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well; but it is time that the means duce, and the means of procuring mawere supplied from the profits of their own labour, and not from the bounty Every person, male or female, young of the commnnity.

or old, should be entitled to demand In suggesting a plan for effecting work in these establishments, and to the object in question, I take it for be immediately accommodated with a granted that it is possible to employ lodging. Every family should obtain our population in objects of useful in one apartment; and all the children dustry, the contrary supposition ap- above the age of three should be repearing to me to be a mere opinion, ceived into lodging-houses fitted for without proof or likelihood to support their reception. The number of unit.

married grown-up persons to be put I propose, that in every county (or into one apartment should not exceed district of two or more counties, where three. these are small or not populous), one The rate of labour should be fixed or more large manufactories, of that by statute, at a sum which should be sort which will give the greatest em- merely sufficient to procure the necesployment to human labour, be erected saries of life; but a cheap and regular at the public expense, and that these supply of those necessaries should be be surrounded by buildings fit to ac- secured, proper market-places being commodate, on a medium, from 2000 provided, and contracts entered into to 4000 persons, besides children; with butchers, bakers, dairymen, and and that in these establishments every others, for the supply of the requisite proper measure be taken to separate provisions: these provisions the inhathe young from the old, that the for- bitants should be suffered to purchase mer may be kept from the contamina- for themselves, no farther interference tion of vicious habits, and carefully being made with their manner of living instructed.

than would be were they living in I apprehend that fifty-two for Eng- towns, and employed in the manufac land and Wales (or at the rate of one tories of individuals. In short, the for each county), and three for Scot- inhabitants should be freemen, and land, will be sufficient. These, at the not slaves—labourers for their own medium rate of 3000 persons for each, support, and not dependants on alms. willaccommodate 165,000 persons, They should live as they might at besides children- number which, home, subject only to such regulations there is reason to believe, will exceed as should be necessary to secure the the whole working poor of the king- peace of the society, and to preserve, dom, who, in ordinary times, cannot as far as possible, their own morals, otherwise be employed. But to ac and those of their children. commodate any increase of number, In order that every one might be cheap temporary buildings of wood paid in proportion to the time his could be erected, as occasion required. strength or his wishes kept him at

Without entering into details, I work, the rate of labour should be compute that the whole expense of fixed by the hour. If that of the men each of these establishments would were fixed at 1 d., of the women at not exceed £160,000, or £8,800,000 1.d., of boys and girls below a certain in all; and that temporary buildings, age at id.--each, by labouring a suffiwith the necessary furniture, to ac cient number of hours, might earn a commodate 100,000 persons more, support. The man who worked ten could be erected for £1,200,000 ; hours a-day would receive 15d. ; his making a total expense of ten millions wife might earn in proportion to the sterling.

time she could spare from her domestic Thus far might the suggestion of duties ; and the children would conMr Owen be adopted. Land in the tribute to their own maintenance. neighbourhood might be rented, and they should be paid weekly, and laid out for garden-ground, to be cul- should be at entire liberty, with their tivated, according to certain rules, by families, to quit the society when they the members of the establishment, and chose, and to seek elsewhere for more the produce sold to defray the rent profitable or more agreeable employand expenses. This system, however, ment. as I have said, would need to be limited All care should be employed in by the extent of the mart for the pro- watching over the conduct of the

young, by keeping them as much as want of the necessaries of life, for a possible under the eye of those ap- longer time than he could consume in pointed to observe and instruct them. travelling to one of those manufacA certain part of each day should be tories; and the most forlorn wretch devoted to their education; they should would instantly have the power of benot be suffered to injure themselves by coming an industrious member of that overworking ; and they should be in society, to which he might have otherdulgeal with opportunity and time for wise proved a burden and a curse. those healthy recreations which are Many of the crimes and misfortunes suitable to the age, and beneficial to of the poor might be traced to those the temper, of children. Sixpence ao intervals of idleness and discontent day will support a young person, and which the want of employment occasix hours' labour would procure it. sions and which are the times when

