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masquerading. By the uninterrupted Sands the preceding day, whatever celebration of these rites during a finery we had with us had not been fortnight, at the conclusion of each dabbled and stained by the water period of twenty-one years, the respec- which flowed into the chaise ; and my table borough of Preston purchases, coachman, who, like myself, is an orconformably to the ordinance of Henry derly man), seeing his two fat horses the Second, a renewed lease of its char- squeezed into one stall, and every moter. The sagacious monarch assuredly ment liabie to be turned adrist on the discerned the price which his clients return of the rightful owner of the would be, in all future times, most station into which they had intruded, willing and most competent to pay ; was still more impatient than his masand it is no more than justice to add, ter to depart. that they spare no exertions to satisfy I frankly confess, Mr. Editor, that the demands of their royal patron. while I was entangled amidst the inFrom the peer to the mechanic every conveniences in which the Guild innerve is on the stretch : surrounding volved sober travellers, desirous to counties pour in their mullitudes; and proceed about their business; I was the capital itself does not discain to far from being suficiently sensible of contribute its cooks, its waiters, its its merits. But now, Sir, contemplaplayers, its hair-dressers, and its pick. ting the institution at a safe distance I pockets. To mention the personages behold it with other eyes. Its antiquity wiro, in the multifarious occupations of renders it respectable ; its utility entithe Guild, have attained more exalted tles it to esteem and imitation. What celebrity than their associates, were it can be better adapted, than such a juin my power, would be invidious. The bilee, to purge away from the heart triumphs, indeed, of a certain Earl at that black and stagnant blood, which is the cock-pit, rival the glories of Bona- the feeder of Methodism and Jacobinparte. But, though I am a staunch ism? I dare to affirm, that there was friend to aristocracy, I wish not to not a Jacobin or a Methodist who pardepress the gentry and commonaliy took, or partook cordially, of these into utter despondence by reiterat- festivities. What can be better adaping the name, and dwelling on the ted than such a round of delights to achievements of the noble victor. At expose the slanders of the disaffectes, Lancaster my apprehensions had been who proclaim the country to be sunk allayed, by credible informations that in wretchedness; or to counteract the the Carnival was at an end, and that self-inflicted miseries preached up by post-horses would be plentiful; but those who are righteous overmuch? when we entered Preston, we found True it is, that the Preston Guild rcthat the turmoil « had increased, was vives us but once in one-and-twenty increasing, and," as I then was hastily years. Let us remember, however, disposed to pronounce, “ought to be inal the secular games instituted among diminished.” The landlord, when we the Romans, undoubtedly for similar stopped at his door, looked heartily purposes, returned not but at the exsick of the Jubilee, and had sought piration of a century. He who beheld refuge in the street from crowds of them once never belield them again, excompany, who were stunning him with cept when the ionovating impatience demands for accommodations and con- of an Emperor precipitated the period veyances. Had I not been fortunate of their recurrence. But he, wlio, durenough to have with me a pair of horses ing early youth, has been initiated into of my own, we might have paid a the Preston mysteries, may hope 10 handsome sum for the liberty of sitting sbare iwice in the celebration of thein up all night at the Black Bull. My during manhood, and once in a green wife and daughters, solicitous to be at old age. Shall we deem lightly of a home, would have felt little inclina- blessing, because it is to be enjoyed tion to mis in the tumult of gayety, less frequently than we wish? These even if in crossing the Ulverston considerations, Mr. Editor, have de.

