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tion, shews a lustre equally unbroken, and a of a translation. Surely he might have beauty equally regular. Admitted to all the known, and knowing, he ought to have familiarity of social intercourse, partners of stated, that neither WISEUTUS, nor cwbnhis retirement, and witnesses of his most try. ing hours, the Apostles relate every incident Getal, nor natangibnoetab, has the narrow without disguise ; and from them we have a and confined sense, which is necessary series of facts, clearly illustrating the habits, for the support of his argument. That and completely developing the character of they who reject the Gospel, when protheir friend and master. Yet, amidst a!l this posed to them with suitable evidence, variety of situation and accuracy of detail, the only impressions, left upon the mind of an una

will be exposed to condemnation ; while prejudiced reader, are those of affection and those, who receive and practise it, will veneration for the transcendental virtues of ensure a blessing, is certainly the poJesus Christ.” (p. 266.)

sition, and the only position, contained in this passage.

66 What the conThe object of the seventh chapter is demnation thus incurred is, we are not to "examine Mr. Godwin's misrepre- precisely informed in this text, &c.sentation of the Christian Religion, and (p. 300.) the character of its Founder." The From these, and other succeeding charges brought forward by this half- observations, it would appear, that Mr. read unbeliever, are reduced to the fol- Maltby is inclined to adopt the dangelowing particulars :

rous and unwarranted opinion, that in Ist. The bigotry and intolerance, the text quoted by Mr. Godwin, the sanctioned by the doctrines of the Chris words saved and damned do not mean tian religion.

eternal happiness and eternal punishment. 2dly. The improper and unwarranta -We think, and are persuaded, that ble stress laid upon faith.

they do: and for the justification of this 3dly. Certain moral defects in the persuasion, it may be sufficient to procharacter of Jesus.

duce a text, parallel to the one in ques. To the manner in which Mr. Maltby tion, which occurs at the close of the has confuted the first and last of these third chapter of St. John; in which charges, great praise is due, and no ex our Lord

says, “ He that believeth on ception can be made. But, with the the Son hath everlasting life, and he means which he has adopted, for re that believeth not the Son shall not see moving the force of the second charge, life ; but the wrath of God abideth on we acknowledge ourselves to be greatly him.” Here everlasting life is declared dissatisfied.

to be the portion of him that believeth; In support of his second charge, and with regard to the fate of him who namely, that of an improper and unwar- believeth not, surely if any words in rantable stress being laid upon faith, in the Scripture express everlasting damna. Gospel of Christ, Mr. Godwin had said, tion, or the punishment of hell, it is ex“ It is the characteristic of this reli- pressed in the phrase, “ he shall not see gion, to lay the utmost stress upon life, but the wrath of God abideth on him." faith. Its central doctrine is contained That Mr. Godwin's notion of the in this short maxim, He that believeth, scriptural meaning of faith was very inshall be saved'; and he that believeth adequate, is extremely probable ; and not, shall be damned.”

had 'Mr. Maltby, after explaining this Upon this, Mr. Maltby observes- term, proceeded to justify that stress “ From the manner in which this text which certainly is laid upon faith in the is introduced, as well as from what fol. Gospel of Christ, as being neither lows, it is apparent that this writer af- “improper" nor sunwarrantable,” he fixes to the word damned the vulgar would have done all which appears to sense it has obtained in the English us to have been necessary for the conlanguage. Now certainly a writer, so futation of Mr. Godwin's charge. ardent in his professions for the cause Mr.Malıby has quoted a passage from of truth as Mr. Godwin, is the very last Rosenmuller, containing a person, who ought to support any posi- upon the leading expressious contained tion, and particularly one of such infi- in the text in question, which Mr. Maltnite consequence, by the misapplication by considers as strengthening his own

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observations. In this opinion, we feel between the preaching of the Gospel ourselves unable to acquiesce. On the and the propagation of the Coran, he contrary, the comment of Rosenmuller considers, Ist. The peculiar circumseems to us so satisfactorily to support stances of ihe times in which Mahomet the view we have taken, that we cannot appeared; 2dly. The temper and gerefrain from subjoining it.

nius of the people to whom he addres"O WISEUTUS XcL! BUTTIGES] Qui religio- sed bimself; and 3dly. His own natunis meæ doctrinam suscererit, et baptismoral and acquired advantages. se ei obstrinxerit. DIGTE9s9 hic, ut sæpè, Of the observations contained in this significat religionis docirinam cognitam chapter, some appear to be novel, many suscipere cum assensu, et constanti propo- to be striking, and all to be just. The silo studioque præceptis cjus obsequendi. uniform result of them is a confirmaVid. Act. ii. 44. iv. 32. xvi. 34. Tit. tion of the divine authority of the Gosiji. 8. Hinc ipsa religionis doctrina no- pel. By the combination of deep hisminatur #1515 i Tim. iv. 1. Epist. Jud. iorical research with acute and solid ver. 3, 20.

