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Lawe, and thinketh a common use or graunt to other men a lawe for himselfe.

Eudox. Yea, but the Judge, when it commeth before him to tryall, may easilie deside this doubte, and lay open the intent of the lawe by his better discrecon.

Iren. Yea, but yt is daingerous to leave the sense of a lawe unto there ason or will of Judges, whoe are men and may bee miscaryed by affeccons, and many other meanes, but the lawes ought to be like to stony tables, playne, stedfast, and ymoveable.

.. Nowe we will proceede to the other like defectes, amonge which there is one generall inconvenience which rayneth allınost throughout all Ireland : and that of the Lords of land, and fre-holders, whoe doe not there use to sett out theire lands to farme, or for terme of yeres, to their teñants, but only from yere to yere, and some during pleasure; nether indeede will the Irish teñant or husband otherwise take his lande then so longe as he list himself. The reason hereof in the teñant is, for that the landlords there use most shamfully to racke theire tenants, layinge upon him coygnie and livery at pleasure, and exactinge of him besides his covenante, what he please. So that the poore

husbandman either dare not binde himselfe to him for longer tyme, or that he thinketh by his contynuall libertie of chainge to keepe his landlorde the rather in awe from wroninge of him. And the reason whie the landlorde will not longer covenante with him is, for that he daylie looketh for chainge and alteracon, and hovereth in expectacon of newe worldes.

Eudox. But what evill cometh hereby to the comonweath? or what reason is yt that any landlord should not sett, nor any teñante take his land as himselfe list.

Iren. Marry, the evilles that cometh hereby are greate for by this meanes both the landlord thinketh that he hath his teñante more at commaund, to followe him into what accon soever he will enter, and allso the teñant, beinge left at his liberty, is fitt for every variable occasion of chainge that shalbe offered by tyme: and so much allso the more willinge and ready is hee to runne into the same, for that he hath no such estate in any his holdinge, no suche buyldinge upon any farme, no such costs ymployed in fencing and husbandinge the same, as might withholde him from any such willfull corse, as his lords cause, and his owne lewde disposicon may carry him unto. All which he hath forborne, and spared soe much expence, for that he had no former estate in his tenement, but was only a teñante at will or little more, and soe at will may leave yt. And this inconvenience maye be reason enough to ground any ordinance for the good of a Coñon-wealth, against the private behoofe or will of any landlord that shall refuse to graunte any such terme or estate unto his teñante as may tend to the good of the whole Realme.

Eudox. Indeede me seemes yt is a greate willfullnes in any such landlord to refuse to make any longer farmes to theire teñants, as may, besides the generall good of the Realme, be also greatly for theire owne profit and avayle : For what reasonable man will not thinke that the tenement shalbe made much the better for the lords behoofe, yf the teñante may by such meanes be drawen to buylde himselfe some handsome habitacon thereof, to dytch and enclose his grounde, to manure and husband yt as good farmers use? For when his teñants terme shalbe expired, yt will yeilde him, in the renewinge his lease, both a good fyne, and allso a better rente. And also it wil be for the good of the tenent likewise, whoe by such buyldinges and inclosures shall receave many benefitts : first, by the handsomenes of his howse, he shall take greate comforte of his lief, more saife dwellinge, and a delight to keepe his saide howse neate and cleanely, which nowe beinge as they coñonly are, rather swyne-steades then howses, is the chiefest cause of his soe beastlie manner of life, saluaige condicon, lyinge and lyvinge together with his beaste in one howse, in one rowme, and in one bed, that is the cleane strawe, or rather the fowle dounghill. And to all these other comodities he shall in shorte tyme finde a greater added, that is his owne wealth and riches encreased, and wonderfully enlarged, but keeping his cattle in enclosures, where they shall allwayes have fresh pasture, that nowe is all trampled and over runne; warme cover, that now lyeth open to all weather; saife beinge, that now are contynually filched and stollen.

