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vanic energy of an animal with warm blood; But when a candle is snuffed spontaneously an experiment never before imagined. He it gives a light so perfectly steady and so repeated these experiments at Oxford ; and uniformly bright, that the adjustments of the has shewn by these and other facts, that gal. eye remain at rest, and distinct vision is vanism is animal electricity, not merely pas- performed without uneasiness. Any considsive, but performing, probably, the most erable motion of the candle, or agitation of important functions in the animal economy; the air, will cause the tallow to run over. and it appears not to be confined in its opera. See Nich. Fourn. 8vo. vol. iii. p. 272—275. tion to the motion of the muscles, but to be In Sweden, Norway, and Denmark, it is a of importance also in the secretions. The common custom to allow horses no litter, but stimulus appears from some experiments made to let them stand or lie on a raised floor, upon the bodies of various criminals, who composed of boards, the joinings of which are were beheaded at Bologna, to be the most left open. Cows and even pig's are likewise powerful in nature. By means of the pile, housed on similar platforms. The animals M. Aldini excited the vital forces remaining are in this way easily kept clean and dry; in these bodies, in a most astonishing manner. and to this practice it is, perhaps, owing, that, The most horrible contortions and grimaces in those northern countries, a foundered horse were produced by the motions of the muscles is seldom to be seen. In the mode followed of the head and face; and an hour and a in other places, the warm humid compost of quarter after death, the arm of one of these dung and litter, seems to have the eflect of bodies was elevated eight inches from the table making the feet tender and liable to disease. on which it was supported, and this even The Duke of York is said to have directed, when a considerable weight was placed in by way of experiment, some barracks to be the hand. These are not experiments of mere constructed upon the northern plan. curiosity, but offer very encouraging pros The Lapland Travellers, Messrs. Cripps pects in the cure of disorders of the head, and CLARKE, of Jesus College, Cambridge, apoplexies, recovery of the drowned, &c. are at length safely returned to this country. The application of galvanism in melancholic The collection formed by these gentlemen insanity is absolutely new and very interesting. is contained in 183 cases, and is, perhaps, the Two patients at Bologna have been per- largest ever sent to England; illustrating the fectly cured by it; and this fact is the natural and moral history of the various peomore important, as the present system of ple they visited, in a journey from the 67th physic has so little to offer in this distressing degree of north latitude to the territories of malady.
Circassia, and the shores of the Nile. The Mr. EZEKIEL WALKER, of Lynn, has botanic part contains the herbage of the celcommunicated, in a letter to Mr. Nicholson, ebrated Pallas, enriched by the contributions a method of increasing the quantity of light of Linnæus, and his numerous literary friends. afforded by candles, and to obviate the necessity With the minerals, are several new substances, of snuffing them. Common or mould candles, and the rarest productions of the Siberian placed in candlesticks made for the purpose, mines. Among the antiquities are various so as to form an angle of thirty degrees with inscriptions and bas-reliefs, relative to obserthe perpendicular, require no snufling, and vations made in the plain of Troy, and which give a steady and uniform light without the were announced by Monsieur Chevalier in least smoke. These effects are thus pro. France, in the last edition of his work. The duced: When a candle burns in an inclined medallic series contains several coins of position, most part of the flame rises perpen- Greece, and of the kings of Parthia, hitherto dicularly from the upper side of the vick, unknown. The manuscripts are in Hebrew, As the end of the wick projects beyond the Coptic, Arabic, Abyssynian, Persian, Turkish, flame, it meets with the air, and is completely and the language of Thibet Tartary; and in burnt to ashes ; hence it is rendered incapa- the Greek and Latin languages are several ble of acting as a conductor, to carry off any manuscripts of the classics, of the Gospels, part of the combustible matter in the form of and the writings of the earliest fathers of the smoke. By this spontaneous mode of snuffing, Church. In addition to these, the collection that part of the wick which is acted upon by contains Greek vases, gems, sculpture, and the flame, continues of the same length, and the many remarkable Egyptian monuments from flame itself very nearly of the same strength the ruins of the city of Sais, discovered by and magnitude. The advantag's which may these travellers in the Delta, after the evacuabe derived from candles that require no snuf- tion of Egypt by the French : Also numerous fing and afford no smoke, may be readily ur- original drawings,maps, charts, plans, models, derstood; but these candles have another and the seeds of many rare and useful plants : property, which ought to be noticed. A candle the habits, utensils, and idols, of the inhabi. snuffed by an instrument, gives a very fluctua. tants of the Aleutan Isles, brought by Billings ting light, which, in viewing near objects, is to Russia, after his expedition to the counbighly injurious to the eye ; and this is an tries lying between Kamtschatka and the inconvenience which no shade can remove. north-west coast of America.
