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of his person.
blunders, and dispel the obscurity, by land's late motion-some 'strictures presenting us with the prototypes of on Santini's appeal,--and a few rea several of this author's principal cha- marks on the Manuscrit, which, as is racters. What if this singular person now very generally believed, is proshould have the further presumption nounced to be obviously a fabrication. to try his hand, as a rival, at such a The Reviewers are of opinion, that the work himself ? But though he is fond public execution of Buonaparte, when'. enough of finding fault, he seems, upon he fell into the power of his conquerthe whole, rather favourably disposed ors after the battle of Waterloos would towards this fascinating writer, and, have been a great and useful act of towards the conclusion of the article, justice; but, that better and juster endeavours to vindicate « Old Mor course being rejected, they strongly tality” from some objections, to which recommend that his allowance should our profound veneration for the Sacred be diminished,«£4000 a-year they Writings, and our respect for the me. seem to think sufficient, and that mory of our persecuted ancestors, must further restrictions should be imposed, find it but too much exposed. We with a view to the more safe custody have some doubts of the critic's accuracy, when he tells us, or at least insi 10. Report of the Secret Committee : nuates, that the “indulged” ministers On the Present State of Public Affairs : and their adherents formed by far the and A Proposal for putting Reform to most numerous body of the Presbyte- the Vote throughout the Kingdom; by rians of the period to which that tale the Hermit of Marlow. The object of refers; and we are not quite convinced this article is to trace the Rise and Prothat the present church of Scotland gress of popular disaffection. After can, with any degree of propriety, be a very appropriate introduction, the called the legitimate representative of writer fixes upon the reign of Henry the indulged_clergy of the days of VIII. as the period
" when religious Charles II. But these inaccuracies (if disputes divided the nation, and produce they are so) may be easily excused in ed a long train of consequences, which a writer belonging to the English are acting at this hour, and the end of church, as this Reviewer, from his which nohuman foresight can discern." residence in the south, most probably He then proceeds to give a general view is, and of course but imperfectly ac of the various parties, religious and quainted with those parts of our church political, down to the present time, history, to which it did not perhaps descending to greater minuteness from fall within the province of his Scottish the accession of his present majesty, correspondents to direct his attention. -and concludes with poignant aniThis article is, after all, very curious, madversions on several of our present shrewd, and entertaining; and from political writers.-The main source of its concluding paragraph, about the popular disaffection must be sought “ transatlantic confessions,” and the in religious toleration (if we rightly mistake of Claverhouse's men in taking understand the tendency of the reathe one brother for the other, we cannot soning), of which so many different help suspecting that the "gifted seers,” bodies of dissenters have availed themwhom our mighty minstrel so well selves to separate from the Church of commemorates, are not exclusively England ;
to for certain it is,” says the confined to the north side of the Tweed, reviewer, “ that monarchy and episcoand that Johnson might have found pacy, the throne and the altar, are the second sight nearer home than the much more nearly connected than Hebrides.
writers of bad faith, or little reflec9. Santini's Appeal,-Montholon's tion, have sought to persuade manLetter to Sir Hudson Lowe,--Barnes' kind.” This article may be considered Tour through St Helena,--and Manu no slight auxiliary to the well known scrit venu de St Hélene.--The prin- letter of Lord Sidmouth, so unjustly cipal contents of this article are, a se censured by those whose motives this vere censure of the treaty of Fon- profound writer has developed in a very tainbleau, by which Buonaparte was masterly style. We are indebted, as he sent to Elba,-an examination of well observes, to the English Bishops Montholon's letter, with notices of for the revolution in 1688, and for all Lord Bathurst's speech on Lord Hol- the blessings which we now enjoy.