termined me to invite, through the know that in some minds a prejudice channel of your widely extended work, exists against the appearance of men the attention of the legislature to this of low station in masquerade ; partly momentous subject; and to suggest, I because the masquerade in which will not say the expediency, but the they usually present themselves, with necessity of providing, by parliamen. crapes, namely, over their visages, and tary regulation, for the quick recur dark lanthorns or cocked pistols in rence of Preston Guild, and for the their hands, excites ideas not altoestablishment of Guilds throughout gether pleasant; and partly because the British empire. It surely would these masqueraders, unlike to most of require but a slight exertion of that their superiors, support with spir“ vigour beyond law,” so efficaciously it the character which they have as. displayed by Charles the Second, and sumed, but jealousy, when the national so abiy recommended by the most en- welfare is at stake, must not be hulightened statesman of the present moured. As to unpleasant ideas from clay, to pronounce by a quo warranto the inasqueraders with black faces, noforfeiture of the charters of all the thing, Mr. Editor, is more absurd than cities and towns in bis Majesty's do- to draw general conclusions from parminions. And if that measure were ticular examples. What, if an hundred adopted with a view to the renewal of cases of barbarity, or loss of human them, on the express condition that eve- life, be quoted from the annals of Bullry city and town should duly celebrate baiting? Each of them is but a single an annual Guild, what moralist would instance. What, if proof of ten thounot allow, conformably to the princi. sand yearly murders in the Slave ples of that statesman and the Jesuits, Trade be produced ? Each is but a that this is an occasion on which the single instance. Would parliament end sanctifies the means, on which it on such grounds frown on Bull-baiting is lawful to do evil that good may or on the Slave Trade ? Ever since I come? But in the execution of this began logic at the university, I have salutary plan, the subordinate parts recognised the folly of arguing a dicto are, by no means, to be confided to the secundum quid ad dictum simpliciter. I precariousness of local discretion. The have only to add, that under the fostercharter itself must prescribe the most ing encouragement of the legislature, important details ; otherwise there village wakes might be elevated into may be frequent omission of many of petty guilds. Thus would new sources the rites best adapted “ to cherish the of patriotism and virtue be opened feelings of loyalty and religion.” Such throughout our empire. Enjoyment an omission, I speak with deep regret, of the present Guild, recollection of disgraces the Guild at Preston. There the past, and preparation for the fuis no Bull-baiting. The legislature, cure, would purify every heart. therefore, will ensure, in every char- benign energy of this institution would tered town, the formation of a Bull. extinguish democracy and infidelity; ring contiguous to the Cock-pit. It and might, ultimately, supersede the will also direct its vigilance to the ge- visitations of Bishops and the expense seral diffusion, among the inferior of an established Church. Communi. classes, of those diversions of the cate, Sir, my propositions to the pubGuild, as acting and masquerades, lic; and let me exult in the conviction which at present are nearly monopo- of having saved my country. Jized by the higher ranks of society. I

P. O,


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XLIV. Lectures on the Gospel of St. Matthew,

In the commencement of the First delivered in the Parish Church of St. James Lecture, the Bishop speaks thus, conWestminster, in the Years 1798, 1799, 1800, cerning his general design : and 1801 By the Right Reverend BeiLBY

“ Edification not entertainment, usefulness PORTEUS, D. D. Bishop of London. 2 Vols. 8vo. London. Cadell and Davies.

not novelty, are the objects I have in view ;

and in which therefore I may sometimes per1802

haps avail myself of the labours of others, In the Preface to this work, the unfa when they appear to me better calculated to vourable aspect of the political, moral,

answer my purpose than any thing I am myself and religious state of Great Britain, capable of producing.” (vol. i. p. 1.) about the year 1797; the triumphs of

Towards the conclusion of the same its external enemies; the machinations Lectare, he distinctly states it to comof its internal foes to diffuse disaffection prehend the four following objects : and infidelity; and the spirit of volup “ 1st. To explain and illustrate those passa. tuous dissipation prevalent in the higher ges of holy writ, which are in any degree difranks, are described as having required ficult and obscure. · from every friend to religion the most

* 2dły. To point out, as they occur in the

sacred writings, the chief leading fundamenactive and strenuous exertions. Το

tal principles and doctrines of the Christian discharge his own share of the general religion. obligation, this exemplary Prelate de “3dly. To confirm and strengthen your termined to deliver a Lecture on a por internal marks of the truth and divine autho

faith, by calling your attention to those strong tion of the Gospel of St. Matthew, every rity of the Christian religion, which present Friday during Lent, in his parish church

themselves to us in almost every page of the of St. James, Westminster. The Lec- Gospel. tures were continued during four suc “ 4thly. To lay before you the great moral cessive years; and if the singularly precepts of the Gospel

, to press them home crowded audiences to which they were

upon your consciences and your hearts, and

render them effectual to the important ends delivered, were in part attracted by the

they were intended to serve; namely, the due novelty of the practice, and the high re government of your passions, the regulation of putation of the Bishop as a preacher, your conduct, and the attainment of everlasttheir persevering attendance during the ing life.” (vol. i. p. 23.) whole course, and the increase of their The Lecture closes with some obnumbers during the concluding year, servations which bear a strong testimofurnish ground for confident hope, that ny to the general usefulness of exposithe object of a very considerable pro- tory sermons. If our recollection be portion was Christian edification. accurate, this excellent Prelate has