* We are obliged to prostpone the Foreign Literary and Philosophical Intelligence, although much of it is highly interesting.
LIST OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.
Description of England. II. A general View A SERMON preached at the Anniversary of the Constitution, Laws, Government, Rev. Meeting of the Clergy, and Sons of the Clergy, enue, Ecclesiastical, Civil, and Military Estabin the Cathedral of Bristol, 26th August, lishments of England - Designed as an Intro1802 By J. Crofts, A. M.
duction to the Knowledge of those important A Sermon preached in Lambeth Chapel, Subjects. By B. Price, 12mo.
1 27th June, 1802, at the Consecration of the Geographia Antiqua : being a complete i Right Rev George Isaac Huntingford, D D. set of Maps of ancient Geography. Engraved Lord Bishop of Gloucester. By the Rev. by Cellarius. Wm. Howley, M A.
Paris Delineated, from the French of Mer. Sermons on various Subjects, preached at cier, with a Map of Paris, 2 vols. 8vo. the Octagon Chapel, Bath. By Rev. J. Gar The Fourth Edition, corrected according to diner, D. D. 8vo.
the present Division of the Continent ; with
an Abstract of Ancient Geography, and the No. 1. of Eusebius's Preparation for spread. Nature and Use of Maps.- A Short and Easy ing the Gospel. Translated from the Greek. Introduction to the Science of Geography. To be completed in 15 numbers.
By Thomas Keith, 12mo. The Poor Man's Commentary on the Bible. The Friendly Adviser, and Juvenile Moni. By Dr. Hawker, No. I and II.
tor: being a Series of Examples, intended to The Way to the Sabbath of Rest: or the correct the Failings, and improve the judg. Soui's Progress in the Work of the New ment of Youth To which are added, Birth By T. Bromley.
Thoughts on the First Principles of Religion, Whitefield's Hymns, with his Life, and a and the great Importance of early Piety By Supplement. By M. Wilks. New and beau. Sarah Wheatley, 18mo. tiful Edition, with a Portrait.
The Second part of the Third Volume of The Workhouse ; or a Religious Life the the Reports of the Society for Bettering the only happy One. By the Author of Margaret Condition of the Poor, 12mo. Whyte.
The Second Part of Vol. V of Transactions The Beauty and Benefit of early Piety, of the Royal Society of Edinburgh represented in Several Sermons to Young Histoire de la Revolution de France, Se. People. By David Jennings, D. D. New conde et dernière Parte. Par A. F. Ber. Edition.
trand de Moleville, Ministre d'Etat, 5 vols 8vo. The Beauties of Dr. Young ByJ. Evans, A.M. Brief Memoirs of the Right Hon. Henry
Christian Gentleman and Tradesman's Addington's Administration, through the first Pocket Diary; with a Portrait of William fifteen Months from its Commencement. Cowper, Esq.
The Progress of Jacobinism, proved from Christian Preacher's Diary; with a Portrait the late General Election. By J. Bowles, Esq. of Mr. Whitefield.
