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opposed to opinions which we totally disallow as containing, within the limits of 110 and protest against.” (p. 86–89.)

pages, a very unusual share of sound After these preliminary observations, instruction on those points which are the Author proceeds to shew what we of the greatest importance to the everare to understand by the promise in the lasting interests of mankind. text. For this purpose a number of passages of Scripture are quoted, which XLVI. Hure Mosaice; or a View of the Mospeak of the agency of the Holy Spirit;

saical Records, with respect to their Coincidence and by, which we are taught to ascribe with profane Antiquity; their internal Credi. the renovation of our fallen nature, the bility; and their Connection with Christianiillumination of our minds, our progress

ty: comprehending the Substance of Eight in holiness, our patience under affic

Lectures read before the University of Oxford tions, our enjoyment of hope, our antici.

in the Year 1801, pursuant to the Will of

the late Rev. John Bampton, A. M. By pation of heaven, and every other Chris- GEORGE STANLEY FABER, A. M. Fellow tian temper and comfort, to his divine of Linc. Coll. vol. 1. pp. xx. 372. vol. 2. pp. influence,

355. Oxford, 1801. Having by these authorities shewn It is the object of this important work, what may be expected from the promise, which reflects honour upon the instituthe Author endeavours to impress the tion to which it owes its origin, to supreader with the encouraging argument port the credibility of the Mosaical Reby which our Saviour excites us to pray

cords by three kinds of evidence; the for this grace. “If ye being evil know first resulting from their coincidence how to give good gifts unto your chil- with profane tradition, the second founddren; how much more shall your hea- ed upon internal marks of truth, and venly Father give the Holy Spirit to the third arising from the connection them that ask him.” As a further ex

between Judaism and Christianity. The ciiement to this duty, Mr. Scott main- first volume is taken up with the distains the suitableness of the promise cussion of the two former arguments; contained in the text to the condition of the second treats of the last. man, and the state of things in the

Mr. Faber, before he enters upon the world. Appealing to those incontes formal discussion of the first source of table proofs which every where meet

evidence, the external credibility of the us, of the depravily of human nature,

Mosaical writings arising from their and to the miseries of which it is the coincidence with profane tradition, fruitful cause; he asks, “ What is the thinks it expedient to present the reaadequate remedy for this deplorable der with a statement of the subject, in moral disease, the restorative from this which he assumes that "the most andeath in sin, this love of the world, cient records now extant are those of which is alienation from God? We an

the Jewish nation.” (Vol. I. p. 8.) Im swer, the life-giving regenerating spi. this assertion, Mr. E. is, indeed, sup rit of God, who is promised to all that ported by the authority of Sir William ask the Father to bestow upon them Jones;* an authority which, upon such this inestimable gift.” (p. 101.)

a subject, can hardly be overrated. In An Address to various characters,

order, however, to preclude any objecapplying to each of them those warn

tion, which, as affecting the foundation ings, instructions, or encouragements,

of the argument, might be supposed to which the subject suggests, concludes deprive it of a considerable degree of the Sermon.

its force, it may be proper to apprize There is much in Mr. Scott's style the reader that, in the judgment of Mr. to which a fastidious critic might ob- Maurice, the Vedas are equal

, or prior, ject; but it is always clear and often in antiquity to the writings of Moses. forcible. To such of our readers as • Pref. to Inst. of Menu. love the truth for its own sake, and have † Hist. of Hindostan, Vol. i. pp. 55, &c. in a taste to relish lessons of practical an advertisement prefixed to the London Edi

tion of the Fifth Volume of the Asiatic Repiety, though unadorned with the graces searches, as weak in the performance as wickof oratory, we can, with very great ed in the intent, advantage is endeavoured to pleasure recommend these Discourses, be made of this circumstance.

