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information concerning abuinient piers? Lapicida will be obliged; he is not desiIle found it prudent pot to agitate the rous of having an account of the amours question, as the gentle:nen in the report of a college, Thai being the only part of alluded in, did in getting over the 11ch the history lett out. Lapicida has question of the select conmiltee of the always been of opinion, however the Ilouse of Cominons. Sir, I believe in a lives of some few oi the old fellows" of great ineasure I repeat rour own senti. the universities may have deviated from ments, in stating that the Emerson theory the stoic regionen, that they never forget does not in any way take into consider. to maintain the characters of gentlemen. ation the archi, hut applies to a wall The Lapicidæ, and the Lignieidæ, are an trith a hole in it, composiet of materials obstinate race: 10 persuasion can induce toitud hug cement, either wholly or them to adopt what is diametrically opYound the curre:* whether an arch of posite to experience and practice; and any thickness is to be wored in this ibey presunie so assert, in opposition to bolet remains to be e: plained. Through the learning of the schools, that they can the whole of the Principles of Bridges, discurer what is false, though they cannot except in the last ten lines of the last exactly delne whai is true. The public page, the worsi voussoir is not mentis carioci on arches, &c. was not referred to oned; and then, in the dictionary, merely through friendship to the author, is to state chat there are such things. Dr. Philu-veritas insinuates; but now still 3luttori's definition of an arch, viz. “an more so, as the dire Philo-eritatis. opening of a bridge through which, or acumen, without having any known ander which, the water passes;" esta- leidye of it, has already devoted it hinhes the opinion which is universally to jhuse purposes from which the repuheld of the theory, that nothing more is cation of the Monthly Magazine will requirert than a current intrados, or ma. preserre his own farrago. Lipicida bas thematical arch, or arch of no nickness, seen the article - Bridge" in the New CyHence it is a mis.nomer 10 call the ciopædin, in which he finds he following Emerson theory, a theory of the equili- noiable passage:"A mere arch conbration of arches: it is literally, when structed in this way, siz, according to applied to bridges, a theory of the form De la Hire, Belidor, Varignon, Parent, of the tat mouki, &c, on the extradlosses other French philosophers, and Mr. of the archies of bridges. If Mr. Atwood, would remain in equilibria as Myle's practice, in regard to the long as the constituent voussoirs had voessoirs, be just, and Mr. Alwood, and Wherly to slide without friction down the rhe French pinnsophers, are not deplo- respective inclined planes on which they rably ignorant, the Emerson Theorists lay:" and among other extraordinary have to begin again upon a new series of lights thrown upon their theory, " that intradosses for their walls.
the voussoirs of such arches niust be cut The defenders of the Emerson theory, to different oblique angles." Ile then jt may be apprehended, are unacquaint- ejaculares: " But even this is not all! ed that the world extrados, il- applied to architects contrive to have the butting arches, has but one incaning: it is proba- side of their wedges (voussoirs) so rough, bile cheir errors may hare ari en originally as to occasion a great deal of friction fron) a misconception wiricii they now between them." These architects must think proper to maintain. If Philo- have been the workmen who told Philo veriias will condescend to clear np any veritas that arches sink at their of the inconsistencies of the true theory, haunches, or it must be a new precept
- established or purpose for the Emerson See the diagrams, ant explanation, in theory.* Lapicida cannot but suspect, Emerson's Mechanics.
when he observes the industry wbich has t And if of any th ckness, whether equally
er equally been displayed in the historical part of
a thick throughout, or whether the i trudos of
on this article, and the number of bridges the Emerson wall is the extrados of an arch" oi equilibration, to be guessed by the inasons which are brought into view, that the
t'How is it that the wonder of this wormer part was intended as a body o theory, viz. the curve for at ho izontat extra. prictical cridence to cunfute the Emne: cos, approaches so near to a semi circle, and son theory, and that the theoretiel difiers so materially from an ellipse ; and the account was intended, ironically, to ir properties approach so nearly to those of an ther that object.
