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emment of the United States, with a view to the amicable adjustment of all questions between the two governments, and to avert the calamities of war, would voluntarily evacuate it. There was reason at one time to believe that such would be the course pursued by the Government of the United States; and under that impression, my Government has refrained from making any demand for the surrender of the fort.

"But the Confederate States can no longer delay assuming actual possession of a fortification commanding the entrance of one of their harbors, and necessary to its defence and security.

"I am ordered by the Government of the Confederate States to demand the evacuation of Fort Sumter. My aids, Colonel Chesnut and Captain Lee, are authoized to make such demand of you. All proper facilities will be afforded for the removal of yourself and command, together with company arms and property, and all private property, to any post in the United States which you may elect. The flag which you have upheld so long and with so much fortitude, under the most trying circumstances, may be saluted by you on taking it down.

"Colonel Chesnut and Captain Lee will, for a reasonable time, await your answer.

"I am, sir, very respectfully,

"Your obedient servant,

"G. T. Beauregard, "Brigadier-General Commanding.

"Major Robert Anderson, commanding at Fort Sumter, Charleston Harbor, S. C."

"Headquarters, Fort Sumter, S. C, ) April 11, 1881. J

"General: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication demanding the evacuation of this fort; and to say in reply thereto, that it is a demand with which I regret that my sense of honor and of my obligations to my Government prevent my compliance.

"Thanking you for the fair, manly, and courteous terms proposed, and for the high compliment paid me,

"I am, General, very respectfully,
"Your obedient servant,

"robert Anderson,
"Major U. S. Army, Commanding.

"To Brigadier-General G. T. Beauregard, commanding Provisional Army, C. S. A."

"montgomery, April 11. "Gen. Beauregard, Charleston:

"We do not desire needlessly to bombard Fort Sumter, if Major Anderson will state the time at which, as indicated by him, he will evacuate, and agree that, in the mean time, he will not use his guns against us, unless ours should be employed against Fort Sumter. You are thus to avoid the effusion of blood. If this or its equivalent be refused, reduce the fort as your judgment decides to be most practicable.

"L. P. Walker, Sec. of War."

"headquarters, Provisional Army, C.S. A. ) Charleston, April 11, 1861—11 P.m. J "major: In consequence of the verbal observations made by you to my aids, Messrs. Chesnut and Lee, in relation to the conditon of your supplies, and that you would in a few days be starved out 137


if our guns did not batter you to pieces —or words to that effect—and desiring no useless effusion of blood, I communicated both the verbal observation and your written answer to my communication to my Government.

"If you will state the time at which you will evacuate Fort Sumter, and agree that in the mean time you will not use your guns against us, unless ours shall be employed against Fort Sumter, we will abstain from opening fire upon you. Colonel Chcsnut and Captain Lee are authorized by me to enter into such an agreement with you. You are therefore requested to communicate to them an open answer. "I remain, Major, very respectfully, "Your obedient servant,

"G. T. Beauregard,
"Brigadier-General Commanding.

"Major Robert Anderson, commanding at Fort Sumter, Charleston Harbor, S. C."

"Headquarters, Fort Sumter, S. C, ) 2.30 A.m., April 12, 1861. j

"General: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your second communication of the 11th inst., by Colonel Chesnut, and to state, in reply, that cordially uniting with you in the desire to avoid the useless effusion of blood, I will, if provided with the proper and necessary means of transportation, evacuate Fort Sumter by noon on the 15th instant, should I not receive, prior to that time, controlling instructions


from my Government, or additional supplies; and that I will not, in the mean time, open my fire upon your forces, unless compelled to do so by some hostile act against this fort or the flag of my Government, by the forces under your command, or by some portion of them, or by the perpetration of some act showing a hostile intention on your part against this fort, or the flag it bears.

"I have the honor to be, General,
"Your obedient servant,

"robert Anderson,
"Major U. S. A. Commanding.

"To Brigadier-General G. T. Beauregard, commanding Provisional Army, C. S. A."

"Fort Sumter, S. C, ) April 12, 1861, 3.20 A.m. j

"sir: By authority of BrigadierGeneral Beauregard, commanding the Provisional forces of the Confederate States, we have the honor to notify you that he will open the fire of his batteries on Fort Sumter in one hour from this time.

"We have the honor to be, very respectfully,

"Your obedient servants,
"James Chesnut, Jr.,

"Aid-de-Camp. "Stephen D. Lee, "Captain S. C. Army and Aid-de-Camp.

