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is, that he is that Onkelos, who, as we phrase is very impure and barbarous, are told in the Gemara of the Talmu. abounding in words of various foreign dical tract yma, conducted the funeral languages. Many fabulous legends rites of Rabban Gamaliel, (at whose and rabbinical fictions are interspersed feet St. Paul was brought up) and throughout. burned at that ceremony seventy pounds This, however, is not a connected of frankincense. Now Gamaliel is paraphrase, as many verses are fresaid to have flourished about 18 years quently omilted, and sometimes whole before the destruction of the Temple : chapters: sometimes only one word in so that Onkelos may have lived in the a verse is noticed, sometimes two intime of our Saviour. He is said to terpretations are given of the same have been made a proselyte to Juda- verse. Concerning the author, or the ism (see the note) under Eliezer the time of the composition of this TarGreat, the son of Hyrcanus, and his gum, nothing certain can be alleged, colleague R. Joshua; and to have except that, from internal evidence, it formed his translation under their in- appears to have been formed after the spection and with their approbation. year of our Lord 600.
The Targurn of Onkelos is justly 4. Jonathan, the son of Uzziel, acpreferred to all the others, both by cording to the Jewish traditions, was Jews and Christians. His style, in the chief of the celebrated 80 scholars elegance and purity, approaches very of Hillel the elder, a fellow_disciple of nearly to the Biblical Chaldee of Da- Simeon, who bore the infant Jesus in niel and Ezra. He makes use of very his arms, and of Gamaliel, the tutor of few barbarous words, and very rarely St. Paul. And as Hillel flourished in indulges in digressions, or intermixes Judæa about thirty years before our any traditionary fables. For the most Saviour's birth, Jonathan was most part he renders the text word for word, probably contemporary with our Lord. so that his Chaldee may, except in a Although farther advanced in age very few passages, be chaunted with than Onkelos, it is probable that Jonathe same musical accents as the He- than composed his Targum after him. brew original. Indeed this Targum His style is very elegant, and his lanrather deserves the name of a close guage pure, and approaches very nearly translation than a paraphrase.
1o that of Onkelos. In his exposition 2. The second paraplırase on the of the former prophets, he adheres Pentateuch has been, by many Jews more closely to the text, than in that and some Christians, ascribed to Jona on the latter, where he is more lax than ben Uzziel; but the learned have and paraphrastical, inserting some tradecided that it is not his, nor of an an- ditions and fabulous comments, of tiquity coeval with him: and that, from which, in the former part of his parathe difference of style in the Targum phrase, he is very sparing; though it confessedly bis, and in the present, is supposed that these, as well as the which is very impure; from the gross few barbarisms, which are to be met ignorance of the translator; from the with in this Targum, are the interponumerous marks of recentness so evi. lutions of after ages. In order to atdent throughout; and from the inter: tach greater authority to his paraphrase, mixture of absurd legends and Talmu- the Jews have invented many absurd dical fables, it is not known who was legends concerning this Jonathan, the author, or at what time it was which may be seen in the Talmud composed : indeed this Targum was treatise Megilla, and in Leusden, &c. not of public notoriety till late in the 5. The author of the paraphrase on xvith century.
the Megilloth is unknown, as well as 3. The Jerusalem Targum takes its the time at which it was composed; name from the dialect in which it is though this was certainly after the composed. The style of this para- year of our Lord 50C. The style of
this Targum is very barbarous and one mentioned in Bereschith Rabba refers to an Akilas who made a version of the Prophets corrupt. It abounds in prolix digres.
sions and fabulous legends. Many or Hagiographa, but whose work is lost.
circumstances are alluded to, which Greek, and is particularly trifing in prove it to be of very late origin, and the genealogical parts of the book. many useless and trifling additions are iv. Of the Authority and Use of the made to the text, particularly in the Targumim. Song of Solomon and in Esther.
