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No. 202.] AUGUST 1, 1810. 11 of Vol. 30.
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ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS. . For the Manthly Magazine, ed and separated from each other, m.glit OBSERVATIONS on the PRESENT STATE of have otherwise been withheld from the the COTTON,COLONIES.
public eye. ; e critical nature of the present. The misfortunes of the sugar-planter 1, period renders it indispensable that , are generally known from some alle the various parts of the empire should tracts that have been given to the world, have their interests so consolidated and ; by gentlemen fully competent to treat of identified, that universal satisfaction and such subjects. The couton-planter bas, concord may be the consequence. To however, had no advocate, though by no effect this, no scheine is more likely than means exempted from the general cala. that which, by, ascertaining the various mities. To point out particularly bis rigots of the different parts of the com- sofferings and their causes, is the chief munity, enables the supreme authorities object of these pages. In order to have to apportion to all the proper share of precise notions on the subject, it is ne. those burthens which the exigencies of cessary to ascertain as clearly as circumthe times require.
stances permit, the real relations of the Generosity, the distinguishing charac- , mother country and her colonies. The teristic of the British people, spurns at principles are, of necessity, general. the narrow policy of sacrificing the best. A slight sketch will be afterwards interests of one part of the empire to given of the foriner and the present state that of any other. Partial calarnity, , of, the cotton colonies; of the causes of therefore, must have been unknown, or the existing pressure; and of those the general spirit of the nation would means of alleviation which seem most have long since called loudly for justice; feasible and practicable. and her cries would have been rendered, Politicians have so long agreed as to still more piercing by the paramount sug... the general principle of the relations of gestions of interest.
the parent state and ber colonies, that it Amidst the general pressure of the may seein almost superfluous to enter war, the West India proprietors have upon it in this place. The motives, in suffered in a degree which the public which the most vebement dissention ori. would scarcely have credited, had not ginated, liave long been at jest; but if the facts been authenticated by unques. ever again called into action, there is
tionable docunents. Formerly they're little doubt of their resuming their in- ceised the fair reward of industry, and Auence on the discussions of those who
of personal sacrifices: at present, they look no farther than to the object of imare not merely deprived of such requital, mediate interest. It will, therefore, be but are absolutely losing what they may well to take a few of the most important have alrearly 'realized, or becoming so and obvious points into consideration, deeply involved as to be obliged to sur. before a decided opinion is formed. reader theic properties to creditors, who, One party contends that colonies are in furn, must yield to similar evils. Such mere dependencies; the other, that they a state of a great empire cannot long are integral parts of the empire. The exist without partial ruin and general Intter opinion seeinsso: congenial to loss. To obviate both of these events every feeling of the human heart, what it must be the wish of every lover of his is difficult to discover, how liberal men country; but before they can be obvis could have been brought to oppose it ated they must be known. The author with the zeal and pertinacity that have of these observations undertakes that been displayed task, from a solicitude to benefit bis fel The arguments in its favour may be low citizens, by placing facts within their considered of three classes : vatural, grasp, which, from being widely scatter analogical, and political, MONTHLY Dlac. No. 202.
Colonies are well known to be esta- colonies as have formed no engagements, blishments remote from the seat of em- the arrangement depends on the option pire, that have been originally founded of the conquerors, regulated however by the nation to which they are attached, by the eternal principles of justice. In as by some others, from which the pos. those that bave capitulated on the exsession has been obtained by conquest or press condition of enjoying the priviliges by cession.
of their conquerors, the case becomes The colonies, owing their existence to one of right, not of choice: those who the possessing power, must be consider- surrender on such terms are entitled to ed integral pails of the empire; for in all the advantages and immunities of quitting their native shores, neither the their fellow colonists. first adventurers nor their successors re. The analogical arguments in favour of linquished their birth-right: they merely this side of the question, may be found transferred their habitations; being still in the history of every state in Europe. subject to the laws of that country which Our own country furnishes some striking gave them birth: they could not have examples. The very essence of every sacrificed any privileges, because no political compact, is the reciprocity of crime was imputed by law; they suffer- advantage conferred and received by each ed the penalties of every crime commit- part of the united body. It is therefore ted abroad, and succeeded to estates and required only under ordinary circumhonours in the same way as if at home. stances, that each should govern and In short, they remained within the pale defend itself; when critical emergencies of their country's laws, except in those arise, all must concur in contributing instances in which local circumstances succour, and each must contribute in rendered it impossible. The regulations the best and inost efficient manner that of each province of a state are adapted its means permit. In Great Britain and 10 some peculiarities which do not exist Iicland, the manufacturing towns are elsewhere: yet the aggregate of these the fruitful resources of the recruiting provinces constitute the empire.
service; the sea-ports man our nary: It cannot be urged that a temporary yet it cannot be contended that these relinquishinent of privilege may take places alone defend the empire. The place; for it involves the gruss absurdity ocher parts do their duty by paying of surrendering a power to be resumed taxes, and promoting other objects of at pleasure, while no specific contract to national importance, which indirectly that effect was ever made. The very conduce to the same point. The appliact of surrendering the advantages of cation of this position is sufficiently obany society, disqualifies a man for the vious. functions of a citizen. His political ex. It is worthy of recollection, that there istence having ceased, he cannot pere is no political compact in which the difa form political acts. The whole commu. ferent members contribute in the same nity alone can enable him to resume his way, or in the same proportion. This is rank among them : the moral difficulty very remarkable in the well-known in. in this case is very analogous to the phy. stance of the States of Holland, where sical impossibility of a dead mau's re Gnelderland, the first of the provinces in turning to life by his own act.
point of rank, paid 5 per cent. of the No laws, however, have ever been ene whole taxes, and Holland, the second, acted to distranchise the British colonists 58 per cent. This is certainly anomaof their birth-rights: they are in the same lous; but it confirms the general position, situation with their countrymen on the that each part of the empire furnishes high seas; alike renoved from the in the state with means, in proportion to mertiate superintendance of the govern- its ability. It will hereafter be shewn ment, but equally entitled to protec- that the West Indies do more than their tion.
duty in this respect; which authorises The application of this doctrine to the them to expect and to enjoy protection original colonies, or those which one in ordinary cases, and favour, lihen their their existence to the state in actual interests are opposed to those of foreignpossession, is unquestionable. It is ers. worthy of enquiry, how far they extend The political considerations which to captured colonies. This may be also have been alluded to are so numerous, deterinined on broad principles, depen- that it will be sufficient to mention a few dent on those already set forth. In such of the most striking. The West India