After an introductory Lecture pur- strongly recommended them in one of posing to give a compendious view of his smaller publications, and has pointthe Sacred Writings, the Bishop pro- ed out the advantages of subjoining ceeds in an expository manner, from them to the afternoon service in many the beginning of the Gospel of St. Mat places, where there is at present no thew unto the end: not, however with sermon in that part of the day. a regular attention to the explanation To lay before our readers a minute of every passage, but with the occa examination of each Lecture would be sional omission even of entire chapters. incompatible with the limits of our ReThus little notice is taken of the ninth view. We shall, therefore, confine our chapter; none of the eleventh, fifteenth, remarks to such passages and topics as sixteenth, twentieth, twenty-first, and appear to us the most important. twenty-third. We should have been The Bishop notices, (vol. i. p. 60.) glad to see some illustration of every the seeming contradiction between the chapter. But we presume that the Bi- assertion of John the Baptist, John i. 21. shop did not conceive, that the time to that he was not Elias, and our Saviour's which he had limited himself, would declaration, Matt. xi. 14. that he was: admit a plan more comprehensive than and after specifying the true solution, that which he has adopted.

namely, that John denied himself to be

literally and identically Elias restored to' glory of God is to be the prime object life, and that our Lord affirmed him to of a Christian. But we greatly regret be the predicted messenger who was the possibility, that the manner in which figuratively to appear in the spirit and hehas classed the foregoing precept with power of Elijah, proceeds in the fol- others obviously figurative, may lead lowing terms:

some of his readers into a dangerous " This difficulty we see is so easily remov error respecting a fundamental princied, that I should not have thought it worth no- ple of duty. ticing in this place, bad it not been very lately In commenting on the passage, revived with much parade in one of those

“ whatsoever ye would that men should coarse and blasphemous publications which have been dispersed in this country with so

do to you, do ye even so to them; for this much activity, in order to disseminate vulgar is the law and the prophets;" the Biinfidelity among the lower orders of people, shop is laudably solicitous to expose the but which are now sinking fast into oblivion fatal delusion of those who regard moand contempt. This is one specimen of what rality as the sum of religion, and benethey call their arguments against Christianity; volence as a counterpoise to guilt. and from this specimen you will judge of all the rest." (vol. i.p. 61.)

“ There are duties," he remarks, “of When it is said (p. 117.) of the Pha. equally important with those we owe to our

another order, equally necessary at least, and risees, that they disbelieved the-cure of neighbour. the blind man, and the raising of Laza There are duties, in the first place, owing rus, from the dead, though they saw to our Creator, whom we are bound to hothem both before their eyes, one restor

pour, to venerate, to worship, to obey and to ed “io sight, the other to life,” we ap- and strength. There are duties owing to our

love with all our hearts, and souls, and mind, prehend the statement to be incorrect. Redeemer, of affection, attachment, gratitude, They allowed the fact of the cure of the faith in his divine mission, and reliance on the blind man, when they had learned from atonement he made for us on the cross. There his parents that he was born blind (see are, lastly, acts of discipline and self-governJohn ix. 24-26.): and they also admit- sities and irregular desires. According!y in

ment to be exercised over our corrupt propented the fact of the resurrection of La- the very chapter we have just been considerzarus, (see John xi. 46, 47.) though ing, we are commanded to seek first the kingtheir sinful prejudices drove them to

dom of God and his righteousness.

We are cxcommunicate the one party, and to

in another place informed, that the love of attempt the destruction of the other, the love of our neighbour only the second:

God is the first and great commandment, and and hardened their hearts against the and we are taught by St. James, that one truth which the miracle wrought on main branch of religion is to keep ourselves each was intended to impress.

unspotted from the world."* (vol i. p. 190.) We were much surprised to observe “ Benevolence is the favourite, the fashion. that the Bishop, when explaining (p.

able virtue of the age; it is universally cried 184.) the real import of certain figura- only duty of man; and even many who pre

up by infidels and libertines as the first and tive precepts in the New Testament, tend to the name of Christians are too apt to includes the direction “to do all things rest upon it as the most essential part of their to the glory of God,” among the in religion, and the chief basis of their title to junctions of which, he says, that s if the rewards of the Gospel. But that Gospel, ihey were understood in their literal other duties which require from us the same

as we have just seen, prescribes to us several signification, it would be utterly impos- attention as those we owe to our neighbour ; sible for us to continue a week longer and if we fail in any of them, we can have no in the world;" and that they s require hope of sharing in the benefits procured for

What very considerable abatements, restric us by the sacrifice of our Redeemer. tions, and liinitations.” Surely the li- bis Apostles, have joined together, let no

then God and nature, as well as Christ and ceral meaning of the precept would not man dare to put asunder.” (vol. i. p. 192.) demand, in the ordinary use of language, any such destructive abstraction In selecting a passage of some from earth and its concerns! We feel length as a specimen of these Lecassured that the Bishop will agree with tures, we have been desirous to fix on us, that in business, in relaxation, in all one, which should neither exceed nor things no less than in devotion, the

Jamęs i. 27.

