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the motion to which is given by the which first solicited Mr Ruthven's atbolt, H, forming a point of union be- tention.—1st, In the new patent press tween the levers, I I. When their the types remain stationary. 2d, The ends are depressed by means of the platen is the size of the whole sheet. crank, EGF, which is moved by the 3d, Time is saved by its being brought handle, A, communicating to the over from the side. 4th, There is crank, BC, and the connecting rod, nearly half an inch between the tymD, the platen or upper surface, N, is pans and the platen while passing over forcibly drawn down upon the types. the types, by which all blurring is a

To maintain the relative position of voided. 5th, Any degree of pressure the several levers, the balance-weight, (from an ounce to twenty tons) may S, is applied. TTT is the frame-work be correctly and uniformly given at supporting the whole of the machinery. pleasure. 6th, The platen being

Such is as minute an account of Mr drawn down by the two ends, and the Ruthven's printing press as is neces resistance sustained against the under sary for general information. It is surface of the tablet, affords the most here proper to state some of the points complete and uniform security to all of superiority which it has, very de- the parts; while, contrary to every cidedly, over all other contrivances of other example known to us of the apthe same kind. These may be very plication of pressure, the frame is briefly detailed, as we have already wholly independent of, and unaffected pointed out the most glaring defects by, the force employed. 7th, As com

plete parallelism between the two sur Nothing can be more conducive to faces (viz. of the platen and coffin) is the promotion of the arts than publicimaintained by means of the two screws, ty, which may be greatly accelerated 0 0, so a small piece of work may be through the medium of your publicadone at either end without a support- tion, by the admission of discussions ing block at the opposite extremity. on the works of ancient and modern 8th, This press being entirely unat- artists, explanations of their modes of tached, requires no levelling or stay- representation, or descriptions of the ing; and one for demy royal requires implements or apparatus used by them a space of only forty-two inches square. for that purpose. To those desirous 9th, The motions of the pressmen, of information, you may thus furnish though less severe, are sufficiently si- facilities of acquiring it; and to those milar to enable him, in the course of willing to communicate the result of one or two hours, to work with equal their experience, a reputable and easy facility as at the common press. 10th, channel to publicity. To the inexThe principles above described are e- perienced, nothing is more discourage qually applicable to presses of all sizes. ing than the difficulty with which Fig. 3. represents one of the size of a practical information is to be obtained, cubic foot, which is capable of printing with regard to the composition or off an octavo page with greater celerity management of the substances or imthan a larger press, and may be work- plements to be employed in the arts ed on a common table without being in general. With this view, and fixed. The advantages of foolscap- trusting to a coincidence of opinion on presses of this construction will be your part, I beg leave to request the found very important.

insertion of the following article on An ingenious application of the prin- LITHOGRAPHY, or the art of engravciples of this press has been made to ing on stone, which I hope may be copying manuscripts; for that pur- the means of calling forth other compose (although it may with perfect ef- munications, either on the practice or fect be done

with the small printing criticism of the fine arts. presses) Mr Ruthven has contrived the This art has been long and succes press represented in fig. 4. which is fully practised on the Continent, and made without the printing apparatus, we believe Germany has the honour and having, instead of the clutches, of its invention. It was introduced permanent pillars to connect the upper into this country by a person of the surface with the levers. The paral- name of Andrè about fifteen years lelism of the two surfaces is regulated ago, who attempted the publication of by two graduated scales and indices at a periodical work, containing specieach end, as may be seen in the an mens of it by some of the most emi. nexed figure.

nent artists in London, but which has We are persuaded, that when, in been discontinued. It was also used addition to the excellencies already in the Quarter-Master General's office, described, the extreme simplicity of for the purpose of printing military the new patent press, and its little lia- plans, &c. In this country, however, bility to derangement, are taken into it has never reached that state of perconsideration, it will in a short time fection to which it has arrived on the supersede every other printing ma- Continent, as may be seen by a comchinery that has hitherto been in use. parison of the works of Spix on cra

M. niology (in the college library), Al

bert Durer's Missal, and the Bavarian Flora ; all of which are printed at

Munich, and also the Flora Monacen. MR EDITOR,

sis, and the last number of the JourThe increasing taste for the fine nal des Scavans; and these also furarts in this great literary capital, and nish a proof of what may yet be done the pretty eager attention now paid to in the detail of this extraordinary inthem by the public in general, inspire vention. a hope that


will allot a place in The great advantages which this your Magazine for so interesting a de- art possesses over every other kind of partment of polite and useful know- engraving, are, first, that any person ledge.

who can draw, can also execute the




engraving with the same ease with gum water and lamp black, and after which he uses the pencil on paper; it is dry, the design is drawn with the and, secondly, the circumstance of his point of an etching needle, in the same being enabled to have any number of way as on copper, cutting through the copies taken at less than half the ex- covering of gum and black, till the pense of ordinary copperplate print- surface of the stone is reached, and ing.