Les cinq Promesses ; Tableau de la Con.
duite du Governement consulaire envers la A Bibliographical Dictionary; with Anec. France, l'Angleterre, l'Italie, & sur tout dotes, &c 12mo.
envers la Suisse. Par Sir Francis D'Ivernois. An East India Directory, for 1803. By J. A Journal of the Forces which sailed from Mathison and Alex. Way Mason.
the Downs in April, 1800, on a Secret Expedi. The Stocks examined and compared , or, tion, under the Command of Major General a Guide to Purchasers in the Public Funds. Pigot, till their arrival in Minorca'; and con. By W. Fairinan, 8vo.
tinued through the subsequent Operations of Moral Education ; or, the One Thing Need. the Army under the Command of the Right ful Bv T. Simons.
Hon. Gen. Sir R. Abercrombie, K. B. in the The Young Englishman's Manual; in Two Mediterranean and Egypt, &c. &c. By Eneas Paris : I. A Geographical and Topographical Anderson, 410.
who form there what is called the standWe are happy to observe, that in seve- ing order. The object at which they ral parts of America, but particularly have principally aimed, has been to inin the State of Connecticut, it has pleas. troduce the knowledge of Christianity el God to excite a very unusual degree into those back settlements, where, as of zeal for the propagation of religious yet, no religious institutions have been truth. A Missionary Society has been formed, and where the inhabitants in established in that province, consisting general are distinguished by their gross chiefy, if not wholly, of Independents, ignorance of religion, and their open
profligacy of manners; the few who of God to shew mercy to sinners, the possess superior information, being for sufficiency of Christ's righteousness; the most part avowed infidels, or pro- his calls, invitations, and remoosiranfessing what may be considered as lit- ces; the arguments drawn from the tle less pernicious in its tendency, the unreasonableness of sin, the ple istres doctrine of Universalism.*
of piety, the shortness of bumal life, In an account of their poceedings, the certainly of death, the solemnity of lately published by this Society, we re- the grave, the l'ewards of righteousjoice to find, that very considerable ness, the everlasting niizery of the unsuccess had attended the labours of godly, and other plain and leading cicetheir missionaries. The districts in trines of the Gospel. They have, u 50, which they had been chiefly employed, equally enforced Christian morals as were the Western and Northern coun- the only visible evidence of a state of ties of the State of New York, the Nor. acceptance.” thern part of Vermont, the North West It is from such a mode of preaching part of Pennsylvania, and the recent as this, indeed, that good may in all settlement called New Connecticut. cases be expected, because it is that The readiness and cordiality with which which is sanctioned by the example of numbers in these regions have embrac our blessed Lord, and of his Apostles. ed the great truths of the Gospel, and One general cfi:rt of it is statea io je, the happy effects which seem to have an attention to the important du's of been produced thereby, on their lives family religion. In many families, and conversation, leave little room to whcic God was wholly disresulted, the doubt that the divine blessing has very morning and evening sacrilice us prasa signally atiended the labours of the er and praise is roup regularly pid; missionaries.
the Bists is carefully studiud; “The fruits," it is observed, “as far great pains die lesioned of the relias we can judge, have been the effect gious instruction of children. of that wisdom from above, which is We are particoliy pleased to have
first fure, then freaceable, senile and easy met, in the account which has reacued to be entreated, full of inercy and good us, with few or no synaptoms of those fruits, without partiality, and evithout hy- extravagances which have attended the procrisy." The chief means employed revival of religion in Kentucky, and upon the occasion, have been preach, which were purticularly noticed in our ing, and conferences. “ The preach. number for October, p. 670. ing,” it is said, has been plain. Min The annual expense incurred by the isters have dwelt much on experimen- Connecticut Missionary Society, is slattal religion, and on the great doctrines ed to be no more ihan 1650 dollars, of grace, such as repentance, faith, the about 3701.; and the report adds, that necessity of a new birth, the willingness they were only prevented from extend
The distinguishing tenet of the Universal. ing their labours, both in the states and ists is, that God has decreed that all men shall among the Indians, by the scantiness infallibly be saved.
of their funds.