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fall below the general tenor of the “The Jews, as we learn from our Lord work. It is thus only that an extract himseif

, had established it as a maxim that from any performance can enable the they were to love their neighbour and to hale

their enemy;* and as they considered none as reader to judge for himself concerning their neighbours but their own countrymen, its excellences and defects. We be- the consequence was, that they imagined lieve the following passage on the themselves at liberty to hate all the rest of nature and application of parabolical the world! a liberty which they indulged instruction, to accord with the descrip- bitterness than the contiguous nation of the

without reserve, and against none with more tion which we have given.

Samaritans. When, therefore, the lawyer in “This mode of instruction has many advan- the Gospel asked our Lord who was his tages over every other, more particularly in neighbour? had Christ attempted to prove to recommending virtue, or reproving vice. him by argument, that he was to consider all

“1. In the first place, when divine and spie mankind, even his enemies, even the Samaritual things are represented by objects well ritans, as his neighbours, the lawyer would known and familiar to us, such as present bare treated his answer with contempt and themselves perpetually to our observation, in disdain ; all his native prejudices and absurd the common occurrelices of life, they are

traditions would have risen up in arms against much more easily compreliender, especially so offensive a doctrine ; nor would ali ilie eloby rude and unculiivated minds (that is, by the quence in the worid, not even the divine elogreat bulk of mankind) than if they were quence of the Son of God bimself, have been proposed in their original form.

able to subdue the deep-rooted prepossessions " 2. In all ages of the world there is nothing of the stubborn Jew. with which mankind has been so much de Jesus, therefore, well knowing the impos. lighted as with those little fictitious stories, șibility of convincing the lawyer by any thing which go under the name of tables or apo- he could say, determined to make the man logues among the ancient heathens, and of convince himself, and correct bis own error. parables in the sacred writings. It is found

With this view he relates to him the parable by experience, that this sort of composition is of the Jewish traveller, who fell among robbetter calculated to command attention, 10 bers, was stripped and wounded, and left half captivate the imagination, to affect the heart, dead upon the spot; and though, passed by and to make deeper and more lasting impres- with unfeeling indifference and neglect by bis sions on the memory, than the most ingenious own countrymen, was at length relieved and and most elegant discourses that the wit of restored to health by a compassionate Sama. man is capable of producing.

ritan. He then asks the lawyer, who was “ 3. The very obscurity in which parables neghbour to this distressed traveller? It was are sometimes involved, has the effect of ex.

impossible for the lawyer not to answer, as citing a greater degree of curiosity and inte. he did not foreseeing the consequence) He rest, and of urging the mind to a more vigo- that shewed mercy to him : that is, the Samari. rous exertion of its faculties and powers, than tan. Here then he at once cut up his own any other mode of instruction. There is absurd opinion by the roots. For if the Samasomething for the understanding to work up- ritans, whom of all others the Jews most on: and i hen the concealed meaning is át hated, were, in t'e true and substantial sense length elicited, we are apt to value ourselves of the word, their neighbours, they were bound on ihe discovery as the effect of our own by their own law, by their own traditions, penetration and discernment, and for that and by this man's own confession, to love and very reason to pay it. l'e regard to the moral to assist them as such. The conclusion was it conveys

therefore, Go, and do thou likewise. “4.. When the mind is under the influence “ This then affirds a stiking proof of the of strong prejudices, of violent passions, or efficacy of parable in correcting strong preju. inveterate labits, and when wider these cir. dices and erroneous opinions. But there is cumstances it becomes necessary to rectify another thing still more difficult to be suberror, to dissipate delusion, to reprove sin, dued, and that is, inveterate wickedness and and bring the offender to a sense of his dan: hardened guilt. But this too was made to ger and lis guili; there is no way in which give way and humble itself in the dust by the this difficultiask can be so wellexecuted, and force of parable. I mean that of Nathan. the painful truths that must be told so suc “ There seems reason to believe that King cessfully insinuated into the mind, as by dis- David, after he had committed the complicaguising them under the veil of a well-wrouglit ted crime of adultery and murder, had by and interesiing parable.

some means or other contrived to lull his “ This observation cannot be better illus- conscience to sleep, and to suppress the risings - trated, than by referring to two parables, one of any painful reflection in his mind. This

in the New Testament, the other in the Old, appears almost incredible, yet so the fact which will amply confirm the truth, and un seems to have been ; and it shews in the fold the meaning of the preceding remarks. stongest light the extreme deceitfulness of

" The first of these which I allude to, is the celebrated parable of the good Samaritan,

* Matth. v. 43. Christ. Obserr. No. 9.


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