In calling in the Targumim to our 6. Nearly the same may be said of assistance, in any dispute with the the Second Targum on Esther. This Jows, we have an argumentum ad homay be considered rather as a bulky minem against them, which they cancomment than a paraphrase. The au- not retort upon us. For while they thor and the date are both unknown; attribute to them the highest authority though the latter must be very late. (indeed to those of Onkelos and JonaThe style is barbarous and corrupt, and than no less than divine) we Christians the paraphrase is made up of prolix consider them only as versions, and, and impertinent narrations, and absurd as such, infinitely inferior in authority rabbinical legends.
to the divinely inspired text. Still, 7. The Targum on part of the Ha- however, we hold them in great esteem, giographa is generally attributed to on account of the advantage which is R. Jose, or Joseph, surnamed the Blind frequently to be derived from their. or One-eyed: and it is supposed to In the explanation of particular pashave been composed by him in the sages, where we meet with phrases fourth century, at the time that he was that occur but once in Scripture, or head of the Academy at Sora.
with words of foreign derivation, the The style of this Targum, though, Targum frequently supplies us with in general, very barbarous and impure, the signification; and where the Scripis very unequal, being considerably tures have mentioned any thing in purer in Job and Psalms than in Pro- concise terins, the Targum, by a fuller verbs. In his paraphrase on Job, how- exposition, frequently throws much ever, he indulges in digressions, for light upon the subject. the sake of introducing some fable : They are likewise of use in proving and, though he adheres more closely that the text, in particular passages of to the text in Psalms, yet he perverts the Scriptures, is uncorrupted, and many of the prophetical passages re- have been successfully applied to this lating to the Messiah-while in Pro- purpose against the Papists. And in verbs he scarcely ever wanders from establishing the genuine exposition of the text.
particular prophecies relating to the 8. For a long time it was unknown, Messiah, these paraphrases are of most both to Jews and Christians, that there signal use against the Jews, especially was extant any Targum on the Books as they place so high a value on themof Chronicles, till it was discovered in this is, as Prideaux calls it, turning the library at Erfurt, by Matthias Fre. their own artillery upon them. They derick Beck, and published by him, throw also considerable light on the with some learned notes, at Augsburg: ancient history of the Jews, as they the paraphrase on the first book in give us many decisions of the Great 1680, and that on the second in 1683. Synagogue, elucidate many customs These were again published, more of the ancient Church, and describe complete as to the text, by the learned many of the sacred vessels and rites of David Wilkins, in 1715 from a MS. its service. They give us also interformerly belonging to Erpenius, in the esting accounts of the state of the Holy public library at Cambridge. The Land, and of the calamities and fate of author is there said to be Rav Joseph, the Jewish nation. who lived in the fourth century, and These paraphrases are seen to the Beck and Wilkins acquiesce in sup- best advantage in Buxtorf's Bible of posing him to be the same with the 1620, and in Bishop Walton's Poly-, author of the preceding Targum. glott; and many useful directions, in
This paraphrase likewise mingles what manner they are to be reach, are many legends and fabulous histories given by Leusden, in his Appendix to with the narrative, introduces very his dissertation on the Targumim. frequently words formed from the
CATECHISM OR PLAIN IN we should so use them, as behoveth
mindful and godly children.
Master. Why dost thou call God Containing the Sum of Christian Learning, set
Father? forth by the King's Majesty's authority, for all Schoolmasters to teacb. 1553.
Scholar. For two causes, the one, for
that he made us all at the beginning, (Continuerl from our last.)
and gave, life unto us all: the other is Master. Hilberto thou hast well sa.
more weighty, for that by his Holy Spitisfied me, dear
Now let us rit and by faith he hath begotten us come to the Christian confession, which again; making us his children: giving I will that thou plainly rehearse unto us his kingdom and the inheritance of
life everlasting, with Jesus Christ his Scholar. It shall be done. I believe own, true, and natural Son. in God, the Father Almighty: maker Master. Seeing then God hath creaof heaven and earth. And in Jesus ted all other things to serve man: and Christ, bis only Son, our Lord: which made man to obey, honour, and glorify was conceived by the Holy Ghost: him: What canst thou say more of the born of the Virgin Mary: suflered beginning and making of man? under Pontius Pilate: was crucified: Scholar. Even that which Moses dead: and buried. He went down to wrote: that God shaped the first man hell: the third day he rose again from of clay: and put into him soul and life : the dead. He went up to heaven: then, that he cast Adam in a dead sleep, sitieth on the right hand of God the and brought forth a woman, whom he Father Almighty: from thence shall drew out of his side, to make her a comhe come, to judge the quick and the panion with him of all his life and dead. I believe in the Holy Ghost. I wealth. And therefore was man called believe the holy universal church : the Adam, because he took his beginning communion of sainis: the forgiveness of the earth: and the woman called Eve, of sins: the rising again of the flesh: because she was appointed to be the and the life everlasting:
mother of all living. Master. All these (my son) thou hast Master. What image is that, after rehearsed generally and shortly. There- the likeness whereof, thou sayest that fore thou shalt do well, to set out large. man was made ? ly, all that thou hast spoken particularly: Scholar. That is most absolute rightthat I may plainly perceive what thy be- eousness and perfect holiness: which lief is concerning each of them. And most nearly belongeth to the very nafirst I would hear of the knowledge of ture of God: and most clearly appearGod, afterward of the right serving of ed in Christ our new Adam. Of the him.
