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pity, possess uncontested power over the a deep ditch, or fosse, a great part of districis once defended with streams of which is now Glled with the ruins of the Roman and of British blood.
walls. Beyond the dirch was conI have described the first view of the structed the external vallum, which may majestic fragments of Viudonuin as still be easily traced, and which is, in bursting on the traveller while he many places, fiftcen or sixteen feet high. threads the mazes of obscure and em. On the western side of the walls is an bowered lanes. The prospect is truly embankment, thrown up in a semi-circu. impressive and surprising. We see a lar form, with a ditch beyond it. This wall, in some places still nearly twenty bank is of a considerable height, and feet high, and ibrough the whole boun. was evidently coustructed for the defonce dary of the city twenty-four feet in of the city. thickness, balf-veiled by towering oaks On the north-east, at some snall dis. which have taken rout even in the firun tance froin the city wall, are the remains cement of the ponderous wall itself. of an amphitheatre, which are now used The slow process of vegetation, which as a yard for the cattle of a neighbouring has tinted the stone with green, and farmer! creaicd a little forest in the place once A street, thirty feel in width, extends occupied by battlements and coping, from each gate to the opposite entrance, is very nearly the whole alteration that and the traces of various subordinate has been effecied since the hour in whicb passages are still to be observed towards the Saxons ravaged the city, and reduced ibe approach of harvest in dry seasons, the pride of its fortified barrier to a mere when the corn (probably froin tlie monument of the instability of local circumstance of the pavement of the grandeur,
streets still remaining entire, on which The Romans were judiciously attached lie heaped the materials of the houses (as the situation of antient Rome might razed by the Saxons) fails, and the exasuffice to prove,) to an elevated site for miner may clearly ascertain the width and their mosi important cities. In atten- direction of each smaller areoue once tion to this habitual predilection, Vindo. trodden by the Roman inhabitants. num was placed on the apex of a cluster From the very retired character of of hills, whose suminits appear to have the neighbourhood, the walls have been rendered artificially level for the escaped with singular good fortune accommodation of the military settlers from all other dilapidations than such The city was built in the form of a slow hints at fragility ay are the inevitaparallelograin 2600 by 2000 feet, and ble consequences of a lengthened age. was entirely surrounded by a wall of the The whole of the remains appear now in thickness inentioned above, and of a the same state as when visited by very considerable height, though its Camden. That most industrious anti. precise degree of elevation cannot now quary mentions an aperture or passage, be ascertained. Four gateways opened underneath the southern wall, through to the city, the situations of which are which he could scarcely pass, in conse. still distinctly marked, and show that quence of the heaps of rubbish which the entrances were placed exactly at the incumbered the former private arenue four cardinal points. The foundation of of the garrison). This passage (called the walls consists of regular layers of Onion's hole) presents exactly the same large flat stones, and the walls are coin- aspect at the present day. Indeed, it posed of rubble-stone, flints, and pebbles, would almost appear that the various held together by a bed of strong cement. generations of the moderns have conThe stones and flints are not arranged curred in treating these ruins with ienwith any unitormity of method, but are derness and respect; for, between two variously placed in the cement, at differ- and three hundred years back, a church ent paris of the wall.
and farm-house (both mentioned by Still, for an indeterminate distance, a Camden as recent erections) were con. similarity of arrangement appears to structed near the eastern entrance. have been preserved, as if certain spe. These are both remaining, and I found cified proportions of the structure had them to be composed of brick. Now, been allotted to the task of a particular as such immense quantities of useful band of artificers, and each band had materials were contained close at hand, its peculiar plan of workmanship. in the fragments of the Roman walls, it
The extent of the wall is nearly two seems difficult to discover any other mo. English iniles, and round the whole was tive for the founder of these buildings
preferring the use of brick, which must one written at the time of the giants in have been procured at, inuch trouble and the Greek language. expense, than a respectful regard for the It is also a current opinion, that the melancholy, yet august, memorials of a city was impervious to all modes of remote and interesting period.