re

But should we even admit their priori. F. is no doubt acquainted with what Sir iy, this circumstance would rather cor- William Jones has said concerning the roborate than weaken the argument of radicals of Mr. Bryant, in his ninth anMr. F.; which in opposition to most of niversary discourse, in the Asiatic Rethe systems of his predecessors in the searches. The illustrious President same researches, supposes, and may have carried his objections against quires the supposition, that the prime- etymological argument to excess; for, val traditions of the Pagan nations “de- as himself admits, instances innumerascended to them, riot through the medium ble may be adduced of certaiu derivaof Jewish Antiquities, but down the stream tion between words the most dissimilar of in universal and uninterrupted tradi- that can be imagined. The ancient tion.(p. 12.) "Upon this statement," and modern names of a great part of Mr. F. proceeds to affirm, “depends Europe may serve as an example. But the whole of the ensuing argument in then the derivation, in such cases, must favour of the authenticity of the Books be established by external arguments; of Moses.” (p. 13.) For the circ!im- and without these the most exact restance, upon which the author's argu- semblance inay be fallacious. ment is founded, is the undesignedness It would be a vain attempt to follow of the coinciderices adduced.

Mr. F. through his detailed compari

son of the traditions of paganism with " The narrative contained in the Penta. the records of Moses; which the allteuch," says Mr. F. “naturally divides itself thor has conduced with great abiliiy, into four distinct periods : the account of the Creation ; the history of the time which elaps. and from which he has shewn to result ed between the Creation and the Deluge; the a coincidence inexplicable on any other description of the Deluge; and the annals of principle than that of an original dericertain remarkable postdiluvian events. Upon vation from the same source. IVe inquiry, it will be found, that the remem. will, therefore, satisfy ourselves with brance of these circumstances has been served, in a very remarkable manner by almost transcribing the conclusion which Mr. every nation upon the face of the earth. The F. himself has drawn from his own samé facts are related both in the east and in staternent. the west, with a singular degree of accuracy; and the variations which occur in the several “Sufficient has now been said to convince narratives, serve only to shiew that the knowl. any candid inquirer, that the principal facts edge, which was originally possessed by all related in the books of Moses do by no means the immediate descendants of Noah, has, in depend merely upon his solitary testimony, process of time, been gradually corrupted.” but that they are supported by the concurrent (p. 14)

voice of all nations.

• We have followed the stream of profane Mr. F. then gives a brief outline of tradition from the very creation itself, to the the Mosaic history during the period period when the Egyptian tyrant was con. abovementionedi, in which we were sur

strained by the mighty arm of God, to dismiss prised 10 find him, after what Reiand frequently seen it corrupted with extraneous

the oppressed Israelites; and though we have bas said upon the subject, * adopting the matter, or gliding beneath the luxuriant folia common opinio!), that Sodom and the age of allegory, yet its purity has never been neighbouring cities were converted in. so far debased, as to preclude the possibility to a lake. (p. 18.)

of discovering the fountain from which it oriIn interpreting the more obscure tra

ginally issued.

“ We have observed, that nearly every paditions of Paganism, Mr. F. calls in the gan cosmogony, in a manner strictly analogous assistance of three rules, founded upon to the exordium of Genesis, describes darkthe known practice of antiquity; the ness and water to be the fundamental princifirst of which is intended to divest ihose ples of all things. We have found some natraditions of their allegorical obscurity; different periods; and others declaring, that

tions dividing the work of Creation into six the second to deprive thein of their

an exalted personage, a mysterious emanalocal appropriation; and the third de- tion from the Supreme being, was the auduces the elymology of terms, not from thor of the universe. Greek, but from Oriental radicals. Mr.