which in us there scarce are to be seen Scholar. I will with a good will obey any sparkles. your pleasure (dear Master) as far as Master. What? are there scant to be my simple wit will suffer me. Above all things we must steadfastly believe Scholar. It is true forsooth : for they and hold: that God Almighty, the Fa- do not now so shine, as they did in the ther, in the beginning, and of nothing, beginning before man's fall : forasmuch made and fashioned this whole frame as man by the darkness of sins, and mist of the world, and all things whatsoever of errors, hath corrupted the brightness are contained therein: and that they all of this image. In such sort hath God are made by the power of his word, in his wrath wreaked him upon the that is of Jesus Christ the Son of God, sinful man. which thing is suficiently approved by Master. But I pray thee tell me, witness of scriptures. Moreover that, wherefore came it thus to pass ? when he had thus shapen all creatures, Scholar. I will shew you. When the he ruled, governed and saved them by Lord God had made the frame of this his bounty and liberal hand: hath min- world, he himself planted a garden, full istered, and yet also ministereth most of delight and pleasure, in a certain largely all that is needful, for mainte- place, Eastward, and called it Eden. nance and preserving of our life: that Wherein beside other passing fairtrees,
not far from the middle of the garden reproach) he then cursed the serpent, was there one specially called the tree of threatening him, that the time should life, and another called the tree of know-, one day come, when the seed of the ledge of good and evil. Herein the woiman should break his head. AfterLord of his singular love placed man: ward the Lord God established that and committed unto him the garden to, same glorious and most bountiful prodress, and look unto: giving him liber. mise: first with a covenant made bety to eat of the fruits of all the trees of tween him and Abraham, by circumparadise, except the fruit of the tree of cision, and in Isaac his son: then again knowledge of good and evil. The fruit by Moses : last of all by the oracles of of this tree if ever he tasted, he should the holy prophets. without fail die for it. But Eve, deceiv Master. What meaneth the serpent's ed by the devil counterfeiting the shape head; and that seed that God speakof a serpent, gathered of the forbidden eth of ? fruit : which was for the fairness to the Scholar. In the serpent's head lieth eye to be desired: for the sweetness in all his venom, and the whole pith of his taste to be reached at: and pleasant for life and force. Therefore do I take the the knowledge of good and evil: and serpent's head to betoken the whole she eat thereof, and gave unto her hus- power and kingdom, or more truly the band to eat of the same. For which tyranny of the old serpent the devil. doing, they both immediately died, that The seed (as St. Paul doth plainly is to say : were not only subject to the teach) is Jesus Christ the Son of God, death of the body, but also lost the life very God and very man: conceived of of the soul, which is righteousness. the Holy Ghost: engendered of the And forth with the image of God was womb and substance of Mary, the blessdefaced in them: and the most beauti- ed pure and undefiled maid: and was ful proportion of righteousness, holi- so born and fostered by her as other ness, truth, and knowledge of God, was babes be, saving that he was most far confounded and in a manner utterly from all infection of sin. blotted out. There remained the earthly Master. All these foundations that image, joined with unrighteousness, thou hast laid are most true. Now guile, fleshly mind, and deep ignorance therefore let us go forward to those his of godly and heavenly things. Hereof doings, wherein lieth our salvation and grew the weakness of the flesh: here. conquest against that old serpent. of came this corruption, and disorder of Scholar. It shall be done, good Maslusts and affections: hereof came that ter. After that Christ Jesus had deliv. pestilence: hereof came that seed and ered in charge to his Apostles that most nourishment of sins wherewith man- joyful, and in all points heavenly dockind is infected, and it is called sin ori- trine, the Gospel, which in Greek is ginal. Moreover thereby nature was called Evangelion, in English Good so corrupted, and overthrown, that un- Tidings: and had as by sealing estaless the goodness, and mercy of Al- blished the same with tokens, and mia mighty God had helped us by the me- racles innumerable, whereof all his life diation of grace, even as in body we are was full : at length was he sore scourthrust down into all wretchedness of ged: mocked with pouting, scorning death : so must it needs have been, that and spitting in his face : last of all his all men of all sorts should be thrown hands and feet bored through with nails: into everlasting punishment, and fire and he fastened to a cross. Then he unquenchable.