assault, except the danger of conflagraBut if on the one hand, it would ap- tion; and thac brands, accordingly, were pear that the relics have been treated fastened to birds, who settled on the with forbearance, it is most certain that city, and spread a flame throughout its on the other, they have not been inves- buildings. A very credulous antiquary tigated with due zeal and perseverance. night almost believe that this latter Camden mentions an inscription found circumstance has some connexion with here, which was conveyed to London, traditionary fact, and that the strength and placed in the garden of lord Bur of the out-works had really repelled every leigh. And since the cime of Camden, endeavor of the Saxons, until they cast the foundation of a large structure sup- torches over the walls, and added the posed to have been a emple, was dis. horrors of conflagration to the fury of their covered near the middle of the city, external attack. within a spacious square, formed partly The modern name of Vindonum (Silby the intersection of the two principal chester,) Camden supposes to signify streets. Roman coins are continually "the great city." But it appears, from thrown to the surface, by the least cur- later critics, that the word Silor Sel, was sory deviation of the plough, and found understood to mean a hill, or elevation, by the peasants, who term them in allu. It would, therefore, seein more likely sion to a fancied giant) Onion's pennies. that the compound term Silchester, was But all these assurances of the soil intended to express “ the high city," or within the walls containing a vast board “the city on the hill;" a form of desigof antiquarian treasures, are insufficient nation supported, as we have seen, by to stimulate the proprietor of the spot to the local circumstances of antient Vinan activity of research; and he is con- donum. tented to let the ground (about 100 acres) to a farnier, possessed of very For the Monthly Magazine. litile more feeling than the clod over JOURNAL of a WINTER TOUR through which he drives his horses.*
several of the MIDLAND COUNTIES of Recollecting the great value which the
ENGLAND, performed in 1810. Roinans placed on water, and how very (Concluded from p. 546, vol. 29.) scrupulous they were as to the purity TRODE the following morning, the and salubrious qualities of that used at weather being fine, although the their tables, I searched, with some in- ground was yet covered with snow, froin terest, into the character of the rivulets Kippon to lack-fall, a distance of seven on the confines of Vindonum, and found miles. The inany minute and poetical that the city had, in fact, been supplied - descriptions which have been viren of by a spring of most inviting delicacy, this celebrated pleasure-ground, would which still pours its clear and bubbling have induced me to oinit mentioning torrent into the incumbered fosse.
it altogether, had I not happened to visit Respecting s0 vast (and to them in- it under a novel and not uninteresting comprehensible) a ruin, it may be sup- aspect. The feathered tribes had all fled posed that the natives entertain fabulous to' warmer climates: the little teipples and extravagant opinions. They, in were shut up and deserted; there were deed, suppose that the city was inhabi- no traces of pleasure-parties; and in ted during its prosperity by giants: many places the trees were stript of all and a person, who thought himself more their honors. But the water-lalls were intelligent than bis neighbours, informed swelled by the snows; many firs covered me that these giants were of Hebrew the sides of the mountains: and the origin, and that there was no history whole wore an air of solitude far from extant which mentioned the city, except displeasing. The tops of the laurels, and
other evergreens, that shaded the walls, • At the door of the farm-house, a horse.
- hore a thick outward coating of snow;
h block is constructed of a portion of the
but there was no appearance of winter shaft of a Roman column, on the top of which is placed the mutilated fragment of a
underneath; and the clusters of red bercapital. Both of these were discovered near ries, which hung from their branches all that central square which is supposed to have capped with crystal, recalled to my mind been the site of a temple.