“ Proceedling in our researches, we have

met with almost a general tradition, that man * Pal. Illust. tom. i. pp. 254-258

was once upright and innocent; but that, through the envy of a malicious demon, he

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forfeited his pristine integrity, and became found, in this part of the work, some the sport of disease and corruption. We have consideration of the objection, which, seen the remembrance of that form which allowing the coincidence here demonthe tempter assumed, preserved with an uncommon degree of accuracy; and we have strated, would draw from it a very difbeheld the universal expectation of some vic. ferent conclusion; which, instead of intorious power, some mediatorial Deity, who ferring the credibility of the Mosaic was destined to bruise the head of the van.

writings, would represent them in comquished serpent.

mon with the traditions of heathenisin, Suffering ourselves to be carried down the stream of ancient mythology, we next

as streams from the same source, vari. learned that the depravity of mankind gradu- ously corrupted, and as cither dividing ally attained to such a height, as to provoke the truth among them, or leaving it the vengeance of heaven; that the avenues to uncertain whether any could claim it. Divine Mercy were closed; and that a tremendous food of waters swept away every answered by this confusion of claim,

The object of infidelity is sufficiently living soul in undistinguished ruin. Along with this tradition we found that all nations although the superiority should be alentertained a belief, that some pious prince lowed to the Hebrew legislator. The was saved in an ark from the dreadful cala, objection, indeed, partakes of the weakmity which desolated a whole world; and

ness of the cause to the support of thať in many countries, even the number of which it is necessary; but as it might persons preserved along with him was accu. rately recorded. We met with various evi. impose upon those who are not upon dent allusions to the same awful event in the their guard, the confutation of it is not Gentile memorials of the dove and the rain. superfluous. bow; and we beheld the remembrance of it

The internal credibility of the Pentadeeply impressed on the national belief of eve.

teuch, Mr. F. tries and establishes by ry country, whether situated in the eastern or in the western hemisphere.

the four following rules: “ Advancing next into the confines of the renovated world, we saw the second progeni- “1. That the promulger of it was not selftor of mankind transformed into one of the deceived into a belief, that he was divinely principal gods of the Heathens, and almost commissioned ; a deception which could only every cirsumstance of his life accurately de. originate from enthusiasm, or from certain tailed His mythological birth from the ark, false appearances supposed to be miracles, in the midst of clouds and tempests ; bis skill II. Thai he was not an impostor; or, in other in husbandry; his triple offspring; and the words, that he had no intention to deceive his unworthy treatment which he experienced

followers.

III. That authentic documents from his youngest son, all passed in review have been handed down to posterity from before our eyes, and stamped indelibly the about the time, when such events took place, bright characters of truth upon the sacred without any corruption or interpolation, expage of Scripture. We then traced the over- cept such various readings as are the natural throw of the Tower of Babel, and the destruc- and necessary consequences of frequent tran. tion of the ambitious Nimrod, in the last war

scription; and which may, generally speakof the giants; when the vollied thunder of ing, be corrected by a careful collation of the heaven was directed against an impious race,

best and most ancient copies. IV. And that and when the frantic projects of vain man

the moral precepts be such as are worthy of were defeated by the immediate interference the goodness and purity of God, tending to of Omnipotence. Lastly, we met with various promote virtue and to discountenance rice." records of the ancient' Patriarchs in the wri. (pp. 251, 252 ) tings of profane historians; we saw Greece and China combining to prove the real exis- The thiree first of these rules apply tence of a seven years famine in the days of Josephı ; and we bebeld an uninterrupied tra

to every written revclalion; but the last dition of the exodus of Israel, preserved in the

can be applied only in cases of previous secluded deserts of Arabia. (p. 241-244.)

knowledge concerning the nature of

God, from whatever source that knowWould our limits have permitted, we ledge is derived. It may be derived should have been gratified in extending from another revelation ; and so Christhis extract to the end of the chapter, tiuns may rationally argue from the where the author finishes the first part proper and independent certainty of of the subject--the external credibility the Christian Religion, which declares of the Mosaic records, arising froin the goodness and purity of God. But their coincidence with profane tradi- without the supposition of another, and tion. We almost expected to have an independent revelation, we cannot Christ. Obsery. No. 9,