The regulations of the society, and the minister of blasphemy and treason the rate of labour, being fixed by po- is able to make his most numerous prositive statute, the whole manufactory selytes. But all occasion for those should be let for a term of from three periods of misery and guilt would now to five years. Directors should be ap- cease. A poor man could, with a word, pointed to watch' over the interests of procure the means of support, without the institution; to observe that the sacrificing in the least his independregulations, in regard to the rate of enee; while he earned his bread, he labour, &c. were rigidly fulfilled ; and would neither be a beggar nor a slave; to appoint teachers, and the proper he would have the power of introducofficer or officers to receive the rent ing his family into a well-regulated soand manage the disbursements. The ciety, instead of being forced, as must lessee should be the sole proprietor of often occur at present, to carry it into the manufactory in every thing else, the receptacles of misery and debauchpaying and superintending his labour- ery; his children would be trained to ers, furnishing the materials, and re habits which they never else could have ceiving the profits of the manufactures. acquired; they would see, in their The directors should be the whole parents, persons honestly earning the justices of peace of the county, who means of life, and not the sharers and should annually appoint a special com abusers of an ill-judged charity. mittee of their own number, or of But as these establishments could gentlemen in the district. The rent, not be completed at once, and, extenafter defraying the expenses, should sive as they may seem, would be inbe applied as a sinking fund.

sufficient to maintain the number of The sum required for the building poor who are at present inadequately and machinery could be raised by a employed, I propose that an effort public loan, a land-tax being imposed shall be made, worthy of a great state, to pay the interest. This land-tax to lighten in the mean time that mass would be payable by the tenant, with of misery, whichi, pressing on the body recourse on his landlord, if the latter of the people, excites a dark and broodpaid the poor's rates. Of all the taxes ing spirit of discontent, of which no that could be devised, this would be human sagacity can foresee all the the most easy; for while it would form evils. It is well known, that in order a very small per centage on the pound to begin and complete innumerable of rent, it would ultimately relieve the works of public utility, as roads, land of at least four-fifths of its present bridges, canals, harbours --nothing is burden.

wanting but those funds which it exThe raising of ten millions Sterling ceeds the power of individuals or sowould be of no injury in the present cieties to procure. There is hardly state of the money market. The ex a county in Britain, in which some pending of this great sum would at of these great works would not be once give employment to many thou- undertaken, if the means of doing sand mechanics and labourers. In the so could be commanded. Let governcourse of twelve months many of those inent, then, be authorised to procure manufactories would be erected, and by loan, a sum to the extent of five or in the course of three years the whole six millions,* and empowered to take plan could be completed. What then would be the result ?-No person * Communicated to the Committee before would need to be idle, or to suffer the Mr Vansittart's plan was made known. Vol. I.


shares in every canal, or similar work, not nearer their end than when they which should be begun in the course were first invented.” . of a short period to be specified, to an II. Mr Laing takes no notice of the amount not exceeding three-fourths of term Tory,--but of Whig, he gives the the whole expense ; and also, to ad- following as the origin :vance money to a similar extent, at the “ Argyle and Lothian had begun rate of 3 per cent. for the building of an insurrection in the Highlands," and bridges, making of new roads, &c.—a so forth. “ The expedition was termproportional part of their revenue be, ed the Whigamores' inroad, from a ing set apart to pay the interest and word employed by these western pealiquidate the debt. The benefits that sants in driving horses; and the name, would result from a measure of this transferred in the succeeding reign to kind would be unspeakably great. If the opponents of the court, is still preproper enactments were made to hasten served and cherished by the Whigs, as. the

beginning of the works, I will ven the genuine descendants of the coveture to assert, that in six months from nanting Scots.” * the passing of the law, little short of III. Bailey, in his dictionary, gives one hundred thousand persons would the following: be employed in objects of publicutility. “ Whig (Sax.) whey, butter-milk,

or very small beer,”—again, The really helpless poor could not " A Whir-first applied to those perhaps be better maintained than by in Scotland who kept their meetings moderate pecuniary allowances in the in the fields, their common food being parishes in which they live. I shall sout


- a nicknamegiven to those not, however, extend my remarks, by who were against the court interest in entering on a subject which would the times of King Charles and James merit and require a more minute ana. II., and to such as were for it in sucLysis than I could now bestow upon it. ceeding reigns."