Iren. Thus I have, Eudox : as breifly as I could, and as my remembrance would serve, rund through the state of that whole countyre, both to let you see what it nowe is, and also, what yt may be by good care and amendment: not that I take upon me to change the pollicye of so greate a kingdome, or prescribe rules to such wise men as have the handlinge therof, but onely to shewe you the evills, which in my small experience I have observed to be the chiefe hindrance of the reformacon therof; and by the way of conference to declare my simple opinyon for redresse therof, and establishinge a good course for that government; which I do not deliver for a perfecte plotte of myne owne invensyon to be onely followed, but as I

have learned and understood the same by the consultacons and actyons of very wise Governors and Counsellors whome I have sometymes heard treate thereof. So have I thought good to sett downe a remembraunce of them for myne owne good, and your satisfactyon, that who list to overloke them, although perhaps much wiser them they which have thus advised of that state, yet at leaste, by comparison hereof, may perhaps better his owne judgement, and by the light of others foregoinge, he may followe after with more ease, and hapely finde a fayrer waye thereunto then they which have gone before.

SIR WALTER RALEIGH.

1552-1618.

THE HISTORIE OF THE WORLD.

By this which wee haue alreadie set downe, is seene the beginning and end of the three first Monarchies of the world ; whereof the Founders and Erectours thought, that they could neuer haue ended. That of Rome which made the fourth, was also at this time almost at the highest. Wee haue left it flourishing in the middle of the field ; hauing rooted vp, or cut downe, all that kept it from the eyes and admiration of the world. But after some continuance, it shall begin to lose the beauty it had ; the stormes of ambition shall beat her great boughes and branches one against another ; her leaues shall fall off, her limbes wither, and a rabble of barbarous Nations enter the field, and cut her downe.

Now these great Kings, and conquering Nations, haue bin the subiect of those ancient Histories, which haue bin preserued, and yet remaine among vs; and withall of so many tragicall Poets, as in the persons of powerfull Princes, and other mighty men haue complained against Infidelitie, Time, Destinie, and most of all against the variable successe of worldly things, and Instabtlitie of Fortune. To these vndertakings, these great Lords of the world haue beene stirred vp, rather by the desire of Fame, which ploweth vp the Aire, and soweth in the Winde ; than by the affection of bearing rule, which draweth after it so much vexation and so many cares. And that this is true, the good aduice of Cineas to Pyrrhús proues. And certainely, as Fame hath often beene dangerous to the liuing, so is it to the dead of no vse at all ; because separate from knowledge. Which were it otherwise, and the extreame ill bargaine of buying this lasting discourse, vnderstood by them which are dissolued ; they themselues would then rather haue wished, to haue stolne out of the world without noyse ; than to be put in minde, that they haue purchased the report of their actions in the world, by rapine, oppression, and crueltie; by giuing in spoyle the innocent and labouring soule to the idle and insolent, and by hauing emptied the Cities of the world of their ancient Inhabitants, and fitted them againe with so many and so variable sorts of sorrowes.

Since the fall of the Roman Empire (omitting that of the Germanes, which had neither greatnesse nor continuance) there hath beene no State fearfull in the East, but that of the Turk; nor in the West any Prince that hath spred his wings farre ouer his nest, but the Spaniard; who since the time that Ferdinand expel'd the Moores out of Grenado, haue made many attempts to make themselues Masters of al Europe. And it is true, that by the treasures of both Indies, and by the many kingdoms which they possesse in Europe, they are at this day the most powerfull. But as the Turke is now counterpoysed by the Persian, so in stead of so many Millions as haue beene spent by the English, French, and Netherlands in defensiue Warre, and in diuersions against them, it is easie to demonstrate, that with the charge of two hundred thousand pound continued but for two yeeres, or three at the most, they may not onely be perswaded to liue in peace, but all their swelling and ouer-flowing streames may bee brought backe into their naturall channels and old bankes. These two Nations, I say, are at this day the most eminent, and to be regarded ; the one seeking to roote out the Christian Religion altogether, the other the truth and sincere profession therof, the one to joyne all Europe to Asia, the other the rest of all Europe to Spaine.

For the rest, if we seeke a reason of the succession and continuance of this boundlesse ambition in mortall men, we may adde to that which hath beene already said ; That the Kings and Princes of the world haue alwaies laid before them, the actions, but not the ends of those great Ones which pæceded them. They are alwayes transported with the glorie of the one, but they neuer minde the miserie of the other, till they finde the experience in themselues. They neglect the aduice of God, while they enioy life, or hope it ; but they follow the counsell of Death, vpon his first approach. It is hee that puts into man all wisedome of the world, without speaking a word ; which God with all the words of his Law, promises, or threats, doth infuse. Death, which hateth and destroyeth man, is beleeued ; God, which hath him and loues

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