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try the pretensions of the revelation in divine truth on the sacred volume of Scripture. question, by the conformity of its moral This branch of theology, however, is in itself precepts with the abovementioned per- and has been already most amply discussed by

sufficiently copious to form a distinct subject, fections of divine nature, unless we as

various authors. One part of it shall be concribe to the human mind a natural abi. sidered in a subsequent portion of the present lity to discover the being and perfec- work; which, while it serves to connect the tions of God. To suppose those

per'

law and the gospel, may be viewed, at the fections discoverable by no other means

same time, in the light of an additional atlesthan a divine revelation, and to try any (pp. 336, 337.)+

tation to the authenticity of the Pentateuch." particular revelation by its agreement

To this part of the subject, which with them, is to reason in a circle. In this part of the argument, which

commences and occupies ihe second is conducted with a perspicuity and volume, we will now proceed. The con

nection between the Mosaical and Chrisforce wbich we anticipated, it will be of considerable importance to advert to

tian dispensations, Mr. F. endeavours the observations of one of the most viru

to establish by threc distinct media ; lent adversaries of revelation. " That

that of types, that of prophecy, and that one condition,” says Lord Bolingbroke, of practical object. To the particular “ of the authenticity of any human bisa discussion of these subjects he has pre

fixed a section upon erroneous opinions tory, and such alone we are to consider in this place, is, that it contains nothing siders the errors of certain Gentile con

respecting this connection. He first conrepugnant to the experience of mankind. Things repugnant to this expc- the Gnostics of Cerinthus, of Manes, and

verts upon the subject particularly of rience are to be found in many that of other heretics of the same descrippass, however, for authentic; in that of Livy, for instance: but then these tion. He then examines the similar

error of the Jews converted and unconincredible anecdotes stand by them

verted. selves, as it were, and the history may go on without them. But this is not of the links by which the two dispensa

In the section upon Types, the first the case of the Pentateuch, nor of the other Books of the Old Testament. În- tions are connected, Mr. F. takes a comcredible anecdotes are not mentioned prehensive, and, of necessity, a concise

view of the various typical institutions, seldom, and occasionally in them: the

characters, and events which abound in whole history is founded on such ; it consists of little else; and if it were not a

the Ritual and History of Moses. The history of them, it would be a history of chapter, in which he considers the pas

In other words, if the his. sage of Israel through the Red Sea as tory of Moses is a true history, it is a

typical of the Laver of Regeneration, divine revelation. The consequence

is

deserves the more attention, because he unavoidable, and a very important con

undertakes to explain therein the na

ture and necessity of regeneration-a sequence it is. If the reader will attend to this circumstance, the insepa

doctrine of the last importance to man

kind. rable connection between the ordinary and the miraculous events recorded by

“ The Church of England," says our author, Moses, he will peruse the argument of defines the sacrament of baptism to be the Mr. F. with great advantage.

outward visible sign of an inward spiritual

grace. The external symbol is water ; the At the close of this part of the sub- internal grace, ' a death unto sin, and a new ject Mr. F. observes.

birth unto righteousness. As the consecrated

elements in the Lord's Supper are, by a com“The preceding pages, however, do not mon rhetorical figure, denominated the body contain the only arguments which may be ad. and blool of Cbrist : so by a similar mode of duced to prove the matter in question. The expression, baptism is frequently termed regecompletion of an immense number of prophe. neration.” (pp. 95, 96.) cies, at different periods, and in different countries, stamps indelibly the character of + This passage will serve to correct the too

restricted terms in which Mr. F., at the open* Works, Vol. iii p. 279, quoted by War. ing of his argument, speaks of the foundations burton, in his View of Lord Bolingbroke's of the credit due to the aulhor of the PentaPhilosophy, Letter iï. pp. 105, 106.

terch. (See p. 11. Rev.)

nothing. "*

Mr. F. then represents regeneration known 10 our venerable Reformers, and to the as progressive ; and with as much judg- sacred page of Scripture.” (p. 117.) ment as ingenuity, pursues the analogy Mr. F. however, is far from insisting between the spiritual, and our natural, upon perfection in the regenerate, much life through the successive stages of in- less does he found their acceptance in fancy, youth, and manhood. The ana- the sight of God upon it. logy, however, entirely fails in the last “ We must not, indeed, expect," says lie, instance-death; a circumstance at which " that, in the present life, our wills can ever our author expresses the exultation be. be in perfect unison with the will of God, coming a Christian.