The EDINBURGH REVIEW, No 55. several other pious and charitable pure
poses, besides the relief of the paro1. Minutes of the Evidence taken chial poor. The practice is indeed of before the Committee appointed by the long standing; but even in those paHouse of Commons to inquire into the rishes where there are no legal assess State of Mendicity and Vagrancy in ments, the amount of these voluntary the Metropolis and its neighbourhood. contributions is, from causes which it -This is an essay on the
“Causes and is unnecessary to inquire into in this Cure of Pauperism." The boldness, place, gradually diminishing. That originality, and independence of sen our southern neighours may have timent, for which this celebrated jour- some idea of this mysterious sys nal has been always remarkable-to tem, of which they have lately heard say nothing of the acknowledged ta so much, we must beg leave to tell lent, good taste, and profound specu- them, that for several years that we lation, by which it has been so pecu- resided in the immediate vicinity of liarly distinguished,-induced us to three country parish churches, this enter upon the perusal of this article collection did not amount, on an avec with very sanguine hopes of finding rage, in each of them, to the sum of that which is at present of such incal- sixpence sterling weekly; and what culable interest-a clear exposition of became of this trifle we never heard, the causes of the rapid increase of pau, nor thought it worth while to inquire. perism, with some definite, enlightened, -As to the legal assessments, in so far and practicable proposal for checking, as they have been deemed expedient, at least, if not for eradicating, this chiefly owing to the non-residence of most alarming evil. In these hopes the principal proprietors, there is little we have been most grievously disap- danger that they can ever either bepointed. The writer proposes to make come considerable in amount, at least our southern neighbours acquainted in country parishes, or be bestowed on with the benefits of the original paro- improper objects. These are the points chial system of Scotland, - deeply de- most interesting to our brethren in plores the introduction of legal assess, the south, though the Reviewer says. ments for the poor in a few counties, not a word of either. In the com. and points out the measures by which paratively few parishes where a poore he thinks these hitherto very moderate rate is imposed, the heritors of the contributions may be withdrawn, and parish, or their agents, along with the purposes to which, in that event, the minister, hold regular meetings, they may be advantageously applied. at which the assessment is imposed Now this "original parochial system,” equally on themselves and their tens this “ material mechanism of our pa, ants, according to the real or valued rishes,” and so on, may be described rent of each farm, after a careful exa in one word, as being no system at amination of the cases of the applicants all, -nothing more than a practice, now for relief, who are required to attend by no means universal, of making a the meeting, and except in case of collection before divine service at the sickness or infirmity, usually do attend church doors, or within the church and answer the questions which the itself before the dismissal of the con- minister or other members of the meetgregation, out of which the minister ing are in the practice of proposing to and elders of a parish distribute small them. The money is collected by their sums occasionally among the poor, ac- clerk, who is commonly scholmaster cording to their own discretion. As of the parish ; the allowance to each similar collections are made in the pauper, as fixed by the heritors, paid meeting-houses of the numerous bo- by him; and his accounts audited at dies of dissenters which are to be their next meeting. How different all found in every part of Scotland, of this is from the practice of England, which a large portion is avowedly none of our readers need be told; but it applied to other purposes than the is material to remark, that as those who relief of the poor, this practice can impose the assessment pay a moiety of hardly, with any propriety, be called a it themselves, and have thus an evident parochial system. Even in the churches interestin limiting its amount, the rates of the establishment, it is usual to levied for the poor even in the parishes adopt this mode of raising funds for of Berwickshire nearest to the conta
mination of the English system, and herds, who rear great numbers of where assessments have been estaba sheep, horses, cows, and goats. The lished for many years, do not, in ordi cause of the insalubrity of this country nary seasons, amount to fourpence in is a mystery into which science has the pound of rent.-Another striking not yet been able to penetrate. " It and most important difference between seems undeniable," says the Reviewer, the English and Scottish poor laws, as " that whatever be the cause of this now administered, is, that no relief is evil, its effects have increased, and are given in Scotland to those who are increasing, at this moment.” Rome able to work; and the absence of the itself suffers under the increased action cruel and most injudicious laws of set- of the Mal Aria; and the extraordinatlement established in England, leaves ry diminution of its inhabitants within every one at perfect liberty to carry twenty-one years, from 1791 to 1813, his labour to the best market.-We from 166,000 to 100,000, is partly have no room to offer any remarks on ascribed to this cause. the measures proposed here for putting 3. Speech of the Right Honourable an end to pauperism; but the substance George Canning in the House of Comof them is,--the multiplication of pa- mons, on Wednesday, January 29th, rishes with schools and churches, and 1817, on the Motion for an Address to a more intimate intercourse between his Royal Highness the Prince Regent, the minister and his parishioners.-It on his most gracious Speech from the has now become the fashion, because Throne.-The title of this article is, the poor laws of England are actually History of the Alarms.". The object a disgrace, as well as an intolerable of the Reviewer is to shew, that there burden, to the nation, to cry out was no good cause for the suspension against all legal provision for the relief of the Habeas Corpus Act, and that it of even the most helpless and despe- had not been suspended in times more rate cases. In this part of the Island, alarming than the present. too far north as we are to write very 4. Aus Meinem Leben. Von GOETHE. learnedly on the subject, we have been This is a continuation of Goethe's Meforward enough to join in this clam, moirs, containing recollections of his our, and to supply the want of local travels in Italy. This volume, the knowledge and dear-bought experi- Reviewer says, will be judged by most ence, by what we call general views, readers to be almost as doting as the and of close and perspicuous argument preceding ones, without being equally by elaborate declamation.
