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human will, as well as the divine, is the medium of active power, of which God is the proper source, without whose voluntary energy, there is no conceivable cause of its continuance. A self-determining human will, therefore, is a complete absurdity. But what does actually determine or move it to action? In a word, what is it beside the exhortation that constitutes the motive? We have proved it cannot be the will itself; it must, therefore, be some radical principle of prior consideration. The radical source, of all active power, or agency, is God; and this power, as flowing from him, is good, since nothing but good can possibly proceed from infinite goodness. Nevertheless, this power in a creature, as well as the will, stands related to defectibility, and the negative cause of that defectibility, as essential to a limited and dependent being; and the same active power may stand related to the indefectibility of God, by participation, in such a manner and degree, that the tendency of defectibility may
may be counteracted. Here, then, we see that the human will, which is a medium of
power itself which directs it, stand related to two principles,-the cause of defectibility, and the cause of indefectibility; but not in the same respect. The cause of the former, is inseparable from our limited nature; the cause of the latter, is in God, and at his disposal, not our own,-for to sup
pose a dependent nature to be essentially trelated to the cause of indefectibility, is the same as to say, that indefectibility is essentially related to a defectible being, which is incompatible
§ 20. Hence we perceive, that the human will may be the medium of active
producing good or evil, according as it stands related to either of the fore-mentioned principles. While under the influence of God, the cause of indefectibility, the effect must be good; but while under the influence of the cause of defectibility, which is a negative principle, the effect will be evil,-each in a moral sense. The former principle is from God, the latter from ourselves. These are essential constituent parts of motive, in a good or bad choice respectively. The other constituent part of a motive, is the objective consideration that solicits the will through the medium of the understanding. If objective considerations constituted the whole of a motive, every will would be moved alike; and indeed endless absurd consequences would follow: and, on the other hand, if the principle constituted the whole of a motive, all exhor* tations,' persuasions, and solicitations of the will, the heart, or active power, through the medium of the understanding, would be superfluous; which is contrary to universal experi
ence, acknowledged propriety, and the nature of things.
$ 21. The way is now prepared to meet the objections of his Lordship fairly and directly. * Exhortations' to diligence, &c., constitute an essential part of motive; for they point out considerations which solicit the will, and which, according to their nature, have a tendency to move it: but these considerations actually move the will, as to compliance or non-compliance, good or evil, according to the nature of the principle, which is the other essential part of the motive. For the exhortation is addressed alike to those who are under the influence of each of those essential principles; consequently, if we take away what is common to both, the remainder of the motive in each case will be the principle. If the principle be good, the exhortation to obedience will be successful in proportion; but if the principle be evil, that is, either morally evil or negatively defective, it will not be successful. Without motives, of which objective considerations addressed to the free agent, constitute an essential part, the will is not actually moved to choose either good or evil; and where there is no choice of good, there can be no active compliance or obedience. Where there is no compliance with and obedience to the will of God, there can be no arrival
at that state of happiness which is the end of obedience. He, therefore, who would be finally blessed, must seek it by obedience to the will of God. Consequently, exhortation is one event in the series of divine decrees, without which the last, eternal happiness, cannot be rationally expected.
§ 22. The Bishop observes, in a note, that the Apostle could not call upon the Christian converts to make an infallible decree sure.'* But why could he not? Even supposing that St. Peter did not mean “ their calling and Election sure” in their own apprehension, or to the satisfaction of their own mind; might not the holy diligence' be a part of the infallible decree, and the apostle's exhortation' an essential part of the prevailing motive to it? To imagine that the certainty or infallibility of an event, rejects those very means which are appointed to render that event certain or infallible, is of all conceits the most unreasonable. Suppose it were apprehended by the father of a young man of family and genius in the established church, that God had revealed to him his having infallibly decreed' that his son should be advanced to an archiepiscopal see, through the medium of piety, learning, and
* Refut. p. 205.
worthy conduct; would there be any inconsistency, rather would there not be the utmost propriety and good reason, in the father exhorting the son to piety, learning, and worthy conduct, as things inseparably connected with the ultimate event so much valued; would not his neglect, under the pretence of an infallible decree, be regarded as highly censurable!
§ 23. Yet, it may be urged, is it not possible that one person may neglect his duty, or that another may not comply with reasonable motives; what then becomes of a revealed infallible decree? This objection is very weak, and the
proper answer to it is plain. If the former finally neglect his duty, or the latter through non-compliance finally fail of attaining the end; the event would prove that the supposed revelation was not from God, who is incapable of declaring a future event to be certain, which proves in fact to be the contrảry. But if the event corresponded with the supposed revelation, it is clear that the duty of the one, and the compliance of the other, were included.' God is hever at a loss to accomplish his purposes, as all hearts are in his hand, and at his disposal. If be determine to preserve his church against the gates of hell, to call into his fold the fullness of the Gentiles, or to bring in the scattered seed of Abraham, he can prepare and animate suitable