To the plan I have ventured to sub With regard to Tory, he says, mit to your consideration, many objec A word first used by the proteste tions of great force may doubtless beants in Ireland, to signify those Irish urged. But from these, it is not in common robbers and murderers, who the least probable that any measure stood outlawed for robbery and murwhich can be proposed or adopted will der ; now a nickname to such as call be free. Perhaps we shall do well in themselves high church men, or to seeking to change a system to which the partizans of the Chevalier de St the policy of the state has given all the George. sanction of time, to limit our hopes to IV. Johnson, again, has “ Whig the obtaining of a great good by the (Sax.) 1. Whey.-2. the name of a enduring of considerable evil.

faction,”—and 'as to Tory, he supposes it to be derived from an Irish

word, signifying a savage._"One who ORIGIN OF THE TERMS, WHIG AND

For a further account of the term

“ Whigamore," see Burnet, as quoted in This year (says Hume; Hist. Johnson's Dictionary. Eng. 1680)

remarkable for being + In different parts of Scotland the the epoch of the well-known epithets term Whig is still commonly applied to a of Whig and Tory, by which, and sort of sour liquid which is obtained from sometimes without any material dif- milk or cream. The whig is taken from ference, this island has been so long days for a kirning, and is drawn off by a

cream after it has been collected six or eight divided. The court party reproached spiggot from the bottom of the cask or can. their antagonists with their affinity to It is also taken from sour-milk, when in the fanatical conventiclers in Scotland, a coagulated state, or what the Scotch call who were known by the name of lappert milk, being merely the thin watery Whigs : The country party found a substance which is separated from the curd resemblance between the courtiers and on stirring it about. The whig, both of sourpopish banditti in Ireland, to whom milk and cream, is extremely tart to the the appellation of Tory was affixed.

taste. It is not, so far as we know, used in And after this manner, these foolish any way for food by the common people. terms of reproach came into public and

Might not this term have been first applied

to the covenanters, in derision of their ausgeneral use; and even at present, seem tere manners and unpalatable opinions ? ED.

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I. 66



adheres to the ancient constitution of western men, called Cameronians, took the state, and the apostolical hierarchy arms frequently, for their religion. of the church of England-opposed to Whig was a word used in those parts a Whig.

for a kind of liquor the western HighTorbhee is the Irish appellation for landmen used to drink, the composia person who seizes by force, and with- tion of which I do not remember, but out the intervention of law, what, so became common to these people who whether really so or not, he alleges to drank it. These men took up arms be his property.

about the year 1681, being the insurV. Daniel Defoe, in No 75 of Vol. rection at Bothwell Bridge. The Duke VII. of his · Review of the British of Monmouth, then in favour here, Nation,' (1709) gives the following was sent against them by King Charles, history of these terms:

and defeated them. At his return, in“ The word Tory is Irish, and was stead of thanks for his good service, first made use of in Ireland, in the he found himself ill treated for using time of Elizabeth's wars there. It them mercifully. And Lauderdale signified a kind of robbers, who being told Charles, with an oath, that the listed in neither army, preyed in gen- Duke had been so civil to the Whigs, eral upon their country, without dis- because he was a Whig himself in his tinction of English or Irish.

heart. This made it a court word, and In the Irish massacre in 1641, in a little while all the friends and fol. you had them in great numbers, assiste lowers of the Duke began to be called ant in every thing that was bloody and Whigs ; and they, as the other party villanous, and particularly when hu did by the word Tory, took it freely manity prevailed upon some of the Pa enough to themselves. STRILA. pists to preserve Protestant relations; Edinburgh, May 1817. these were such as chose to butcher brothers and sisters, fathers and mothers, and dearest friends and nearest relations and these were called Tories.

No III. “ In England, about the year 1680, a party of men appeared among us, As soon as the marriage ceremony was who, though pretended Protestants, over, all the company shook hands yet applied themselves to the ruin and with the young couple, and wished destruction of their country. They them every kind of joy and felicity. quickly got the name of Tories.-Their The rusticity of their benisons amused real godfather, who gave them the me, and there were several of them name, was Titus Oates ; and the oce that I have never to this day been able casion, as follows: the author of this to comprehend. As for instance, happened to be present. There was a one wished them

thumpin luck and meeting of some people in the city, fat weans ;" another, “ a bien rannleupon the occasion of the discovery of bauks, and tight thack and rape o'er some attempt to stifle the evidence of their heads;" a third gave them “ the witnesses (about the popish plot), routh aumrie and a close nieve ;” and and tampering with Bedlow and Ste- the lasses wished them

as mony phen Dugdale. Among the discourse, hinny moons as the family had fingers Mr Bedlow said, he had letters from an' taes." I took notes of these at the Ireland, that there were some Tories time, and many more, and set them to be brought over hither, who were down precisely as they were spoken; privately to murder Dr Oates and the all of them have doubtless meanings said Bedlow.