"Major Robert Anderson, United States Army, commanding Fort Sumter,"


Excitement in the North in regard to Fort Sumter.—Precarious position of Major Anderson and his Garrison.—Opinion of General Scott.—No effort to sustain Fort Sumter reported.—Effect of the Intelligence.—Government at last resolved to make an Attempt.—Change of Feeling at the North.—Preparations of the Federal Government.—A Fleet got Ready.—Its Composition and Force.—The proposed destination uncertain.—Arrival at the Rendezvous at Charleston.—Non-arrival of the Tug-boats.—Defeat of purpose.—Schemes concocted.—Failure.—Fort Sumter.—The Artificial Island. —Construction and Cost.—The Fortress.—Its Character.—Strength and number of Guns.—Its incompleteness.—Its Position and Distances.—Its meagre Garrison.—Activity of the Enemy.—Skilful Engineering of Beauregard.—Description of Fort Moultrie.—Its Strength and Armament.—The Iron Battery at Point Cummings.—The Floating Battery.—Its Construction and Efficiency.—The Batteries at Fort Johnson.—Their Strength and Construction.—The Force of the Enemy.—Defences of Charleston.—Skill of Beauregard.—Life of Beauregard.— Birth.—A Cadet at West Point.—Curious change of Name.—His Father.—Ducal descent of his Mother.—Graduation of Beauregard.—His Services in the War with Mexico.—Differs in opinion with bis superior.—Beauregard's Judgment Triumphant.—Rewards of Gallantry.—Another illustration of superior Judgment and another Triumph.— Return to Louisiana.—Honor to the young Hero.—Government appointments.—Personal appearance and character. —Becomes a Secessionist.—Correspondence between Beauregard and Anderson.—Opening of the Fire upon Fort Sumter.—Extent of Fire surprising. — Tardy Response of Major Anderson.—Division of his Garrison.—Who fired the first Gun ? -Enthusiasm of the Men. Effect of the Fire.—The Enemy's Vigor. -The Parapet of Fort Sumter dreadfully damaged.— Danger to Life.—Havoc among the Guns en barbette.—The effect of the Enemy's Rifled Canuon.—On guard.—" Shot or Shell."—The laborers at the Guns.—A Hit in the Centre.—The Barracks on Fire.— Danger of the Magazine.—Continued Conflagration.—The descent of the Flag.—Only a Salute.—A genuine Shot.— The Flag still flying.—" Knocked down temporarily."—Cessation of the Fire of Fort Sumter during the Night.— The Enemy still firing. —Attempt to rig new Halyards for the Flag.—Expecting Aid or an Assault.—Saturday Morning —The Conflagration of the Barracks continuing.—Its Effect.—Terrific Scene.—Danger of an Explosion.—Powder thrown overboard.—Scarcity of Cartridges.—An Explosion —The Crash.—Breaking of the Flagstaff.—Flag nailed to its Place.—Arrival of a Stranger through an Embrasure.—The agitated Wigfall.—His purpose.— Displays his white Handkerchief.—An uncomfortable Post.—An Interview with the Major.—" I am General Wigfall."—Departure of Wigfall.—An unauthorized Messenger.—Commissioners from Beauregard.—Interview with Major Anderson. —Hoisting of the White Flag.—Terms of Surrender agreed upon.—Departure of Major Anderson and his Garrison.— Firing of Salute to the United States Flag.—Accident.—Major Anderson sails for New York.

The public mind at the North had been greatly excited in regard to 'Fort Sumter. The position of Major Anderson with his meagre garrison was known to be very precarious, besieged as he was by the powerful works in Charleston harbor, with an infuriated mob of seven thousand men to defend them, and cut off from all communication by land or sea. The highest military authority of the Union, Lieutenant-General Scott, was reported to have given it as his opinion that it was impracticable, without such a military

and naval force as the Government at that time could not command, to reinforce Fort Sumter. Anderson's masterly movement, in quitting Fort Moultrie, and his resolute and protracted support of the flag of the United States, while surrounded by those who with intense hostility were resolutely bent upon dishonoring it, had won for him the sympathy of the whole country. When, therefore, it was authoritatively declared again and again that no effort could or would be made to sustain him, an anguish of despair wrung every UNITED STATES EXPEDITION TO FORT SUMTER.

patriotic heart. A sudden change, however, came with the rumor that the Government had at last determined at all hazards to make the attempt, and the desponding nation was once more cheered with hope.