LAPICIDA ell pse, and riffer so materi lly from those of a semicircle? Are rot the details as curious The authorities in favour of the her. as ine resulis in the 5th Prop. Principles of son theory, wiidremind many of your ndare bridges?
of the story of Elkabeth, Betsey, and ess:
For the Monthly Magazine.
othly Masasine. inbabitants from the miseries of poverty WALKS in BERKSHIRE. Ey MR. JAMES and degradation. If so, a propiciator
SORRIS BREWER. No. IV.-Conluin- offering has seldom bee: made with less ing & Visit to the uniient l'indonum success. of the Romans.
While the Roman empire continued (Concluded from vol. 29, page 527.) to derive strenyih from a simplicits and IT would be trilc iv expaciuce on the purity of internal arrangement, Vindirme I sensations with which the traveller muni inaintained its consequence, and approaches the desolaie site, and moule was deemed one of the chief provincial dering outlines, of a once populous, giv, ciries constructed and inhabited by the and formidable city. On this occasni, masters of the world. Ble the Romans perbaps, must mien are subject to the c uyli so enterprising and inililari a same course of ideas, and are agiiated by people, were unable to exist in their Bria' samlar feelings of regret, despondency, tish provinces without the support of the and wonder. Through lalıyrıntlis of parent country. They made a faint Woodland and ill-beaten roads, now la. effort to establish in - Vindonum au miliar only to the bird, though once tra- independent authority, but the endean versed by throngs of the polished con- vour was furile, and the ci barbarous querors of England, and iheir depend. Britons" took a triumphant possessioa aits, I rrod, wib increasing ardor, and of the city, so strongly fortified and so believed the object of our expedition yet long tenanted by their invaders. The distant, when my companion suddenly Bricons termed their new acquisition arrested my progress, by exclaimning, Caer Segont (the city of the Segontians, * We are there !" It was even so. On and this was the spot selected for this this rough reail, where scarce a dozen inauguration of the chivalrous and feet tread during the whole of a suin- mighty king Artbur. But the prosperity iner's day, and and these wild and ct the ci.y while under British dominion tangled branches, which almost furbid was short-lived. A fresh horde of sana the traveller's approach, we were close grunary visitors, under the banuers of beside the potent, the august city, from Saxony, poured on the afflicted islanders. which Constantius issued his edicts to a and Caer Segnnt was one of the first trembling and subdued people,
strony-holds against which they directed Silchester (which is really in the their arms. While defended by the county of Wants, though inmediately who laid the foundation, the walls of on the confines of Berkshire) is supposed Vindonum proved impregnable. Buc to have been the l'indonum of the the aboriginal Britons und as are their Romans. The occurrence of a suppo. descendants of the brast of freedom) sition on this subject must appear surn srem to have been born for slavery. prising when we consider the former Useless were the mighty towers and extent of the city, but such is the effect ennbattled gateways of the Romans. of ages on a mere record of stone and The Saxons prevailsd; and, as a token mortar, that the original appellation is, of their victory, they razed the ciry to in far, conjectural, though the most in the ground, dismantled its fortifications xenious and industrious antiquaric Con- and tried to level entirely the massive cur 1 believing te kunnan l'indonuin walls formed by Constantius; but one to hare occupied this site.
the destruction of these was too screres Following the lead of this probable task for their industry and patience cnujeme, ne find that the city was although the Romans were equally exbuilt by Constantius, son of Constantino posest to dager 14 interruption is heu the Great, and that the founder snwed ilies heapered together the ponderous Cunos die intended ground-plot of his quarry all materials, and embattled the citi, with a si w of shielling the future outlines of thie city. Since the raraves
i of the Saxons, all hinis at populativna • What a strange propensity mankind
have abandonne che deristed sprit; and possess to enlarge on the pa:ticulars of a story as it passes throuan their lands! the shepheril !!! his dou, or the casual Madern writers on the subject of this ancient stranger, le thither by curiosits and cry, assert that the emperor Constantius
of corn on the ground whereon the cty was *attered grain corrpletely round the traces
built." of tbe walls, as an open of their perpetuily.
