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righteousness," but also of his own fallen nature is “ inclined to evil." He has a carnal mind, and “the carnal mind is enmity with God.” He is not inclined to deny himself, to take up his cross and follow Christ, to pluck out the right eye, and cut off the right hand. The lust of the flesh, the lust of the eye, and the pride of life, reign over him, But shall the want of inclination, a good will, and a ready mind in man, render the sacrifice of Christ of no effect? God forbid. As a sovereign he had a design in laying such a wonderful and glorious foundation, which no blindness, enmity, pride, or wickedness of mankind should frustrate. The sacrifice of Christ shall become the foundation of triumphant grace. For the sake of it, the Redeemer “shall see his seed, and the pleasure of the Lord shall prosper in his hands.” A goodly multitude shall be “made willing in the day of his power.” He will slay their enmity by spiritually uniting them to himself, and at the same time constitute them righteous. They shall submit themselves before him, deny themselves, take up
cross, and follow him. He puts his 'fear in their hearts, draws them with the cords of love, and it is “given to them, on the behalf of Christ, not only to believe on him, but also to suffer for his sake."
§ 24. Having endeavoured to explain and illustrate what I presumed to call “ the harmonizing principle,” in reference to the great topic of redemption, I will now advert to his Lordship's declarations on the subject.
It is asserted, in the first place, that the doctrine of 'universal redemption -- was directly opposed ! by Calvin.' His Lordship I hope will excuse me for asserting, in return, that this eminent reformer did not directly oppose the doctrine of universal redemption, in the sense now explained, as far as I have been able to collect by a frequent search into his voluminous writings. He admitted a universal price of redemption ; but he had reasons innumerable against the notion of an actual redemption of all men from sin and misery. He maintained that the remedy was universal, and that it was universally proposed to mankind, according to God's rectoral design ; but not that it was the sovereign design of God by it to make mankind universally and indiscriminately submissive, and compliant with the terms on which the blessings resulting from it were to be enjoyed. Had this been his design, not one of the human race could perish; for “who hath resisted his will?” If God were to design this, and to exert his power on the heart accordingly, who could prevent him? What Calvin's
ill digested reprobating decree implied indirectly, is another consideration.
§ 25. Calvin, however, certainly did ' oppose' his Lordship’s notion of universal redemption,--which we now proceed to examine. The explanatory clauses, indicating what was intended by the phrase “ universal redemption,” are these : 'namely, that the benefits of Christ's
passion extend to the whole human race ; or, « that
every man is enabled to attain salvation through the merits of Christ.' If by the benefits' be meant some benefits, what Calvinist, ancient or modern, ever denied it?. But if by the benefits' be meant all the benefits of Christ's passion, surely his Lordship will not deliberately maintain it, as it is directly op
posed,' by obvious innumerable facts. For instance, a clean heart, a right spirit, justification, adoption, divine love shed abroad in the heart, being kept by divine power through faith unto salvation, an introduction to the heavenly Jerusalem, a glorious resurrection, and eternal life, all these are benefits of Christ's passion; but are they extended to the whole • human race ?' If it be said that they are extended conditionally, proposed objectively, or in such a manner that all may obtain them, were it not for their own fault; this I have already admitted. But such is the present state
of mankind, that were there no absolute, as well as conditional benefits, it is possible, that not one human being would in fact be finally saved. With his Lordship's notion of free will as going before, and turning the balance in every instance, while human nature is inclined to evil,” even in his own sense of this phrase, where lies the probability, much less the 'certainty, of the final salvation of any individual ? It is of no use to contend, that God will assist mankind if they will faithfully employ the powers and talents with which they are entrusted, without producing the evidence of probability, at least, that they will do this. But was it worthy of divine wisdom to prepare a kingdom of eternal glory on the precarious basis of free will exclusively,----on a bare peradventure that some would surmount their native depravity, and thus prepare the way for obtaining efficacious grace? That mankind ought to improve their powers and means, is one thing; but that any will do so, without the internal, efficacious grace of Christ going * before to give them a good will,' is quite another.
$ 26. It is again included in his Lordship’s notion of universal redemption, that every
man'is enabled to attain salvation through the • merits of Christ. What is the precise import
of the word ' enabled in this connexion? If it be, that the merits of Christ not only constitute an adequate provision, but also that they are placed within the attainment of every man for his salvation, if it be not his own fault, this is not denied by modern Calvinists, but fully. admitted. This, however, is a very
a unusual acceptation of the term ; nor in fact, does the use of it in this, appear more appropriate than in the following connexions: a man is 'enabled' to feed himself and grow healthy, because he has an invitation to an entertainment, and free access, if he please: or, a man is "enabled' to paint a good likeness, because he is presented with all the requisite materials. If, however, the meaning be, that every man is endowed with a suitable disposition, or the requisite ability in point of inclination to good, where is the evidence for such an assumption? If every one be thus well inclined, how comes it to pass that every one does not attain the salvation set before him? Doubtless 'every man' has physical powers, adequate to the attainment, and these he has from the bounty of the Creator: but is 'every man' so enabled' as to have “ the thoughts and desires of his heart cleansed by the inspiration of the Holy Spirit?" Or is there any sufficient evidence to prove, that any man, since the beginning of time, attained salvation without it? Did ever any man