Est igitur hic #igeverv idem argumentation, the records of Mahoquod recOnteverdal, discipulum sectatorem metan imposture are made to furnish que Christi fieri, Matt. xxviii. 19. twire new evidence of the excellency and truth ostal] Salutem consequelur ; literabitur of Christianity ; and thus the lustre, á pænis peccatorum, à superstitione, erro. which the ariifice of a bold deceiver; ribus et vitiis ; ad cognitionem veritatis, and the superstitious credulity of his ad veram virtutem et felicitatem æternam followers, have united to throw around perveniel. Hæc enim omnia ista vox come the crescent, serves only to irradiate plecti solet. ó ds dg 154545] Non autem the superior glories of the cross. credens Evangelio, quod ipsi annunciatum In closing our review of this work, fuerit. xxt axpulsioet«s] Retentione pecca- we are reminded of the feelings with torum,et suppliciis æternis majoribus, quam which we closed our perusal of it, quæ eos manent, quibus hæc doctrina non They were those of respect for the auest annunciata.

thor of it, and an increased conviction of We must not conclude our account the truth” of that religion, which he has of the chapter under consideration, with so successfully endeavoured to illusout mentioning the energy, animation, trate. It has been our wish to recomand point, which are displayed in the mend this work to the perusal of our passage, in which the Author exposes readers, by a summary account of its the conduct of Mr. Godwin, in espous- contents, and a just display of its ing the cause of those prejudiced, self- mcrits. At the same time, we have ish, bigotted, and hypocritical persecu- stated our objections to the justness of tors, the Scribes and Pharisees, in op- some of the author's sentiments and position to the just and holy indigna- the accuracy of some of his expressions: tion of Jesus Christ.

and in doing this, we felt no reserve or The eighth and last chapter of this hesitation, since we have had reason valuable and interesting work contains given us to believe, that our remarks “a View of the Defects of the Evidence referred to a man, who would expect in favour of the Mahometan Religion :” at our hands, candid criticism, and not the expediency of which view arises unqualified panegyric; and who would from the success of the Arabian impos- infinitely prefer the advancement of the tor having been confounded, by the de- interests of truth, by a faithful correcsigning or the unthinking, with the tion of his errors, to the obtaining from success which attended the propagation us, or from any man, the very questionof the Gospel. Mr. Maltby adverts to abie praise, of having been the author some of the most discriminating cir- of a faultless production. cumstances under which the prophet of Arabia was enabled to execute his portentous designs, which he collects LIX. The Evidence for the Authenticity and from unquestionable sources of infor

Divine Inspiration of the Apocalypse stated;

and vindicated from the Objections of the late mation. And in order to discover the

Professor F. D. Michaelis ; in Letters allmarked and distinct lines of separation

dressed to the Reverend Herbert Marsh, B.D.

F. R. S. 8vo. pp. 92. London, Hatchard, sionally to make remarks on those observa. 1802.

tions of Michaelis, which tend to invalidate it. This seasonable publication will afford and internal. The external is, that which is

“ This evidence divides itself into external us the opportunity, which we should derived from credible witnesses, from the have been happy to have taken earlier, early writers and fathers of the Church. The of applying something of a corrective internal is, that which results from a perusal to the rash liberties which the German of the book.” critic has taken with the Sacred Scrip Alier observing that Michaelis seems lures, and of expressing, in rather to have approached the external evistronger terms, the censure which we dence for the Apocalypse with a prepassed upon his celebrated perform- judice against it, derived from bis ance, the translation of which into our opinion of its internal evidence; and own language has been lutely complet- that he had himself experienced two ed by Mr. Marsh.* Although the ar. opposite prepossessions upon the subgument contained in this work applies ject originating from the same cause, but to one book in the Sacred Canon, by the first of which he was tempted the result of it will justly extend to the to depreciate, by the second to overcriticisms of Michaelis on all the rest; value the cxternal evidence, he proand whatever deference the reader ceedsmay be disposed to pay to the aùthority " But in our examination of the external of so profound a scholar on the very evidence we ought, so far as human infirmity subject of his profession, he will sus. may permit, to be free from any such partialipect that the evidence upon which ty; and to forget, for a season, our previous other books are rejected or questioned, ternal. The two evidences, external and inter

conceptions of the weight of its evidence inhas as little foundation as that which nal, should be kept apart ; they should not be has produced the rejection of the Apo- suffered to incorporate ; each should be concalypse. The anonymous author has sidered with reference to itself only. After discovered so much candour and good ly and properly be brought together, and be

which separate examination, they may useful. sense in the prosecution of his object, allowed their due influence upon each other." that we have no doubt a due regard will be paid to his arguments by the