then rubbing the solution into the Nothing equal, it is true, to the lines or scratches. This done, it must tone, or minute elegance of the best be allowed to dry for the above menline engraving can be produced, but tioned time, and then soaked as before an inspection of the works already in water, when the gum will dissolve, mentioned, will show how admirably leaving the lines only; upon which it is adapted to represent objects of the printing ink is applied, as before picturesque description, natural his- explained, and the impression taken. tory, outlines, anatomical subjects, Should this plan find a place in the plans, &c. It is also applicable to the Magazine, it is proposed to give, in purpose of multiplying writings, as some of your subsequent numbers, a the subject can be written on the pre- short account of the history of the dispared paper, afterwards transferred to covery, and of the methods used in the stone, and then printed without common etching upon copper, together delay, at no further expense than the with some receipts for the preparation printing. In this way all the proclaw of the grounds, &c. mations of the state at Munich are made public.

Directions.-A slate of white lias (Bath stone), about one inch thick,

1745. must be made perfectly level, and polished with very fine sand. The

( Communicated by Mary LADY subject is then drawn on the stone

CLERK to the Publisher.) with a common pen, and a prepared SIR, liquid of the consistence of common ACCORDING to your request this mornink, and with the same facility; after ing, I send you some account of the this the stone is washed over with di- particulars that attended my birth,luted nitric acid, which slightly cor which I do with infinite pleasure, as rodes that part of the stone only which it reflects great honour on the Highhas not been drawn on with the pen. landers (to whom I always feel the The liquid is made with gum lac, dis- greatest gratitude), that at the time solved in ley of pure soda, with a little when their hearts were set on plunder, soap, and coloured with lamp black. the fear of hurting a sick lady and The liquid upon the stone, after the child instantly stopped their intentions. design is drawn, must be allowed to This incident occurred November dry for about four days, and then 15, 1745. My father, Mr D'Acre, soaked in water till perfectly saturated; then an officer in his Majesty's militia, in this state (with the water on the was a prisoner in the castle of Carlisle, surface), a common printing ball is at that time in the hands of Prince dabbed over it as in type printing. Charles. My mother (daughter of Sir This ink adheres to such parts as have George le Fleming, Bart. bishop of been drawn upon, the other parts of Carlisle) was living at Rose-Castle, six the stone being wet, repel the printing miles from Carlisle, where she was deink; the impression is then taken, by livered of me. She had given orders passing it through a press with a single that I should immediately be privately cylinder. When the print is wished baptized by the bishop's chaplain (his to resemble a chalk drawing, the stone lordship not being at home), by the is left rather rough, by using a coarser name of Rosemary D'Acre. At that sand to polish it; and instead of the moment a company of Highlanders ink and pen being used, a crayon made appeared, headed by a Captain Macof the same materials (only with a donald ; who, having heard there was larger quantity of the lamp black) is much plate and valuables in the castle, applied in the same manner as a pencil. came to plunder it. Upon the apThere is another method by which it proach of the Highlanders, an old may be done, namely, by covering the gray-headed servant ran out, and enstone over with a thin mixture of treated Captain Macdonald not to proVOL. I.


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ceed, as any noise or alarm might oca ON THE ORIGIN OF HOSPITALS FOR casion the death of both lady and child. The captain inquired when the lady had been confined ? - Within The Greeks had no name to express this hour," the servant answered: what we understand by the word hosCaptain Macdonald stopped. The ser- pital. Noooxwoy has a different meanvant added, “ They are just going to ing in the classical Greek writers, and christen the infant.”—Macdonald, tak- is first used, as we now translate it, by ing off his cockade, said, “Let her be St Jerome and St Isidore. At Athens, christened with this cockade in her provision was made in the prytaneum cap; it will be her protection now, for the maintenance of those who had and after, if any of our stragglers been severely wounded in war, as well should come this way: We will await as for that of their wives and children; the ceremony in silence;":—which they but therė was no asylum for even accordingly did, and then went into these persons in case of sickness. Far the coach-yard, and were regaled with less was any such accommodation withbeef, cheese, ale, &c. They then went in the reach of the poor citizens, or off, without the smallest disturbance. the mercenaries who always formed a

My white cockade was safely pre- large proportion of the Athenian force. served, and shewn to me from time to At Lacedemon, where, according to time, always reminding me to respect the rule of Lycurgus, all the citizens the Scotch, and the Highlanders in eat in common, there was nevertheless particular.-I think I have obeyed the no establishment which bore any reinjunction, by spending my life in semblance to our hospitals. The HeScotland, and also by hoping at last to lots were abandoned in case of sicke die there.

ness; and a similar fate attended even RoseMARY CLERK. the Ephori themselves, if they happen

ed to have no private fortune. This P. S. If the above anecdote can be neglect of the Athenian and Spartan of any interest to you or the public, it legislatures was imitated by the other is very much at your service. I have Grecian states. In the oath of Hippomentioned all the names of the persons crates, that illustrious physician swears, concerned, which you may retain or « that he will all his life visit the sick leave out, as you think fit.

and give them his advice gratis.” At Miss Law, Prince's Street, hearing that time the medical practitioners of the above anecdote, sent me a pre were both surgeons and apothecaries, sent of the Prince's picture, and that so it would appear that Hippocrates of his lady, the Princess Stollberg. furnished the sick in his neighbourEdinburgh, April 21st, 1817. hood with medicines without expect

ing any reward.