the lines of our bard: MONTHLY MAG. No, 202,
“For every shrub, and every blade of grass, nosa might have been just as suitable. And every pointed thorn, seemed wrought in The whole is wretched. I would not give glass;
the crag a mile below Knaresborough, In pearls and rubies rich the hawthorns for five Grundied such trumpery produce shew,
tions. I must mention in justice, that While through the ice the crimson berries
the little bronze figure of the Venus of glow;
Medicis, placed in the banqueling-house, The thick-sprung reeds which watery marshes yield,
is the most elegant imitation of that cele. Seemed polished lances in a hostile field;
brated statue I have ever seen in The stag in limpid currents, with surprise,
England. Sees crystal branches on his forehead rise ; Turning away in disgust from the The spreading oak, the beech, and tuwiring boasted beauties of Studleigh, we soon pine,
arrive at a real beauty-the venerable Glazed over, in the freezing æther shine ; ruin of Fountaine's Abbey. This is The frighted birds tlre rattling branches unquestionably the finest suin in Eng. shun,
land. It stavids in a sequestered valley, Which wave and glitter in the distant sun." near to which a inodest river steals along
A general idea of Hack-fall, which has between woods and rocks. Nothing has been said to combine the beauties of fallen to ruin in Fountaine's Abbey, Matlock and the Leasowes, may be ob-' excepting the roof and some of the wintained, by conceiving a rivulet falling in dous. The chancel, the choir, the cascades down a narrow dell, betwixt cloisters, the dormitory, the kitchen, the two steep hills richly covered with wood, refectory, the chapter-house, and the and interspersed with temples and ruins. charnel-house, are all nearly entire; and From the top of one of these eininences in some places the plaister remains on may be seen a wide view of the North Rid- the walls, painted so as to resemble large ing of Yorkshire, bounded by distant hills. red stones nicely joined together.
Ilack-fali lies about four or five miles Fountaine's Abbey is a Gothic building : from the beautiful seat of its proprietor, it was formerly enriched with ample Studleigh Park, which I entered at the revenues; and the Percy family, many of northern gate, close to the house. After whom are here buried, were considered riding about half a mile through a lawn, as its chief benefactors. It was founded I descended to a fine sheet of water, in 1132 by Thurstan, archbishop of on the borders of wbich, even winter York; and an inscription over one of the wore the look of spring. Studleigh Park gates mentions its having been finished is certainly highly cultivated; nature in the year 1202, seventy years from its has done much, and art more, in contrifoundation: the length of the aisle is buting towards its beauty. There are three hundred and sisty feet, and the fine sloping bills covered with wood, and cloister garden is entire. interspersed with temples ; banqueting. Riding on from Fountaine's Abbey, I houses, cold baths, and seats planted to passed through Ripley and Lower Harcatch noble prospects: and below are rowgate; and stopping all night at a small smooth lakes, and initations of the best inn four miies beyond the latter place, remains of ancient sculpture. Nerer. arrived next morning in Leeds. theless, I cannot help differing from all After resting some days, I again took travellers, by decidedly condeurning the horse, and travelled tisrough Wakefield, taste of it to be vile. Here all is art, which I have described in a former four and no nature; the principal sheet of to Barnsley, a wretched ugly little town, water is divided into three comparto where I got a bad breakiast. Sandal ments, resembling a moon, and a cres. Castle lies in the way within a mile of cent on each side of it. In the exact Wakefield, well known to he celebrated centre of these are dripping figures of for a famous battle between the White Galen, Esculapius, and Niobe: cor- and Red Roses. From Barnsley, I responding figures are placed opposite proceeded to Wentworth Castle, where to the bali njoons on the bands--the I was led tbrough the picture gallery, Dying Gladiator, and the Wrestlers; while though in a great hurry, by the house. this abuinivable piece of Degyet-work, is keeper, who had more important busisupplied with water from a broad ribbon ness in hand he making of jellies and of a cascade not belter than a mill-dam. blamanges. Wentworth Castle is a Opposite, on the other side, is a temple family seat of the Stafford family, and of Piety, containing of all things in the stands nobly on the summit of a bull world, a bust of Nero :- bust of Spio covered with old crees. The grounds
are finely laid out: bat alas! this was not his chin, might have been well calculated the time of year for perceiving their for the part of Don Ferolos Whiskeran. beauties. The gallery contains some dos. The music was that to which a bear of the best paintings both of old and would day modern masters.
