoes, bills, and although on certain days they abstain
baskets, mats, and various other articles from their ordinary employments, yet
of the same kind; and soine of them can they assign no reason for this, except that it has been the custom to do so.
work as masons and carpenters. The The Fetishmen, however, who may be
amusements of the young consist chiefly considered as an order of priests, engage
in dancing and singing: those more ad. in certain forms of worship and religious
vanced in years, ainuse themselves by receremonies; and they are supposed to
To jating the exploits performed in their hold communion with the demon, or
yo Fetishe, and to obtain from him the
The women of this country, as in all knowledge which is requisite for the exer.
countries where polygamy is practised, cise of their profession, which is, to solve
are in a degraded state. They are lithe doubts and perplexities of their fol.
terally slaves to the men, aod perform lowers, and to furnish them with the
almost all the laborious offices, as grind. means of averting evil. either actual or ing corn, procuring fire and water: tliev possible. Their profits arise from the
do every thing, in short, but fish and presents made to the Fetish by the vota
plant corn. The women also generally ries; these they appropriate to their own
act boib as physicians and surgeons. use; and they are often of considerable
The prevailing complaints are fevers, value. The Fetishmen usually connect
fluxes, rheumatism, and leprosy; for the themselves with the persons in power,
cure of which they use for the inost part and are often serviceable in strengthening
certain herbs, which are natives of the the government, and enforcing obedience
country. They sometimes have recourse to the laws; as they have great influence to
Auence to bleeding, by means of scarification and arbong the people, and continue to be
cupping; and these operatiunis are per. respected by them even when the govern
forined with mucb dexterity by the pent has fallen into disrepute.
womer), . At Winnebab'there is an annual sacri. The number of persons in a state of
slavery in Agnona, is very spall; not the unspeakable and innumerable beabove one person in forty, or perhaps in nefits which must accrue to Africa, from fifty, can be considered as a slave. The a total abolition of the traffic in slaves. power of the master over the slave is The foregoing observations embrace absolute, and extends not only to the but a small portion of what is called the exaction of whatever labour the slave is Gold Coast; and although there is capable of performing, but to life itself. throughout the whole much similarity of The slave is liable to be seized and sold soil and climate, yet in other respects for the debts of his master, or for the there are material differences. The payment of any forfeiture to which the Anta country, for instance, which lies sentence of the law may have subjected between the rivers Ancobra and Suchim. In respect, however, to the com- condee, is a rich woody country, well mon field labour which they have to per- watered, and well planted. The tiniber form, there is practically no difference here is fit for every purpose. It abounds between the slave and the freeman. in gold, and other metals, in a greater Their hours of working are the same, and degree.than the neighbouring states. The those not strictly regulated; the forenoon cultivation of the soil is more attended only being usually allotted to labour. to than in many parts of the coast; and Nor are the slaves ever driven, or other it has many very convenient creeks and wise compelled to work: what they do, harbours. they do with willingness. There is still The river Ancobra separates this state some slave-trade carried on by the froin the kingdom of Apollonia. Here Dutch, and lately also by the Danes, the country is still better watered by who continue to reside on the coast. lakes and rivers: it is more flat, and betThe chief carriers of slaves from the Gold ter adapted for the growth of rice, sugar. Coast, are the Portuguese. Their great cane, and all those articles which require market, however, is on the leeward, or a moist suii. The great disadvantage what it called the Slave Coast. Two under which Apollonia labours, is, that vessels frorn Cuba carried off cargoes of the surf along its coast is so violent, that slaves from the Gold Coast, in October it is impossible to land without danger. last.