truly died: and was truly buried : that by Master. On the unthankfulness of his most sweet sacrifice, he might pamen! But what hope had our first pa- cify his Father's wra against manrents, and from thenceforth the rest, kind : and subdue him by his death, whereby they were relieved ?
who had the authority of death, which Scholar. When the Lord God had was the devil: forasmuch not only both with words and deeds chastised the living, but also the dead, were Adam and Eve (for he thrust them both they in hell, or elsewhere, they all felt out of the garden with a most grievous the power and force of his death: to Christ. Obsery. No. 2.
whom lying in prison (as Peter saith) For to die is common to all men : but Christ preached, though dead in body, to loose the bonds of death, and by his yet relieved in spirit. The third day own power to rise again, that properly after, he uprose again, alive in body belongeth to Jesus Christ the only be. also: and with many notable proofs, gotten Son of God, the only author of the space of forty days he abode among life. Moreover it was necessary, that his disciples, eating and drinking with he should rise again with glory, that them. In whose sight he was convey- the sayings of David and other prophed away in a cloud, up into heaven, or ets of God might be fulfilled, which rather above all heavens : where he told before : that neither his body now sitieth at the right hand of God should see corruption : nor his soul be the Father : being made Lord of all left in hell. As for us, we neither had things, be they in heaven, or in earth : been justified, nor had had any hope king of all kings: our everlasting and left to rise again, had not he risen only high Bishop: our only attorney : again, as Paul doch in divers places only mediator, only peace maker be- plainly show. For if he had remained tween God and men. Now since that in the prison of death, in the grave : he is entered into his glorious majesty, and been holden in corruption, as all by sending down his Holy Spirit unto men beside: how could we have hoped us (as he promised) he lighteneth our for safety by him which saved not himdark blindness : moveth, ruleth, teach- self? It was meet therefore, and need. eth, cleanseth, comforteth, and rejoi- ful, for the part that he had in hand : ceth our minds : and so will he still and for the chief stay of our safeguard : continually do, till the end of the world. that Christ should first deliver himself
Master. Well, I see thou hast touch- from death, and afterward's assure us ed the chief Articles of our religion, of safety by his uprising again. and hast set out, as in a short abridg Master. Thou hast touchel (my son) ment, the Creed, that thou didst re- the chief cause of Christ's rising again. hearse. Now therefore I will demand Now would I fain hear thy mind of his thee questions of certain points. going up into heaven.
What answer Scholar. Do as shall please you, thinkest thou is to be made to them, Master: for you may more perfectly that say: it had been better for him, instruct me, in those things that I do to tarry here with us, presently to rule not thoroughly understand : and put and govern us: For beside other divers me in rememberance of that I have causes, it is likely, that the love of the forgotten : and print in my mind deep- people toward their prince, especially er such things, as have not taken stead- being good and gracious, should grow fast hold therein.
the greater by his present company? Master. Tell me then. If by his Scholar. All these things which he death we get pardon of our sins : was should do present, that is to say, if he Bot that enough, but that he must also were in company among us, he doth rise again from the dead?
them absent. He ruleth, maintaineth, Scholar. It was not enough if you strengtheneth, defendeth, rebuketh, have a respect, either to him, or to us. punisheth, correcteth: and performeth For unless he had risen again, he should all such things as do become such a not be taken for the Son of God. For prince, or rather God himself. All which cause also, while he hung upo: those things (I say) performeth he, the cross, they that saw him upbraided which belong either to our need or him and said : he hath saved others, profit: honour or commodity. Beside but cannot save himself: let him now this, Christ is not so altogether absent come down from the cross, and we from the world, as many do suppose. will believe him. But now uprising For albeit the substance of his body be from the dead to everlasting continu- taken up from us: yet is his Godhead ance of life, he hath shewed a much perpetually present with us: although greater power of his Godhead, than if not subject to the sight of our eyes. by coming down from the cross he had For things that be not bodily, cannot fied from the terrible pains of death. be perceived by any bodily means.