nd would dance: and what little wit there
One iu particular was, seemed not ill fitted for a company Struck me in going along : Swindlers which inight be supposed would winess drawing out a Card. There are many such a spectacle. One man sung a song beautiful Vients in Switzerland. llere betwixt the play and the farce, in the too is to be scen a fine portrait of the character of a cake-seller: each verse celebrated lord Stafford on horseback ; ended with the genteel buruhen o--“All and another picture representing three my
my eye and Bitty Martin.” One, and one kings, all said to be of the Stafford
Ahord only, of the stanzas remains in my memory: far ily. Visitors are also shewn a room, called Queen Anne's room, where there
" The ladies they like bride-cake, is a table and mirror-frame, both of solid
And of this I'm sure and sartain, if the
If they say they don't like the men, silver.
It's all my eye and Betty Martin !" Begretting that the opportunity of remaining in the gallery was so extremely
The next inorning I arose before light, short, I pushed on to Wentworth House,
and reached Worksop to breakfast, the noble palace of earl I'itzwilliam, and At the end of the town, wbich is quite arrived in time to get a good view of the
uninteresting, a lodge iudicates the paintings. These are most valuable, entrance to Worksop, Manor, a seat of being the elite of all the best masters.
the Norfolk family. It is a much more The chief of them are as follows: Jason magnificent mansion than the ridiculous killing the Dragon, by Salvator Rosa; piece of muck-antique Arundel Castle Cupid Sleeping, by Guido; a Magdalen, in its repaired state, to which the preby Titian; Bacchus, by sir' Joshua Rey sent duke gives the preference as a resinolds; Madona and Child, by Raphael: dence. The front is three hundred feet there are likewise several good pictures
in length, not quite so noble as that of by Ostade, Teniers, and Domenichino. Wentworth House. In the centre is a In other apartments are portraits of portico of six columns of the Corinthian Charles I. and his queen Henrietta; of
order, surmounted by a pediment which arcblishup Laud; and of the celebrated is crowned with statues. The park is lord Stafford dictating to his Secretary. 'about eight miles in circumference. In a large ball-roon there are bronze Within, the furniture, portraits, and Ogures of the Apollo Belvidere; the other decorations, are all in the old style: Venus de Medicis; the Autinous; and a hangings and beds of crimson damask, Contemplating Philosopher, and two and of sky-blue velvet; the history of Dying Gladiators. Over the ball door Joseph in tapestry of Brussels, and rich are sospended a surprisingly broad pair Indian scenery in that of the Gobelins. of elk's horns, brought from lord Fitz. There is a fine allegorical fresco painting william's Irish estates. Within this of the Arts and Sciences, in a gallery, by noble mansion it will give every visitor
Le Breuger; a beautiful portrait of a pleasure to see an elegant and comforta.
duchess of Milan: many fine paintings, ble chapel: as well to hear that prayers are chiefly by Vandyke; the cinef of which performed here every evening, when the S. Cain slaying Abel: and in a word. family are at home. The chief object of all the blood of all the lowards, preserved attention in the grounds, is an elegant in the veins of the proprietors of its diffemausoleum to the memory of the rent portions, who frown along the marqois of Rockingham. The inscrip deserted galleries, some in armiour, some tion is good, but too long: an inscription), in wliiskers; and those of a still later like an epitaph, should be of such date, in their large wigs, and square shoes. dimensions as that he who runs may
Welbeck, my next object, a seat and read.
residence of the duke of Portland, stands By the time I entered Rotherham it about five miles from Worksop Manor. was quite dark; so that I had just time It is a poor shabby old place; but within, to take a hasty dinner, and fill up my the seat of elegance and hospitality. i day's pleasure by going to the play. A was received most courteously by a strolling party were performing some housekeeper, who regretted her inability tretched piece, by desire of the Tickbill to conduct me through the house, the volunteers. The chief character, by the family being at home, and all the roonis two brushes which ran from his ears to occupied, My curiosity was conse
quently only gratified by the view of a modate 150 guests, is hung round with Gothic library, which is not yet finished, appropriate paintings of fish and fruits, This place was formerly a religious house by the best masters in each of these de. of the Augustine friars. The park con- partments. Every thing rellects the taine many old trees, particularly the highest credit on the taste displayed in celebrated Greendale oak, with a road the accommodations and ornaments cut through the trunk, and bearing one found in this delighiful retreat. branch, which alone indicates its being The last of the dukeries is Thoresby, still in life.
