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Sect. II.

Quotations produced by the Bishop which militate against

his own avowed principles.

fl. Quotations concerning the source of Christian Graces, from Igk te

TIUS and CLEMENT of Rome. § 2. On the divine source of our virtue, from ORIGEN and CYRIL of Jerusalem. § 3. The same, from Gregory of Nazianzum. § 4. That nobody can begin any thing that is good without the Lord, from AMBROSE. $ 5. That man can do no good work without God, from JEROME. $ 6,7. That God is the efficient cause of works and graces, from Augus


8. On Baptism, from JUSTIN MARTYR. $ 9. On Regeneration, from

IRENÆUS. § 10, 11, On Predestination to Life, from CLEMENT of Alexandria.

§ 12. On the same, from JEROME, $ 13. Remarks on a passage

in JEROME about God willing us to will. § 14. On Perseverance, from AMBROSE; and § 15. From AUGUSTINE. $ 16, 17. On Co-operation, from AUGUSTINE ; and $ 18. From CHRT

SOSTOM. $ 19. On human weakness, from CHRYSOSTOM.

§ 1. I shall begin with those quotations which relate to the source of Christian graces, including faith. The reader will recollect what are the Bishop's avowed sentiments concerning faith, as produced in a former part of this volume. * The following quotation is from IGNATIUS, a contemporary of the apostles: 6" Of all which, nothing is hidden from you, “if you have faith, perfectly towards Jesus Christ, and charity, which are the beginning

* Chap. 11. Sect. ïïi.

6 and end of life. Faith is the beginning, charity • the end. These two formed into one, are of · God.* But all other things which relate to a holy life are consequences of these things.

The tree is made manifest by its fruit: so ' those who profess themselves Christians shall • be discerned by their actions.” 't Thus, also CLEMENT of Rome, a contemporary of the apostles': ““ For what was our father Abraham . blessed? Was it not because through faith ' he wrought righteousness and truth? Isaac,

knowing with confidence what was to come, cheerfully submitted to be a sacrifice. Jacob, ' with humility, departed out of his own country, flying from his brother, and went to

Laban, and served him, and the sceptre of the 'twelve tribes of Israel was given to him.

They were therefore all glorified and magnified, s not for their own sake, or for their works, the . righteousness which they had wrought, but

through his will. I-What then shall we do, • brethren? Shall we cease from good works, 6 and lay aside charity? God forbid that this • should take place in us; but let us hasten « with cheerfulness and alacrity to perform every good work." ' || Here, these apostolic

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δε δυο εν ενοτητι γέννoμνα


+ Refut. p. 287. Coteler. Vol. ii. p. 15.
1 ου δι' αυτων-αλλα δια του θεληματος αυτου.

Refut. p. 289.

Fathers expressly ascribe Christian graces, especially faith and charity, to God and his will as their source exclusively.

§ 2. On the divine source of our virtue ORIGEN observes : 6" Thé virtue of a rational

creature is mixed, arising from his own freewill, and the Divine Power conspiring with him who chooses that which is good. But “there is need of our own free-will, and of • divine co-operation, which does not depend upon

our will, not only to become good and virtuous, but also after we become so, that we may

persevere in virtue ; since even a person who * is made perfect will fall away, if he be elated with his virtue, and ascribe the whole to himself, not referring the due glory to Him who i contributes by far the greater share, both in * the acquisition of virtue, and in the perseve

rance in it.” ** That no virtue can be exercised without our free-will, is confessed on both sides; but here a kind of divine operation is asserted, “ which does not depend upon our will.” Thus also CYRIL of Jerusalem: 6- That ' the soul of every one of you may be found ' not having spot or wrinkle, or any such thing.' *I do not say before you receive grace (for how 'could that be, you who are called for the

* Refut. p. 339.

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* remission of sins) but that after grace is given,' your conscience, being found without condem-'

nation, may concur with grace.?* Here the precedence of the concurrence, as the immediate source of our holiness, is evidently ascribed to

Nor is there any thing in the connexion tending to shew, that Cyril meant by the term " grace" objective favours exclusively.

divine grace.

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§ 3. GREGORY of Nazianzum: 5" When you hear, “It is not of him that willeth, nor • of him that runneth, but of God that sheweth mercy,' I advise you to suppose the same thing. For because there are some so proud

of their virtue, as to attribute every thing to • themselves, and nothing to Him who made them • and gave them wisdom, and is the author of good, this expression teaches them that a right will stands in need of assistance from

God; or rather, the very desire of what is right • is something divine, and the gift of the mercy

of God. For we have need both of power over ourselves, and of salvation from God. · Therefore, says he, It is not of him that 4 willeth, that is, it is not of him: only that "willeth, nor of him only that runneth, but of

God that sheweth mercy. Since the will itself

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is from God, he with reason attributes every * thing to God.I know, says he, that the race • is not to the swift, nor the battle to the

strồng; nor is the victory to those who fight, 'nor the harbour to those who sail well; but . it is of God both to work the victory, and to

preserve the vessel · into port. In this passage, GREGORY expressly ascribes to God, as its proper source, “ the very desire of what is right;" and as “ the will itself is from God,” so

every thing " that is good is attributed to him

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“ with reason.

§ 4. AMBROSE, one of the most judicious and self-consistent of the Fathers, observes, • “ God says to Moses, I will have mercy on ' whom I will have mercy, and I will have com“passion on whom I will have compassion. So • then it is not of him that willeth, nor of him

that runneth, but of God that sheweth mercy.' * Perhaps you may say, we ought then neither "to will, nor to run: but God is wont to desert 'those who are negligent; therefore this is not

his meaning. But let us consider what he does mean: Perseverance is not of the man

who willeth, or of him who runneth ; for it is * not in the power of man: but it is of God, who pitieth, that you may be able to complete

* Refut. p. 371.

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