Agreeably to this rule, the originaliperson to whom they are particularly ty of which principally consists in the addressed; and that the learned trans- distinctness with which it is laid down, lator of Michaelis, when he completes and the prominency and importance his notes upon that author, will give which are given to it, the author enters his readers reason to form a very dif- first upon a view of the external eviferent conclusion concerning the book dence : and the first point which he in question, from that to which the ori. endeavours to establish by that evidence ginal work would lead them.

is, the time when the book in question The letters, of which the work now was written. Here he justly gives the to bc examined is composed, are ten in preference to the testimony of Irenæus, number. The first professes high re. which, in opposition to a novel inter: spect for the character and talents of pretation of that testimony by MichaeMr. Marsh ; the second lays down the lis, he makes it evident, refers the apomethod which the author intends to calyptical vision to the latter part of pursue in his proposed inquiry, and Domitian's reign. With Mill and which, in our opinion, is distinguished Lardner, therefore, and other critics, not more by its judiciousness than by he places the date of the Apocalypse its originality.

in the year 96 or 97. “ In the following letters," says he, (p. 4)

In his fourth letter our author writes : “ I propose to review the evidence which has been adduced, for the authenticity and divine Apocalypse was written, we may proceed to

" Having ascertained the time in which the inspiration of the Apocalypse ; to add thereto review the external evidence, which affects some few collections of my own, and occa- its authority; for we shall now be enabled to

appreciate such testimony, by considering its * See our review of that work, Number approximation to the time when the book was VII. p. 435 et seq.


He then sets himself to state the evi- as to render it an assertion altogether dence which the early Christian writers unjustifiable, that Ignatius is silent upafford to the authenticity of the Apoca- on the subject. Some instances our lypse, and, transgressing a little upon author has produced, and Jortin will chronological order, produces for his supply an addition of two to the list.* first testimony Irenæus. For this ir- The testimony of Ignatius is followed regularity, however, lie makes a suffi- by those of Polycarp, Papias, and Juscient apology by observing-" Theretin Martyt; Athenagoras, the Gallic are many testimonies which, in point churches, Melito, and Theophilus; of time, are antecedent to this of Ire. Apollonius, Clemens of Alexandria, næus, but none so comprehensive, so and Tertullian. positive, and direct." (p. 21.) Indeed, These writers, together with Hippo. from the intimacy which subsisted be- lytus and Origen, are exhibited, actween him and Polycarp, he may not cording to their respective dates, in a improperly be considered as represent- biographical chart, that the reader may ing the testimony of the latter. And at one view be able to estimate the in what estimation that testiniony is to weight and value of the evidence adbe held may be determined from the duced. And during this period, the circumstance that Polycarp bad con- author observes, there is not one wri. versed with St. John, and was by the ter, no father, no ecclesiastical author, same Apostle ordained to the see of who seems to have questioned the auone of the cities particularly addressed thenticity of the Apocalypse. Yet there in the apocalypse.* The rest of the was ground then for the same objectestimonies in favour of that book, are tions, which afterwards induced some adduced in chronological order; and persons to reject it, in the third and Ignatius stands at the head of them. fourth centuries. (p. 39.). Certain hereThe supposed silence of this bishop tics, however, rejected it. Of that and martyr, upon the subject of the number was Marcion. But it is justly Apocalypse, induced Michaelis to observed, that while, by this mean, he reckon upon him as an evidence against establishes the existence of the book, it: but it is well replied, that the cir- his known character secures it against cumstances under which the only au. any injurious consequence from his rethentic writings of Ignatius were pen- jection of it. The Alogi likewise, a ned would of themselves be sufficient sect which derived its name from an to account for his silence, even suppos- aversion to the term Logos, denied the ing him to have adınitted the authen- divine authority of the Apocalypse, and ticity of the controverted book. “ He attributed it to Cerinthus. But their was a prisoner," says the letter writer, rejection of that book deserves as little “ upon travel, guarded by a band of regard as the unreasonable prejudice soldiers, whom, for their ferocity, he upon which it was founded. compares to leopards, and by ihem Letter the seventh details the exter. hurried forward in bis passage from nal testimony which is obtained from Antioch to Rome, there io be devour. Hippolytus and Origen in favour of the ed by wild beasts.” (p. 23.) Regular part of Scripture, whose authority is and explicit references to books of here defended; and the evidence upon Scripture could hardly be expected the subject is summed up in the followunder such circumstances; yet unfa- ing words : vourable as those circumstances were, “I shall now request my readers to review there are some expressions made use the the biographical chart presented to them of by the martyr, which can hardly be in page 38. They will there observe, that hy interpreted on any other supposition, the addition which is made to the writers of than that he had seen, and acknowledg. polytus and Origen, the evidence is carried

the second century, by the testimonies of Hiped, the authenticity of the Apocalypse : the allusions, at least, are so probable,

* Remarks on Ecc. History, vol. i. pp. 37* See Eus. Hist. Ecc. v. 20, or Christian 39, where the author professes to collect some Observer, No. IX. p. 567. col. i. note, and allusions to Scripture in Ignatius, not to be Tert. de Pres. $ xxxi.

found in the margin of the Patres Apostolici. Christ. Obsery. No, 11.