VIEW OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS.
cumstance which renders the present leve The Military Conscriptions in this country, particularly unpopular, is the Chief Consul's have given occasion to much dissatisfaction, evidentiy intending it to recruit his wasted arwhich broke out in Paris, on one occasion, in. my in St. Domingo, a service to which it can. to open tumult. The consequence was, that not be expected iliat there should prevail any a party of Dragoons arriving, ten of the Con very cordial inclination scripts were killed, twenty-four wounded, and The Helvetic Consulta are 2950
ssembling ai about as many more sent in gaol. The Con- Paris, and are expected to procerd, in non scripts consist of three out of four chosen by long time, to the fabrication of a New Colllot, of all the young men between twenty and stitution for Switzerland. twenty-three years of age, who have not been able to purchase their exemption, by paying The unhappy Swiss have at length comabout £ 25 sterling to government. The cir. pleiely sunk under the Powerful pressure of Christ. Obsery. No. 12.
FRENCH WEST INDIES.
their conquerors. Their former leaders have been arrested, carried off from them, and put Tom Payne is said to have arrived at New into close confinement; and "heavy contribu York, in a ship from Havre, on the 5th of Uctions have been imposed, for the maintenance tober last. of the French troops, who are employed in A Society of Deists, comprizing upwards of disarming the inhabitants.
one hundred persons, is also said to have been
formed at the same place, for the purpose of The Imperial Plenipotentiary has not yet extending their opinions ; but whether its inacceded to the Definitive Conclusum of the stitution is connected with Tom Payne's arriDeputation.
val does not appear. Each member is bound,
by oath, to serve the order, with “his fortune, In Holland, where Commerce is better an- his honour, and his blood." derstood than in France, a number of Merchants have petitioned for the removal of the Martinique and Tobago have been given Prohibition against the Importation of British up to the French. Woollen Manufactures, well knowing that The accounts from St. Domingo, which such restrictions do more injury to the nation, have been published in the French Official in whose favour they are made, than to that Journal, are not so disastrous as those which against which they are directed. Govern. have reached this country from other quarters. ment has not yet answered their petition. They admit, indeed, that there had been some
partial disturbances among the Blacks, and A violent shock of an Earthquake has been that the fever still prevailed at the Cape with experienced at Constantinople, by which con. unabated malignity: but they assert that the siderable damage was done to the buildings French force on the island amounted to about in several parts of the city. It was felt nearly 15,000 men, and that the prosperity of the coabout the same time at Moscow, and in differ-lony was progressive. Letters from Jamaica ent places in the Russian and Turkish domi and America, on the other hand, state, that pions.
the French were confined almost entirely to
the sea ports; that their communication with Five women were lately tried at Patna, in the interior was suspended, and with the posts Hindostan, on charges of Sorcery, and being on the coast was carried on by sea ; that the found guilty, were put to death. The Gover troops had been withdrawn from several stanor General, on being informed of the circum- tions, which they were deemed incompetent stance, ordered all the principal persons, who to defend, in order to reinforce others which composed the tribunals, to be apprehended, were weakened by disease ; that the negroes and arraigned before the Circuit Court of Pat were, in all quarters, in a state of open insurna, on charges of the murder of these women, rection, spreading devastation over the planand the Court adjudged them to suffer death, tations in the neighbourhood of the French It appeared, however, that this custom had troops, from whom they experienced nothing prevailed time immemorial; several of the like effectual resistance; and that they were witnesses remembered numerous instances of actually preparing to attack some of the forts. persons having been put to death by the Bra. There was not, it is added, the least prospect inins for sorcery, and one of them in particu. of the restoration of tranquility in tlie colony, lar proved that his own mother had been tried and its appearance was still more tumultuand executed as a witch--the government, ous than at the commencement of the troubles iherefore, pardoned the offenders; but to at the breaking out of the Revolution. Com. prevent the recurrence of circumstances so merce was completely at a stard, and among disgraceful to humanity, a proclamation has the merchants nothing was to be seen been issued, declaring that any one forming a heard of but terror and dismay. tribunal for the trial of persons charged with witchcraft, or aiding or encouraging in any act Letters have been received in town, which to deprive such persons of life, shall be cieem- represent the negroes in the Dutch colonies ed guilty of murder, and suffer the penalty at as being in such a state of insubordination as tached to that offence.
greatly to alarm the planters.