Seldon have three grains of seed
produced such an abundant, crop as the Pu: Ninnius, on whose authority the anec. prod
when assisted by the manure of a modern e te slely rests, says, in explicit language, that Cratantia: increly " oncd thr:e grains annotatur s ingenuity.
pity, possess uncontested power over the a deep ditch, or fosse, a great part of districts once defended with streams of which is now Glled with the ruins of the Roman and of British blood.
walls. Beyond the ditch was conI have described the first view of the structed the external vallum, which may majestic fragments of Vindonum as still be easily traced, and which is, in bursting on the traveller while he many places, fiftcen or sixteen feet high. threads the mazes of obscure and em. On the western side of the walls is an bowered lanes. The prospect is truly embankment, thrown up in a seini-circoimpressive and surprising. We see a lar form, with a ditch beyond it. This wall, in some places still nearly twenty bank is of a considerable height, and feet high, and ibrough the whole boun. was evidently coustructed for the defonce dary of the city twenty-four feet in of the city. thickness, balf-veiled by towering oaks On the north-east, at some stall dis. which have taken rout even in the firia tance froin the city wall, are the remains cement of the ponderous wall itself. of an amphitheatre, which are now used The slow process of vegetation, which as a yard for the cattle of a neighbouring has tinted the stone with green, and farmer! created a little forest in the place once A street, thirty feet in width, extends occupied by battlements and coping, from each gate to the opposite entrance, is very nearly the whole alteration that and the traces of farious subordinate has been effected since the hour in whicb passages are still to be observed towards the Saxons ravaged the city, and reduced ibe approach of harvest in dry seasons, the pride of its fortified barrier to a mere when the corn (probably froin the monument of the instability of local circumstance of the pavement of the grandeur.
streets still remaining entire, on which The Romans were judiciously attached lie heaped the materials of the houses (as the situation of ancient Rome might razed by the Saxons) fails, and the exasuffice to prove,) to an elevated site for miner may clearly ascertain the width and their most important cities. In atten- direction of each smaller avenue once tion to this habicual predilection, Vindo. trodden by the Roman inhabitants.. num was placed on the apex of a cluster From the very reured character of of hills, whose suminits appear to have the neighbourhood, the walls have been rendered artificially level for the escaped with singular good fortune accommodation of the military settlers. from all other dilapidations than such The city was built in the form of a slow hints at fragility as are the inevitaparallelograin 2600 by 2000 feet, and ble consequences of a lengthened age. was entirely surrounded by a wall of the The whole of the remains appear now in thickness inentioned above, and of a the same state as when visited by very considerable height, though its Camden. That most industrious anci. precise degree of elevation cannot now guary mentions an aperture or passage, be ascertained. Four gateways opened underneath the southern wall, through to the city, the situations of which are which he could scarcely pass, in conse. still distinctly marked, and show that quence of the heaps of rubbish which the entrances were placed exactly at the incumbered the former private arenue four cardinal points. The foundation of of the garrison). This passage (called the walls consists of regular layers of Onion's hole) presents exactly the same large flat stones, and the walls are conn- aspect at the present day. Indeed, it posed of rubble-stone, fiints, and pebbles, would almost appear that the various held together by a bed of strong cenient. generations of the moderns have conThe stones and flints are not arranged curred in treating these ruins with tenwith any uniformity of method, but are derness and respect; for, between two variously placed in the cement, at differ- and three hundred years back, a church ent paris of the wall.
and farn-house (both mentioned by Still, for an indeterorinate distance, a Canden as recent erections) were consimilarity of arrangement appears to structed near the eastern entrance. have been preserved, as if certain spe- These are both remaining, and I found cified proportions of the structure had them to be composed of brick. Now, been allotted to the task of a particular as such iminense quantities of useful band of artificers, and each band had materials were contained close at land, its peculiar plan of workmanship. in the fragments of the Roman walls, it
The extent of the wall is nearly two seeins ditficult to discover any other moEnglish iniles, and round the whole was tive for the founder of these buildings
preferring the use of brick, which must one written at the time of the giants in bare been procured at, much trouble and the Greek language. expense, than a respectful regard for the It is also a current opinion, that the melancholy, yet august, memorials of a city was iinpervious to all modes of remote and interesting period.