entertaining ; but, however that may 2. Lettres écrites d'Italie en 1812 et be, the article itself is entertaining in 1813, à Mr Charles Pictet, l'un des no ordinary degree. Goethe and his Rédacteurs de la Bibliothéque Britan- adventures are the subject of much nique. Par FREDERIC SULLIN de good-humoured ridicule. Chateauvieux.-The object of this book 5. Interesting Facts relating to the is to explain the rural economy of Fall and Death of Joachim Murat, Italy; and the title of the article is, King of Naples, &c. By FRANCIS ss Agriculture and Statistics of Italy.” MACIRONE.-The “ Foreign Policy of The most interesting part of the cri. England” stands at the top of the pages tique, perhaps, is the account of Ma- of this Critique; but the Reviewers remma, which forms the third division confine their attention to the affairs of of the Italian territory. This singular Italy. The Congress of Vienna, and tract extends along the shore of the particularly the representatives of this Mediterranean, from Leghorn to Ter- country at that memorable assembly, racina, and reaches inland as far as the are freely censured at the outset; and first chain of the Appennines. Its the transactions regarding Genoa and length is 192 geographical miles ; and Ragusa, in 1813 and 1814, brought in in the Agro Romana, where it is proof of the misconduct of our governgreatest, the breadth is between 30 ment. The Reviewers cannot too much and 40 of these miles. It is unfortu- recommend this book to the reader's nately distinguished by the character attention, whether he look for enterof Mal Arin, an unhealthy constitu- tainment, or for information with retion of the atmosphere, or of the soil, spect to the views and conduct of the during the summer season ; and is in- legitimates. An account is then given habited only during the winter, and of the abominable treatment which chiefly by a race of wandering shep- Macirone had experienced from the Vol. I.
Papal government-of his repairing to The only remark we would beg leave Italy and becoming an officer of the to offer on this important part of the staff to Murat—of the arrangement question is, that the statute of Charles, between Lord William Bentinck and recognizing the prorogation of parliathat personage, and the conduct of our ment for three years without being government in consequence. Some called together, seems to be in direct very interesting extracts are given from opposition to the more ancient laws, the work, regarding Murat's conceal- which required a parliament to be held ment near Marseilles, before he was every year; and some explanation of able to effect his escape to Corsica; and this obvious inconsistency might have a few curious particulars of theauthor's been expected from this very learnreception at the English head-quarters, ed writer.-As to universal suffrage, to which he was sent by Fouchè with scarcely the vestige of a foundation for propositions after the battle of Wa- this claim can be discovered; and what terloo,--and of his passage thither, we know of the structure of society in through Blucher's army. The article the earlier periods of our history, is concludes with noticing a story about sufficient of itself to convince us, that the death of Berthier, which is said, this pretended right never was exerwith truth, not to be over and above cised,
, -as we are certain, that in the credible.
present state of society, it never can 6. The title of this article is, “Ana be, without speedily blending, in one nual Parliaments and Universal Suff- undistinguishable mass of ruin, the rage, and we suppose, that the way in liberties, the energies, and the rewhich the subject is discussed here, sources of the nation. will give satisfaction to the well in 7. Wat Tyler, a dramatic poem ; formed and well disposed, whatever and A Letter to William Smith, Esq. may be their political attachments. M. P. From ROBERT SOUTHEY, Esq. Regarding annual parliaments, the -The readers of the Edinburgh ReReviewer proves clearly, by numerous view will at once anticipate the leading references to the rolls of parliament, contents of this article. and other authentic records, that 8. Transactions of the Geological though it was provided by several Society, Vol. II.-There are twentystatutes, that parliaments should be four papers in this volume, of which held every year, yet, that a new parlia- sixteen relate to different localities in ment was not chosen every year, but the British islands, and three only to continued by prorogation for an inde foreign geology. The account of it is finite period,—in one instance, so early favourable. as the reign of Edward IV. for near 9. Tules of my Landlord.—This three years, and much longer by seve critique is introduced by some exceleral of his successors. This preroga- lent remarks on the general character tive of the crown was recognized in of the author's performances; and then one of the first acts of the long parlia- the Reviewer exhibits a concise anament, by which a parliament which lysis of the present work, interspersed was continued by prorogation, and did with copious and well selected extracts. not meet within three years after its What strikes us as rather singular is, lastsitting, was declared to be dissolved. that the circumstance of the author's “ We trust we have now proved,” being a Tory, which the critic thinks say the Reviewers, to the satisfac- he has discovered him to be, is assign, tion of our readers, that, 1st, The me ed as a reason for passing over some thod of continuing parliaments by pro- of his peccadilloes, with scarcely any rogation, was known from the earliest reproof. It is possible enough, that period of our parliamentary history. Reviewers, as well as Poets, may some2d, That the laws of Edward III. and times nod; for true it is, that the other princes, for annual parliaments, conclusion of this gentleman's lucudid not affect, and were not intended brations is not altogether in his usual to affect, this prerogative. 3d, That style; and something a great deal betthe statute of 16 Charles I. chap. 1. ter weighed, was to be expected op was the first act that touched or limit- the topics to which he there advertş. ed this prerogative of the crown ; and, Martin himself, in the corresponding 4th, That the triennial act of King article of the Quarterly Review, shews William was the first statute which a more kindly disposition towards his limited the duration of parliament to homely brother in the hour of his tri, a fixed and certain term of years.”
LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE:
Discovery of a rich vein of Lead Ore the porphyritic trap, but that oatmeal at Lead Hills. We are informed by Mr is capable of producing the same effects, Braid, surgeon at Lead Hills, that a few by spreading about two quarts: of it on weeks ago a very rich vein of lead ore a large dish, and putting it in an exwas discovered in the Scots Mining Com- hausted receiver, when it will, freeze nearpany's field.
The vein is fully four feet ly a pint of water in a few minutes ; wide, and filled from wall to wall with the latter being in a pot of porous pure unmixed galena, or lead glance. This earthenware. The fact itself is valuable, important and valuable discovery will in all not only to confectioners and private faprobability raise the mines of Lead Hills to milies at home, but also to residents their former flourishing state.
in the hottest climes. The absorbent Cumberland Lead Mines. We are also powder recovers all its qualities, after informed, that it is in agitation to re-open operation, if dried in the sun, or before a the lead mines of Cumberland, in Lanark- fire. shire, the property of Michael Linning, The interesting experiment, by ProEsq., which have been lately surveyed by fessor Leslie, announced in our First Num. Professor Jameson.
ber, under the above title, has been sucIn January last, Dr Macculloch read a cessfully repeated by Mr Stodart. The paper to the Geological Society of London, Stone from which he made his absorbent on the Parallel Roads of Glenroy, in which powder was taken from Salisbury Crags, the ingenious author, after a particular des near Edinburgh; this was pounded and cription of these appearances, entered into a dried; and with it, under an exhausted minute consideration of all the hypotheses receiver, a small body of water was soon which have been suggested relative to the frozen. On preparing a very low receiver, mode of their formation. He thinks the and procuring a larger surface of earth, theory which regards them as the remains the process was accelerated, a larger body of the shores of a lake, is the most proba- of water being soon converted into a cake ble; but allows the difficulties attending of ice. Experiments were made with every opinion as to their origin.
various other absorbents, of which pipeThe absolute horizontality of these clay was the best, equalising in intensity “ roads” is a point which, hitherto, has the whin-trap itself. The latter, how. been assumed from inspection with the ever, when in a state of complete decomnaked eye, not proved by actual levelling. position, will probably prove to be the But we are happy to be able to inform our
best material for the refrigerating process. readers, that within these few days, this This elegant discovery of the Professor point has been determined in the most promises to prove equally interesting to satisfactory manner. Mr Lauder Dick, the philosopher, and important in its apwith the assistance of some scientific friends, plication to the common purposes of life has ascertained, by a series of levelling's, in every climate.
Whether required as executed with the utmost care, that the a luxury in health or as a necessary in “ roads” are perfectly horizontal at every sickness, ice may at all times be readily point. He has also examined minutely procured. the corresponding appearances in the At a late meeting of the Bath Literary neighbouring valleys of Glengloy and and Philosophical Society, Dr Wilkinson, Glenspian ; and made a variety of obser. in remarking upon a paper presented by vations, serving very much to confirm Dr Wollaston, relative to the theory of the those views relative to their origin, which diamond-cutting glass, mentioned, that he he lately delivered to the Royal Society of had some micrometers, made by the late Edinburgh.
Mr Coventry, where the lines on glass had Artificial Congelation.—New theories of been so finely drawn, that the cross lines Chemistry and Geology may now be ex formed a series of squares, so minute, that pected to start up from the recent discover 25 millions are equal to no more than one ies of Professor Leslie, whose frigorific pro- square inch. cess, by the combined powers of absorption The plan of a new drag for searching and evaporation, acts with
för drowned bodies has been submitted energy and effect. He has lately ascertain- to, and approved by, the same society. It ed, that the congealing power is not con consists of an iron-rod, at least six feet fined to the absorbent earths, particularly in length, divided into three parts by