5 A

down 150 years from the first publication of who are convinced that they have, in a the Apocalypse. This evidence is abundant, considerable degree, been fufilled, the (surprisingly so, considering the mysterious

The inquiry, nature of the book); it is constant and unin. argument is decisive. terrupted. At no time does it depend upon therefore, is confined to points in which any single testimony : many writers testify at there is a more general agreement; the same period; and these witnesses are such as the doctrines exhibited, and the nearly all the great names of ecclesiastical images presented in the Apocalypse, antiquity. To their evidence, which is for These may be compared with other parts the most part positive and express, no contra. dictory testimony of an external kind has been of Scripture undoubtedly canonical, and opposed. (p. 47, 48 )

a rational inference, of an internal kind, "Upon the whole,” he adds, “the candid may be deduced. The observation examiner cannot but perceive, that the exter, which our author professes to have nal evidence for the authenticity and divine made himself upon this subject, is eninspiration of the Apocalypse is of preponde

titled to consideration. rating weight; and that Michaelis is by no means justifiable in representing it, when placed in the scale against the contrary evi- these researches, I feel myself justified in

“As I am not altogether unpractised in dence, as suspended in equipoise. It is a complete answer to the assertions of his third making this general assertion, that, upon com.

paring the Apocalypse with the acknowledge section, to affirm, (and we now see tbat we

ed books of divine Scripture, I have almost can truly affirm it) that the authenticity of

universally found the very same notions, imthe book was never doubted by the Church, during the first century after it was publish- other Sacred Scriptures ; yet not delivered in

ages, representations, and divine lights, as in ed.” (p. 49.)

such a manner, as to be apparently copied In the eighth letter are discussed the from other inspired writers, but from some testimonies of subsequent writers, and original prototype, the same which these other as affording external evidence in favour in short, between the writer of the Apoca

writers also seem to have copied. There is, of the Apocalypse, even its impugner, lypse, and his predecessors in the sacred of. Dionysius of Alexandria, forms one of fice of prophet, that concordia discors, that the number. And with respect to the agreement in matter, but difference in man. supposed rejection of it by Luther, the ner, which is observed painters, who de.

lineate and colour in different stations from author observes,

the same original object; and this will be “The Church of ENGLAND was blessed allowed to be a strong internal evidence of the with the privilege of settling her articles, and divine original of the Apocalypse.” (p. 64.) her canon of Scripture, at a later period; at a time when the testimonies of the ancients, con The doctrines of this sacred book cerning the books of Scripture, were more ac are likewise vindicated, and proved to curately ascertained, and when the first crude be conformable to the general tenor of notions of the honest reformers had been ma. tured into safe opinions, by the progress of time acknowledged Scripture. To the oband truth. But the Church of England had no jection of obscurity, the answer is obhesitation to place the book of Apocalypse in vious and decisive. The exceptions her sacred canon; and, I doubt not, her sons which were first made to this book in will continue to supply her with numerous and the third century by Caius, a preslsyter irrefragable reasons for retaining it.” (pp. 61, of Rome, and are detailed in the writ62.)

ings of Dionysius of Alexandria, are The internal evidence comes next to

considered under five heads, and their be considered ; and the inquiry, under this view, the author represents as two, amination occupies the greater part of

invalidity is demonstrated.

This ex. fold - ist. Whether from the internal the last letter. And after some obserform and character of the Apoca- vations designed to prove that the aulypse, it appears to be a book of divine thor of the Apocalypse is the same inspiration. 2dly. Whether it appears person as the Apostle and Evangelist to have been written by the Apostle of the same name, the writer of this John. Here it is justly admitted, that

vindication concludes: the disagreement of writers upon the interpretation of the prophecies, con

“ We may, therefore, I trust, fairly contained in the book under examination, clude, that to the impregnable force of exter. prevent the fufilment of those prophe. the divine claims of the Apocalypse, a consid.

nal evidence, which has been seen to protect cies from being produced as an arguó erable acquisition of internal evidence may be ment in its favour: although to those added; or, at least, that this avenue, by which

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