assault, except the danger of conflagraBut if on the one hand, it would ap tion; and that brands, accordingly, were pear that the relics have been treatid fastened to birds, who settled on the with forbearance, it is most certain that city, and spread a flame throughout its on the other, they have not been inves- buildings. A very credulous antiquary tigated with due zeal and perseverance. night almost believe that this latter Camden mentions an inscription found circumstance has some connexion with here, which was conveyed to London, traditionary fact, and that the strength and placed in the garden of lord Bur of the out-works had really repelled every legt. And since the time of Camden, endeavor of the Saxons, until they cast the foundation of a large structure supo torches over the walls, and added the posed to liare been a jemple, was dis. horrors of conflagration to the fury of their covered near the middle of the city, external attack. within a spacious square, formed partly The modern name of Vindonum (Silby the intersection of the two principal chester,) Camden supposes to signify streets. Roman coins are continually "the great city." But it appears, from thrown to the surface, by the least curs later critics, that the word Sil or Sel, was sory deviation of the plough, and found understood to mean a hill, or elevation, by the peasants, who term them (in ally. It would, therefore, seen more likely sion to a fancied giant) Onion's pennies. that the compound terın Siichester, was But all these assurances of the soil intended to express “ the high city," or within the walls containing a vast hoard " the city on the hill;" a form of desigof antiquarian treasures, are insufficient nation supported, as we have seen, by to stimulate the proprietor of the spot to the local circumstances of antient Vinan activity of research; and he is con- donum. tented to let the ground (about 100 acres) to a farnier, possessed of very For the Monthly Magazine. litile more feeling than the clod over JOURNAL of a WINTER TOUR through which he drives his horses.*
several of the MIDLAND COUNTIES of Recollecting the great value which the
ENGLAND, performed in 1810. Ronans placed on water, and how very (Concluded from p. 546, vol. 29.) scrupulous they were as to the purity TRODE the following morning, the and salubrious qualities of that rised at I weather being fine, although the their tables, I searched, with some in- ground was yet covered with snow, froin terest, into the character of the rivulets Rippon to Hack-fall, a distance of seven on the confines of Vindonum, and found miles. The many minute and poetical that the city had, in fact, been supplied - descriptions which have been visen of by a spring of most inviting delicacy, this celebrated pleasure-ground, would which still pours its clear and bubbling have induced me to oinit mentioning torrent into the incumbered fosse. it altogether, had I not happened to visit
Respeciing so vast (and to them in- it under a novel and not uninteresting comprehensible) a ruin, it may be sup- aspect. The feathered tribes had all fied posed that the natives entertain fabulous to warmer climates; the little temples and extravagant opinions. They, in were shut up and deserted; there were deed, suppose that the city was inhabi- no traces of pleasure-parties; and in ted during its prosperity by giants : many places the trees were stript of all and a person, who thought himself more their honors. But the water-falls were intelligent'than his neighbours, informed swelled by the snows; many firs covered me that these giants were of Hebrew the sides of the mountains: and the origin, and that there was no history whole wore an air of solitude far from extant which mentioned the city, except displeasing. The tops of the laurels, and
· other evergreens, that shaded the waiks, * At the door of the farm house, a horse
bore a thick outward coating of snow; block is constructed of a portion of the
but there was no appearance of winter shaft of a Roman column, on the top of which is placed the mutilated fragment of a
underneath; and the clusters of red bercapital. Both of these were discovered near ries, which hung from their branches all that central square which is supposed to have capped with crystal, recalled to my inind been the site of a temple.
the lines of our bard: MOSTHLY MAG. No, 202, .