The debates which liave taken place in have the members and supporters of the British Parliament constitute the the former administration become demost interesting branch of the politics vided by our new circumstances, into of the last monih. The sentiments of two directly opposite and contending the screral parties in this country, on bodies, but that in the party also of the great subject of the line of conduct Mr. Fox, a material difference of opiwhich Great Britain ought to pursue in nion has arisen. Mr. Fox approves
the respect to France, has now been fully moderate language of the present ad. developed. It appears that not only ministration, but dislikes ihe high peace
establishment which they have propos This change in the state of parties ed: he conceives the country to be may suggest to our readers some matsufficiently safe without it, and urges ter of reflection It shews that politithe most pacific measures.
cal men have often had fewer points of Mr. Sheridan justifies the mild tone agreement, as well as of disagreement, of ministry, because he deems it consis- than they appeared to have ; and it may, tent with even the highest spirit, and therefore, teach us candour and modeat the same time supports the measure ration in our judgment of them. A of a large establishment. He has even calm observer is almost disposed to gone as far as Mr. Windham in assert- smile at the violence which the new oping that Bonaparte meditates hostility position party has begun to manifest. against this country. He has repre- The charges of ignorance and incupasented his one prayer, morning and city, mismanagement in respect to fonight, “whether made to Jupiter, to reign politics, and continual breaches Christ, or to Mahomet,” as being put of the constitution, which used to be preup for our destruction ; and he has en- ferred against former administrations, deavoured to rouse the country to a are again repeated in our cars. Unsense of its impending dan er. Bona- doubtedly, charges of this kind may be parte, as he has observed, is a mali not jusi, but even then they are, for the most sent by Providence to fuifil the purpo. part, exaggerated. In general, bowses which he pretends that he is des- ever, the heat of pariy, full as much tined to accomplish, but appointed to perhaps as the desire of place, gives teach us the necessity of laying aside birth to these vehement accusations. our party differences, and of uniting for And it is worthy of remark, that even the preservation of a constitution, which, those measures of government are now whatever may be its faulis, appears in- opposed or cavilled at, respecting which valuable, when put in competition with it might be supposed beforehand, that the system introduced by the present only one opinion could be entertained; French despot.
we particularly allude to the very laudLord Grenville, and others in the alle exertions which are making to House of Lords, who seem to act in effect a reformation of abuses in the concert with Mr. Windham's party in Dock Yards, and oiler departments of the Commons, declaim vehemently, our naval service. both against the language and many of THE CHRISTIAN OBSERVER,weli'usi, the measures of administration, and call will never be disposed to encourage a loudly for a change of men, on the state of indifierence, respecting the preground that the present ministers have tensions of different political men ; or already lost the confidence of the na- to recommend a security which may be tion.
Mr. Piti, whose disposition to dangerous to the country. Our readsupport Mr. Addington remains, as we ers, however, must not expect that we do not doubi, unaltered, has been absent can adopt all the warmth or jealousy, or at Bath on account of healti.
all the apprehensions of each succesThe conduct of ministry has been of sive set of guardians of the country and a prudent and moderate kind. Their the constitution. Our attention, in. language has been that of men inclined deed, is chially turned to the means of to maintain, if possible, the peace which moral and religious improvement, anal, they have made. They have carefully whoever guides the hero of state, we, avoided that war of words, in which as passengers, shall not complain, pro. some others have indulged, and which vided they give us tolerabic security; the public prints have so much encou- while, at the same time, as persons inraged; while their measures hare terested the safety of the vessel, we shewn them determined to be at all shudl be ready to lend our hand, in any times well prepared to resist aggres- manner which may seem most expedision. They have adopted, as we con ent, when we hear the cry of danger. ceive, the line which goudi sense suy. We look, in the mean time, to an overgests, and have fullun ja with the gene ruling Providence, who has the hearts l'al sentiments of the nation.
of all men under his secret guidance,