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instruments to accomplish his design, and effectually dispose the heart to comply with the exhortations. And a revelation of the certainty of such an event would be a powerful motive to any heart subject to his holy influence, for a more vigorous exertion in promoting its accomplishment. This was eminently the case with his holy apostles and evangelists. In proportion as they were certain respecting God's fixed purpose to set up a spiritual kingdom among men, or to advance any of the human race to eternal glory, the more ardent was their zeal, and the more unwearied were their endea


$ 24. In the course of this Examination it has been if I mistake not, abundantly proved : 1. That the faculty of Will, whether in God or a creature, is not a radical power, but only a mea dium of power: 2. That it is not a self-determining faculty, but is determined by motives: 3. That every motive, which determines the free agent to act, choose, or prefer, consists of two essential parts, viz. the object to be chosen or rejected, and the principle : 4. That the radical principles which determine the character or moral quality of actions, as good or bad, are two, and can be two only, primarily considered, viz. the negative cause of defectibility, which cannot belong to God, and the positive cause

of indefectibility, which belongs to him essentially : 5. That the influence of the indefectible principle is at the sovereign disposal of God, which influence is no more claimable by the creature than


other favour which is in fact not granted him : 6. That when God is pleased, in goodness and wisdom, to grant this influence to man's heart, that renewal of the heart and mind takes place which constitutes a gracious principle: It follows, 7thly, that as the principle constitutes the whole of the difference in both motives, (the objective part being common to both,) the successful effect must be as the principle, which is the fruit of divine gracious operation.

§ 25. Known unto God are all his own operations, all principles produced by them, all negative principles counteracted, all objective means afforded to men, and where


motive will prove efficient, as well as where


inefficient. These are not conjectural opinions, but demonstrable verities. The holy scriptures indeed furnish the data, without which no human ingenuity or. power of reasoning could avail us; but with their aid, throwing light on the character of God and the real state of mankind, the conclusions fairly drawn are no less certain than those of mathematical science. And from the whole of this part of the subject, we may

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draw these general inferences: first, that the Calvinistic doctrine of Election is perfectly consistent with exhortations, invitations, cautions, warnings, threatenings, &c. : secondly, that gracious influence, which is at the sovereign disposal of divine goodness and wisdom, absolutely secures the event, eternal glory, notwithstanding all possible freedom of the agent; thirdly, that personal election originates, not in the free will of man, but in the good and wise pleasure of God," that no flesh might glory in his presence:” fourthly, that as personal election does injury to no one, the character of God therein appears infinitely amiable and merciful: fifthly, that the opposers of personal and certain election, can obtain no conceivable advantage by any scheme of their own, either as it relates to the character of God or the happiness of


§ 26. Suppose, for argument' șake, that there were no such thing as personal eleetion; what could be gained by the supposition ? Would no men continue wicked, or would more of mankind attain happiness ? Both parties allow that “ wide is the gate and broad is the way that leadeth to destruction,” and that “

many are they that go in thereat ;" and, on the other hand, that in fact, “ straight is the gate and narrow is the way that leadeth unto life, and

few there be that find it.” On any scheme of thought whatever, the fact is the same. The question then returns to this, what scheme gives most advantage in dealing with men, as to their immortal concerns, and reflects most honour on the character of God?-or, which amounts to the same thing, what do the sacred oracles teach us on the subject? No one is at liberty to interpret one part at the expense of another : and the appeal is now made to every competent reader, whether Bishop TOMLINE's scheme does not set up one train of thought contained in the scripture at the expense of another equally important; and whether the doctrine of election, ás previously explained, be not consistent with scripture, consistent with itself, and consistent with the Articles of the Established church.

$ 27. His Lordship supposes, that the Predestination taught in the seventeenth Article, is God's gracious purpose to make a conditional offer of salvation to men. 66. Those whom God hath chosen in Christ," that is, those to whom God

decreed to make known the gospel of Christ.'co

They be called according to God's purpose, by his Spirit working in due season: they through grace obey the calling : they be justified freely: they be made the sons of God by adoption: they be made like the image of his only-begot'ten Son Jesus Christ: they walk religiously in



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good works; and at length by God's mercy they attain to everlasting felicity,” that is, they on their part conform to the conditions of the gospel covenant by obeying the calling, and walking religiously in good works, under the influence and assistance of the Holy 'Spirit; and, as a reward, they are justified s in this world, are made sons of God, by adoption, are made like the image of Christ, ' and at length attain everlasting felicity. Predestination to life therefore is not an absolute . decree of eternal happiness to certain indivi'duals, but a gracious purpose of God, to make a conditional offer of salvation to men, through

the merits of Christ.”* Surely never was there an Article so inflexibly opposite to the opinion of its expositor! “ Those whom God hath chosen in Christ;" that is, according to his Lordship 'those to whom God decreed to ' make known the gospel of Christ. If this be the true exposition, the compilers must mean, that those to whom God decreed to make known the gospel of Christ,' or, to make a conditional offer of salvation, obey the calling," are “justified freely,” are “ made the sons of God by adoption,” are “made like the image of Jesus Christ;" that “ they walk religiously in good works, and at length by God's mercy,

* Refut. p. 266.

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