" for " For every shrub, and every blade of grass, nosa might have been just as suitable. And every pointed thorn, seemed wrought in The whole is wretched. I would not give glass;
the crag a mile below Knaresborough, In pearls and rubies rich the hawthorns for five hundred such trumpery produce shew,
tions. I must mention in justice, that: While through the ice the crimson berries glow;
the little bronze figure of the Venus of The thick-sprung reeds which watery marshes
Medicis, placed in the banqueting-louse, yield,
is the most elegant imitation of that cele. Seemed polished lances in a hostile field; brated statue I have ever seen in The stag in limpid currents, with surprise,
England. Sees crystal branches on his forehead rise ; Turning away in disgust from the The spreading oak, the beech, and tow'ring boasted beauties of Studleigh, we s09>> pine,
arrive at a real beauty-the venerable Glazed over, in the freezing æther shine; e freezing æther shine ;
ruin of Fountaine's Abbey. This is The frighted birds tfre rattling branches unquestionably the finest ruin in Engshun,
land. It stands in a sequestered valley, Which wave and glitter in the distant sun."
near to which a modest river steals along A general idea of Hack-fall, which has between woods and rocks. Nothing lias been said to combine the beauties of fallen to ruin in Fountaine's Abbey, Matlock and the Leasowes, may be ob- excepting the roof and some of the wintained, by conceiving a rivulet falling in dows. The chancel, the choir, the cascades down a narrow dell, betwixt cloisters, the dormitory, the kitchen, the two steep bills riebly covered with wood, refectory, the chapter-house, and the and interspersed with temples and ruins. charnel-house, are all nearly entire; and From the top of one of these eininences in soine places tbe plaister remains on may be seen a wide view of the North Rid- the walls, painted so as to resemble large ing of Yorkshire, bounded by distant hills. red stones nicely joined together.
Black-fali lies about four or five miles Fountaine's Abbey is a Gothic building: from the beautiful seat of its proprietor, it was formerly enriched with ample Studleigh Park, which I entered at the revenues; and the Percy family, many of northern gate, close to the house. After whom are here buried, were considered riding about half a mile through a lawn, as its chief benefactors. It was founded I descended to a fine sheet of water, in 1132 by Thurstan, archbishop of on the borders of which, even winter York; and au inscription over one of the wore the look of spring. Studleigh Park gates mentions its having been finished is certainly highly cultivated; nature in the year 1202, seventy years from its has done much, and art more, in contri- foundation: the length of the aisle is butiog towards its beauty. There are three hundred and sisty feet, and the fine sloping bills covered with wood, and cloister garden is entire. interspersed with temples; banqueting. Riding on from Fountaine's Abbey, I houses, cold baths, and seats planted to passed through Ripley and Lower Harcatch noble prospects: and below are rowgate; and stopping all night at a small smooth lakes, and initations of the best inn four inies beyond the latter place, remains of ancient sculpture. Nerer. arrived next morning in Leeds. theless, I cannot help differing from all After resting some days, I again took travellers, by decidedly condemning the horse, and travelled Livrough Wakefield, taste of it to be vile. Here all is art, which I have described in a former four and no nature; the principal sheet of to Barnsley, a wretched ugby litule town, water is divided into three comparto where I got a bad breaktast. Sandal ments, resembling a moon, and a cres. Castle lies in the way within a mile of cent on each side of it. In the exact Wakefield, well known to be celebrated centre of these are dripping figures of for a famous battle between the White Galen, Esculapius, and Niobe: cor- and Red Roses. From Barnsley, I responding figures are placed opposite proceeded to Wentworth Castle, where to the halt-noons on the banks-thie I was led through the picture gallery, Dving Gladiator, and the Wrestlers; while though in a great hurry, by the house. this a bunicable piece of Degyet-work, is keeper, who had more important busisupplied with water from a broad ribbon ness in hand-ihe making of jellies and of a cascade not belter than a mill-dam. blamnnges. Wentworth Castle is a Opposite, on the other side, is a temple family seat of the Stafford family, and of Piety, containing of all things in the stands nobly on the summit of u lill world, a bust of Nero: bust of Spi- covered wilh old trees. The grounds