The form of its government is despotic; The continuance of the slave-trade, a circumstance which certainly prevents though on a reduced scale, by other many of those irregularities and abuses, nations, has greatly impeded the bene- which prevail in other districts. ficial effects which might have been ex. As we recede from the sea, however, pected to follow from its abolition by and advance into the interior, the state Great Britain; for though the export of of things appears to be much more faslaves from the coast be comparatively vourable than it can be said to be on trifling, yet it serves to keep alive there any part of the coast. We witness a many of the mal-practices, which would life of more industry and more happie otherwise have ceased. What is wante ness; and a great improvement, not only ed, therefore, to give this measure its in these important respects, but in soil, full effect, is an universal abolition of the climate, and other natural advantages. trade. Even as things are, the natives In short, the capabilities of Africa can have become more diligent in seeking be appreciated hut in a very inadequate for gold, and in procuring other articles degree, if we confine our observations to wanted by Europeans; and, generally the sea-coast, and do not proceed in speaking, more industrious; but still, the land. The difference, indeed, is visible partiai existence of the slave-trade, is a even a few miles from the shore; but it great bar to industrious exertion. It is is still greater the farther we advance also true that accusations and condem- into the country. There is no valuable nations for crimes (as witchcraft, &c.), article of tropical culture, which might and predatory wars, have been less fre. not be raised in this country in great quent than they used to be. Kidnap. abundance; while its population stands ping, or panyaring, as it is called on the in need of our manufactures, and is acGoid Coast, is not much diminished. customed to their use. And when it is Personal security, however, is, on the considered what the hand of industry whole, increased; and this has manifested has done in the West Indies, in the peso it eif by increased industry. From these tilential swainps of Guiana, for instance, partial improvements, may be inferred what may not fairly be expected from
the rich hills and extensive plains of this is most prolific here; and I have even country, blessed as it is with a luxuriant had autumnal brouds of them, froin soil, and a comparatively healthy clic keeping the eggs of the moth too warma male?
The sole bar of which I am apprised to
success in breeding them, is the imFor the Monthly Magazine. possibility of obtaining mulberry leaves
SILK WORMS-WINE-HONEY, sufficiently early in the spring for IT must necessarily happen, in the the worms, or a healthy substitute, 1 vast revolving series of ihe affairs of until the foliage of the mulberry he a nation, that failures in every concern ready. I have tried every plant must be forgotten, together with even within my reach, whilst waiting the tardy their records, and that thence the desire progress of the mulberry-tree, but could of this or that improvement should find none on which the worms would periodically burst forth, stimulating the feed, excepting the lettuce; and that in. enterprising to new attempts. My re- variably injured, after the first day or collection, which now extends to nearly two, by scouring and weakening them, half a century, has furnished me with a until finally they burst the greater part of variety of instances of this nature; and them, with a species of hydropic rot, with many, particularly in the medical like that of sheep. Lettuce dried, department, in which old pretended in. proved too harsh for their mouths. In fallible remedies have been re-produced ihe mean time, their stench was insufas new discoveries, in order to the ferable ; rendering the atmosphere of the honours of a second, third, or fourth, re- chamber in which they were kept, abe petition of failure. Amongst a thousand solutely morbific. Many of them began other projects of late years, that of grow. to spin; but from debility, their labour was ing silk in England has been eminently imperfect, and they died with their web pushed forward. It was in course out of incomplete, producing no chrysolite, the memory, and, until lately, out of the dead worm being apparent through the common road of reading, that, in or web, which is otherwise impervious about the year 1721, the silk mania be- to the sight. Some silk indeed was, and came epidemic in this country; and that generally will be obtained; but the quan. amoug a great number of inferior extent, tity insufficient, and the quality weak an attempt upon a considerable scale and inferior. The most healthy worms was made, to breed and feed silk-worms produced the strongest and yellowest in the duke of Wharton's park at Chel- silk, following the rule of vegetable roots, sea, taken expressly for that purpose, in which the yellow colour is generally and under the sanction of a patent. the harbinger of superior quality. In Whether the silk manufactories at Greene conclusion, we never need regret the wich, established about the same time, want of silk culture in this country, not were of the same connection, I have only because our lands may be inuch really forgotten, but I conjecture they more advantageously occupied, but also were. I have also forgotten the par. because were such an undertaking deticular cause of failure in breeding the sirable, colonies enow might be found in silk-worms at that period, but I have the world, with every requisite of climate repeatedly, and at different periods of and food for the purpose. Moreover, it my life, experienced such failure, both is universally desirable in the view of in my own attempts, and those of other necessary human commerce, that one persons; insomuch, that I have many country should depend upon another for years since made up my mind on the its peculiar indigenous conimodity. I real impossibility of ever growing silk to am yet prejudiced in one respect, and advantage in this country. Such has loath to depend on other countries for a also been the case in various parts of supply of wine, more especially as there France. Nevertheless, silk-worms have, is good reason to conclude, that real during a century, and still are kept and wine was made in this country some bred for the amusement of young misses centuries back, and that the introduction, and masters, and a breeding stock may, with cominerce, of superior wines, occa. at any season, be purchased in Coventa sioped the discontinuance of our home garden market, together with mulberry manufacture, and, in a considerable de leaves, at two-pence per dozen, where- gree, of the vine culture. Our cydery with to feed them.