The Federal authorities were evidently preparing for some momentous movement. Orders had been issued to have the vessels of war at the various navy yards immediately detailed for service. A number of large merchant steamers and sailing vessels had been chartered. The garrisons of the various forts in the Northern harbors had been got ready to embark. The recruiting in the large cities for sailors and soldiers had been stimulated to an unusual degree. Finally, a fleet was got ready and sailed, and although the Government strove to keep its destination a secret, all suspected, as they hoped, . that it was Charleston. The vessels sailed from the various ports where they happened to be, to meet at a certain rendezvous determined upon. The steam sloop of war Pawnee, Captain S. C. Rowan, of ten guns, and with two hundred men, sailed from Washington with sealed orders on the morning of Saturday, April April 6th. On the afternoon of 6th. the same day, the steam sloop of war Powhatan, of eleven guns, and with two hundred and seventy-five men, left the Brooklyn navy yard.

On the following Monday, the revenue April cutter Harriet Lane, after having o« exchanged her revenue flag for that of the United States, sailed from the harbor of New York with an armament


of five guns and a crew of ninety-six men.

Three of the largest and swiftest of the merchant steamers hitherto eno-aged in peaceful commerce had been chartered, and now laden with armed men and munitions of war joined the expedition. The Atlantic, with three hundred and fifty-eight troops, com- April posed of Companies A and M of the Second Artillery, Companies C and H of the Second Infantry, and Company A of Sappers and Miners, from West Point, steamed out of the harbor of New York on the morning of Sunday, April 7th. Two days after, the Baltic followed, with a hundred and sixty April troops, Companies C and D, which •« had been lately recruited and stationed at Governor's Island, in New York bay. On the same day the Illinois put to sea with three hundred troops, made April up of Companies B, E, F, G, and H, of a detachment of Company D, and two companies of the Second Infantry gathered from the recruits at Governor's Island, Bedloe's Island, and Fort Hamilton.

Two steam-tugs—the Yankee, which sailed on Monday, the 8th of April, April and the Uncle Ben, which followed 8« on the day after—completed this hurriedly gathered but not unimposing naval force.

Thirty launches were also distributed among the larger steamers, to be used for the purpose of landing the troops through the surf under the cover of the fire of the armed vessels, or, being protected with sand-bags, and armed with swivel guns and riflemen, to aid in the attack of batteries.*

Of this force, though the whole was supposed by the people to be destined for Charleston, only the Powhatan, the Pawnee, the Harriet Lane, the Baltic, and the steam-tugs sailed for that port. The rest took their course for the Gulf of Mexico, to reinforce the garrisons of the Federal forts on the coasts of Alabama and Florida.

The Pawnee, the Harriet Lane, and April the Baltic reached the rendezvous 12. off Charleston on the 12 th of April, but the Yankee and Uncle Ben had failed to arrive, having been detained by unfavorable weather. The orders of the fleet were, that unarmed boats should first be sent in with stores; but if they were fired upon, an effort was to be made to relieve the fort by force. Without the tug-boats, the proposed object of the expedition could not be effectually accomplished, as the only unarmed steamer, the Baltic, was of too great a draught of water to pass the bar of Charleston, and the steam-tugs were alone capable of approaching the fort through the shallow water. The naval commanders, however, after a

• The whole force may he thus recapitulated:

Vestals. Guns. Men.

Sloop of war Pawnee 10 200

Sloop of war Powhatan 11 275

Cutter Harriet Lane 5 96

Steam transport Atlantic — 353

Steam transport Baltic — 160

Steam transport Illinois — 300

Steam-tug Yankee Ordinary crew.

Steam-tug Uncle Ben Ordinary crew.

Total number of vessels 8

Total number of guns (fur marine service) 26

Total number of men and troops l,3S0

council, determined to make an effort for the relief of Major Anderson, who was already under shot, for as soon as the first rockets had been sent up to signalize the concentration of the fleet, the enemy had opened fire. The plan agreed upon was to hoist out the small boats and launches, load them with men and stores, and to tow them as far as possible, and then, while covering them with the guns of the steamers, to send them in alone. This, however, failed in consequence of the Baltic having got aground during the night, while preparations were being made to disembark her stores and troops. Other schemes were devised, but before they could be put into execution, the time for action had past. Fort Sumter had fallen.

Fort Sumter had been considered one of the strongest works in the United States. The island upon which it is built was artificially constructed by placing upon the original sand and mud a large quantity of refuse granite, brought from Northern quarries, and pressing it deeply down until an unyielding foundation was laid. This alone cost the labor of ten years and an expense of five hundred thousand dollars, to which another half million was added before the completion of the whole fort. The walls of the fortification, composed of brick and compact concrete, are sixty feet in height and from eight to twelve feet in thickness. The fort is pentagonal, and is pierced for three tiers of guns, on all sides but the southern, where are the sally-ports and docks, which had been left unpro

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