attached to them, but these are per“ The doctor, whose zeal was very haps the least mystical. hot, could never hear any man talk I expected now that we should go after this against the plot, or against quietly to our dinner ; but instead of the witnesses, but he thought he was that, they again rushed rapidly away one of these Tories, and called almost towards the green, crying out, “ Now every man who opposed him in dis- for the broose! now for the broose !”– course a Tory; till at last the word “The people are unquestionably mad,” Tory became popular, and they owned said I to one that stood beside me; it, just as they do now the name 'high- “ are they really going to run their flyer.'

horses again among such ravines and As to the word Whig, it is Scots. bogs as these? they must be dissuaded The use of it began there, when the from it.” The man informed me that


the race was now to be on foot; that committee was instantly formed apart, there were always two races--the first where it was soon agreed, that all the on horseback for the bride's napkin, good runners there should, with one and the second on foot for the bride- accord, start against this stranger; for groom's spurs. I asked him how it that, “ if naebody ran but Tam the came that they had thus altered the tailor, they wad be a' shamed thegith order of things in the appropriation of er, for Tam wad never come within a the prizes, for that the spurs would be stane-clod o' him.”—“ Hout, ay+ the fittest for the riders, as the napkin that's something like yoursels, cal would for the runners. He admitted lants,” said old John; “ try him--he's this, but could adduce no reason why but a saft feckless-like chiel ; I think it was otherwise, save that “it was ye needna be sae feared for him."the gude auld gate, and it would be a “ It is a' ye ken," said another; “ de pity to alter it."

He likewise inform- nae ye see that he's lingit like a grew ed me, that it was customary for some --and he'll rin like ane ;--they say he to run on the bride's part, and some rins faster than a horse can gallop." on the bridegroom's; and that it was “ I'll try him on my Cameronian looked on as

great honour to the whenever he likes,” said Aberlosk; country, or connexions of either party, “ him that beats a Cameronian has to bear the broose away from the other. but another to beat.” Accordingly, on our way to the race In half a minute after this, seven ground, the bridegroom was recruiting athletic youths were standing in a row hard for runners on his part, and, by stripped, and panting for the race ; the time we reached the starting-place, and I could note, by the paleness of had gained the consent of five. One their faces, how anxious they were anow asked the best-man why he was bout the result-all save Aedie o' A. not recruiting in behalf of the bride. berlosk, on whom the whisky had made “Never mind,” said he; " do ye strip some impression, and who seemed onan'mak ready—I'll find them on the ly intent on making fun. At the disbride's part that will do a’ the turn." tance of 500 yards there was a man It was instantly rumoured around, placed, whom they denominated the that he had brought one all the way stoop, and who had his hat raised on from Liddesdale to carry the prize a the end of his staff, lest another might way on the bride's part, and that he be mistaken for him. Around this was the best runner on all the Border stoop they were to run, and return to side. The runners, that were all so the starting-place, making in all a heat brisk of late, were now struck dumb; of only 1000 yards, which I was told and I marked them going one by one, is the customary length of a race all eyeing the stranger with a jealous cu over that country. They took all hold riosity, and measuring him with their of one another's hands- the best-man eyes from head to foot. No, not one adjusted the line in which they stood, of them would venture to take the and then gave the word as follows, field against him!" they war only with considerable pauses between : jokin-they never intendit to rin- Once-twice-thrice, and off they they war just jaunderin wi' the bride flew like lightning, in the most beaugroom for fun.”-" Come, fling aff tiful style I ever beheld. The ground your claes, Hobby, an' let them see was rough and unequal, but there was that ye're ready for them,” said the no restraint or management practised ; best-man. The stranger obeyed-he every one set out on full speed from was a tall, slender, and handsome the very first. The Borderer took the youth, with brown hair, prominent lead, and had soon distanced them a features, and a ruddy complexion. considerable space-all save Aberlosk, “ Come, lads,” said the best man, who kept close at his side, straining

Hobby canna stand wanting his and twisting his face in a most treclaes; if nane of ye are ready to start mendous manner; at length he got with him in twa minutes, he shall rin rather before him, but it was an overthe course himsel, and then I think stretch-Aedie fell flat on his face, the folk o' this country are shamed for nor did he offer to rise, but lay still ever."-"No sae fast;” said a little on the spot, puffing and swearing a. funny-looking fellow, who instantly gainst the champion of Liddesdale. began to strip off his stockings and Hobby cleared the stoop first by ạ. shoes; no sae fast, lad; he may bout twenty yards ;-the rest turned won, but he sanna won untried.” À in such a group that I could not dis

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