balderdash from currants, gooseherries, The climate of this country is by no and other fruits, I will not consent to means inimical to the silk-worm, which honour with the name of wine; nor can
I agree I agree with a certain useful provincial communication concerning Stramonium, writer, in his recomuneidation of such and as being calculated to give the pube debilitating slops, to be given to the sick lic a very different impression with repoor, lo whom, in their sickness, good - gard to its virtues from that which I sound beer, when foreign wine cannot endeavoured to convey, I feel myself in be procured, will he generally more be a certain degree called upon to reply to. Deficial. But I yet entertain the bope Agricola seems to regard the sinoking of being able to make real wine, of pase of stramonium -as a species of ebriety, sable quality, in this country, the chief or as the use merely of one of those orimpediment to which is the scarcity of dinary opiates, that people are apt to, grapes. We are the inost indo!ent of have recourse to in order to relieve a pa. nations at the fruit culture, and of mar. roxysm of pain, whether it originates vellous stupidity in our choice of fruits: from a mental or a corporeal cause, by of apples, for example, one half of the which they purchase a temporary susFarieties of which grow among us, are pension of misery at the expense of unfit even for pigs, and ought, like our permanent injury. Stralnonium, bow. bad plays, to be damned.''
ever, used in the manner explamed in Honey is another staple article of pemy first paper, produces effects essenriodical projection. Every seven, ortially different from that of any intoxicahalf a score years, a fortune is to be ting drug that I am acquainted with. made by the bee culture. A French It acis favourably upon the feelings of curé, starving upon his living, but living the mind, only inasmuch as it alleviates sumptuously upon bis bees, treated his the pain of the body; neither is its first diocesan), with a dinner of I know not and happy influence succeeded, as in how many courses, to the absolute alarm the use of opiates or narcotics, by deof the good bishop, who ever after re- pression, lassitude, or stupor. plied to those asking preferment of lin $far from stramonium having in.
heep beės. Lately we have been duced that torpor or sluggishness, which informied, Mr. M'What-d'ye-call-him, the smoking of tobacco and hops occaLas made so many hundred pounds sioned in Agricola's friend, I am conweight of honey from his numerous fident, that without the assistance of that hives, and sold it for so much money. invaluable remedy, I should not have And all this is passing well, to have a been able to go through the exertions good stock of hovey for home consump- that my daily avocations call for, which, tion, and a comfortable surplus for mar. thank God, I am doing with an alacrity ket, to be sold at a high price. But unknown to me for years past. katet anguis in herba : there is a sting in As far as iny experience has gone, and the tail of this. In all probability, the it is of some standing, it has not lost, by confined use of honey in this country its frequently repeated use, one iota of would not bear any very extensive its medicinal influence; and wherever it growth, and were the constant recom. has been had recourse to, in a proper mendations of jacreased culture to be manner, within the sphere of my pergenerally attended to, down would go sonal knowledge, it has been equally the price like a jack-weight, or like the successful. . stocks after the cheer-up of a Birming I am by no means disposed to detract ham viciory. It ought to be recollected from the value of Dr. Brees's work, by that hovey is rather a medicinal than a the application of which, Agricola has dietetic article, and that it would make becn able in a manner tu regenerate his a most improper substitute for sugar, constitution; or, to make use of his own sendering tea still more debilitating significant expression, “to turn the About twenty years since I was offered habit of his body," I should be ese quantities of virgin honey, both in Es tremely happy if such a new birth should sex and Hampshire, al two-pence far- take place in my crazy and capricious thing per pound; the second species at fabric. In the mean time, I am, as I seven farthings; and the squeezings, at think I ought to be, humbly contented fire farthings.
with having a never-failing antidote at
hand. To the Editor of the Monthly Mugazine. Towards counteracting the tendency SIR,
to spasmodic asthma (for destroying it TMAVE read a letter in your last where it is implanted in the habit, I con
1 Number, signed Agricola, whicli, as sider as impossible)-I have found noluaving been occasioned by ny former thing that has, in any important degree,