There is a constant struggle, even in the most

devoted hearts, between grace and nature; “ Here, thanks be to God through Jesus but no person has any reason to esteem him. Christ, the parallel ceases. Every son of self in a dangerous state because harassed with Adam is subject to the condition of mortali- this internal warfare.” (pp. 130, 131.) ty; but regeneration opens to the Christian

In that part of the argument which the full prospect of a glorious immortality. Death is swallowed up in victory.' At the treats of the connection between the close of a life spent in the service of God,

Mosaic and Christian dispensations by the aged believer can raise his eyes, moist in. imeans of prophecy, Mr. F. examines deed, with the tears of gratitude, but glisten.

separately and in order :-). Those ing with hope, towards that heaven, in the joys of which he will soon be removed to par.

prophecies which define the family of ticipate." (p. 124.)

the Messiah. 2. Those which relate

to his office and character, the call of But from this general view of the sub- the Gentiles, and the rejection of the ject, let us return to examine some par- Jews. 3. Those which declare that ticular passages; and let us hear how the Law was to be superseded by the Mr. F. explains himself on the nature Gospel. We think, however, that Mr. of regeneration.

F. has admitted, without sufficient rea“ The scriptural doctrine of regeneration

son, the conjectural emendation of has unhappily been so abused, on the one

Kennicott, with respect to the reading hand, to the purposes of fanaticism, that, on of Is. liii. 9. pp. 238–240. The obthe other, probably from a weak unmanly jection, which Campbell has alleged dread of the imputation of enthusiasm, it has against it in the Preliminary Dissertabeen almost totally rejected: but, if the heat. tions to his translation of the Gospels, ed imagination of some makes it to depend entirely upon sudden impressions, and sensible

appears to us insurmountable. * impulses ; the supposition of others, that it In stating the practical connection beconsists in a bare external decency, and in a tween the law and the Gospel, Mr. F. mere outward reformation of manners, is, if founds his argument upon Gal. iji. 24. possible, even yet more absurd. The fear of which he has adopted for his thesis. disgrace or punishment; the desire of main. The sense in which he understands the taining a fair character, hereditary prejudices, customs, convenience, and a variety of other assertion, that “the Law was our school. motives of a similar nature, may sticcessfully master to bring us unto Christ," is ununite in producing a very plausible and deco- doubtedly, the sense most consistent rous exterior. The heart in the mean time, with the context. In this important may remain totally unaffected, and completely discourse, Mr. F. addresses himself to at variance with God.” (pp. 101, 102.)

confute the following erroneous notion Much more follows to the same pure concerning the Christian dispensation : pose : and after some pertinent questions from the writings of our Reform, therefore is required under the Christian dispensa

"God is merciful and man is weak. Nothing ers, Mr. F. adds:

tion but sincerity; and provided only we do our “From these citations it will sufficiently best we are sure of salvation. The ancient staappear how opposite the general doctrine of tutes of Moses are now abolished; and Christ has the Church of England, as maintained by such promulged a new law, in which the former strict. eminent characters as Beveridge and Hooker, ness of God's justice is abated." (P 286.) is to the complaisant and accommodating libe.

Plausible as this system may appear rality of the present age. The dignity of hu. man nature ; its innate tendency ta virtue, and to a superficial observer, Mr. F. justly abhorrence from vice; its occasional lapses; observes, that the thunder of papal anaits venial errors ; its trifling offepces; and its accidental failings; are terms equally un

* Diss. xii. Part ii. Sect. 14.

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