Among the Romans, in like manner,

we should seek in vain for any estabINSCRIPTION IN THE CHURCII OF lishments intended to alleviate the

sufferings of the indigent sick. No

thing of the sort is mentioned among The following inscription was lately the pious institutions of Numa ; and discovered when digging in the church Servius, who distributed the people inof St Hilary, in the island of Jersey. to classes, never thought of the numeIf we except one barbarism, and one rous classes of poor, sick, and infirm. strong license, the epitaph may bear a During the time of the republic there comparison with most of the inscrip- were frequent distributions of land, tions in the Latin Anthology.

and divisions of the spoils taken from

the enemies of the state, which ameEnysea de stirpe meum Cornubia partum liorated in some degree the lot of those Vindicat. Hillarius jam tenet ossa sacer. who were called the capite censi, bePer Sporades Gallosque pium comitata ma

cause they could offer nothing to the ritum, Deferor huc: visa est sors mihi nulla gravis. lour and their life.

service of their country but their va.

Yet all these Viximus unanimes, et prima prole beati ; In mundum duplici morte secunda venit.

largesses and gratifications were disPignora dividimus : comitatur me morien. tributed among those who enjoyed

good health, and no establishments Mortua ; solatur filia prima patrem. for the sick were erected either under




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the republic or under the emperors. a seigneurial hospital destined for These last indeed erected baths and their reception. But it is not till the thermæ for the use of the poor, and establishment of Christianity that we also made public distributions of food; can find any traces of those instituand in these respects their example tions, which are now so common in was followed by the wealthy patri- Christendom, for the accommodation cians, who affected to give every day of the infirm and the unfortunate. In to their poor clients what went by the spite of all the persecutions to which name of the sportula. We see by the the first Christians were exposed, we descriptions of Juvenal, that the poor find, that about the year 258, Lauren. and infirm dependants of these nobles tius, chief of the deacons, assembled a had no other resource to look to; for, great number of poor and sick, who according to him, the most acute dis were supported by the alms of the tempers could not prevent them drag- church. But it was in the year 380 ging their steps to the portico, and that the first regular hospital was soliciting their share in the sportula. built. St Jerome informs us, that “ Quid macies ægri veteris quem tempore Fabiola, a Roman matron of distinlongo

guished piety, founded, for the first Torret quarta dies olimque domestica febris, time, a nosocomium, that is, as he

himself explains it,

house in the It is easy to see that no public a country for the reception of those unsylum was open for their reception. happy sick and infirm persons who Both Greeks and Romans, then the were before scattered among the places two most polished nations of antiqui- of public resort,—and for the purpose ty, consecrated no retreats for the un of furnishing them in a regular manfortunate. This was most probably ner with nourishment, and those methe consequence of their constitutions dicines of which they might stand in and forms of government. Divided at need.” This establishment was situall times into freemen and slaves, the ated at some distance from the city, legislatures of these two nations never and in a healthy part of the country. bestowed much attention on the second When Constantine transferred the of these great bodies of men--but al- seat of the empire to Byzantium, he ways regarded them as of a different caused an hospitium to be erected for race, and, as it were, the dregs of hu- the use of those strangers and pilmanity. A slave dangerously ill was grims who had by his time begun to left entirely to the care of his fellows visit the East from motives of religion. in servitude; in many instances his This edifice was constructed after the master would not even be at the ex model of the house which Hircanus pense of burying his corpse, and allow- had built at Jerusalem, about 150 ed it to be thrown out to the vultures. years before the commencement of our The Esquiline Mount, whitened, ac That prince sought, by the escording to Horace, by the great num tablishment to which I allude, to puriber of bones left there in heaps by fy himself, in the eyes of the Jews, these birds of prey, is a sufficient proof from the stain which he had contracthow little care was taken of the fune- ed by the sacrilegious rifling of the rals of the poor. These unhappy men, tomb of David. The riches which he . of whom there was always a great had procured in that impious manner, number even in the best days of Athens would, he flattered himself, be less and Rome, had then no other resource unfavourably regarded, if he should in their calamities but private charity, share them with the poor pilgrims, the strength of their constitutions, or whom zeal or curiosity drew in multithe crisis of nature.

tudes to the capital of Judea. This, The temple of Esculapius, in the according to Isidore, is the origin of island of the Tiber, was indeed a sort the name Exy dozlov, i. e. hospital for of hospital, although far from corres strangers, which was given to this ponding exactly to what we call by building. In the year of our Lord that name; at least, the law of the 550, the Emperor Justinian constructEmperor Claudius, which declares that ed, at Jerusalem, the celebrated hosslaves abandoned by their masters in pital of St John, which was the cradle the island of Esculapius, should be held of the military order of the knights of free in case of their recovery, seems to Rhodes and 'Malta. His successors intimate that there was in that place imitated his example with so much

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