formerly a seat of the duke of Kingston, From Welbeck I rode on to Clumber, but now possessed by Mr. Pierrepoint. and was there repaid for my late disap- There are no paintings of any consepointment, the family having fortunately quence in this mansion; and the only left the house to go to London only the object worthy of notice is a marble sapreceding day, and all the rich furniture loon with beautiful columns, a tessellated being still uncovered. Clumber combines pavement, and lamps in candelabras. magnificence and comfort, more than Having thus made good use of my time any noblemau's mansion in England. by conipleting, in one winter's day, the The whole house is richly carpeted; the tour of these four seats, I rode forward railings of the stair-cases curiouslywrought to Ollerton, where I was annoyed for and gilt in the shapes of crowns, with the rest of the evening, by riders boasttassels hanging down between them from ing of their horses, their employers, and cords twisted in knots and festoons. All their consequence at inns. the bed rooms are decorated with superb The next morning I breakfasted at furniture; beds in the form of tenis and Newark, which stands on an island pavilions, curtains twisted in graceful formed by two branches of the Trent, foldings, large portable mirrors, ceilings which re-unite their streams a little below elegantly finished, Turkey carpetings, it. The castle was built by King Stephen; inlaid cabinets, and time-pieces mounted and here King John-died. Near Newark with classical taste. There is a library, is found a kind of stone, which forms a' a music-room, and an elegant chapel composition used as a substitute fos with windows of stained glass. From stucco-work. My next stage was Grantthe duchess's dressing-roorn is seen a fine ham, from which place I rode forward view of the sheet of water terminated by to Belvoir Castle; but, unfortunately, a bridge, which forms one of the summer on arriving there in the dark, I found beauties of the place. The duke's pri- the whole of the inn occupied by Fate study is as complete a bouidoir as servants belonging to the gentlemen sie can well be imagined. In this princely sitors of the duke of Rutland: I found abode the writer of romance night it necessary to go round two iniles before enrich his fancy, and the poet imagine I could reach an inn. To add to my himself wandering through an enchanted misfortunes I lost my way; and not unpalace: nor are nobler specimens of the til I had wandered about in the snow, arts here wanting. It would be tedious leading my horse for a couple of bours, to enumerate the paintings of the best did I reach the little comfortable hos, ancient and modern artists which adorn pitable inn of Knipton. the walls of Clumber: tliere are an Ora. Early next morning I walked to the tor, by Reinbrandt; two small pieces, re- castle, which stands proudly on a compresenting Wild Scenes with Shepherds, manding eminence, from which the flat by Salvator Rosa; a Lion and Wild Boar, country is distinctly Seen extending many by Rubens; and Two Boys, by Gainsbo- miles. Great improvements are carrying rough: all admirable pictures. In the on, but the new rooms are paltry: when collection are paintings by Vandyke, compared internally, as the residence of Canaletti, Rubens, Battoni, Sneyders, peers, Clumber is a palace-Belvoir a Old John, Wouverman, Teniers, Claude, pig-sty. The collection of paintings is and Vao Huysum. Of the latter may be small, but very choice: here is a tine observed a Flower Piece, with a dew-drop Peter denying Christ, by M. Angelo: exquisitely resting on a tulip-leaf. One and other master-pieces, by Salvator Rosa room is adorned with seven paintings in and Lucca Giordano; nor must. I omit water colors, brought from the ruins of the original design of ihe window in New Herculaneum. In the chapel there is College, the work of sir Joshua Reynolds. a Dead Christ and Mary, after Raphael. A full-length portrait of Henry VIII. by The larger dining-room, a magnificent Hans Holbein, is said to be extreinely apartment, which could easily accom- valuable,