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how a department entitled “ Reviewers duty to blame the unbecoming warmth Reviewed,” can possibly be conducted which many of my brethren manifestwithout wearing a polemical aspect. ed with respect to the repeal of the I admit, however, that it ought not to Test Act, and even ta oppose, as far be conducted in a polemical spirit: I as sober argument and mild persuaadmit also, that however important it sion would go, some of the steps which may be to discredit works subversive were taken with a view to that mea. of spiritual Religion, there is nothing, sure. I own, however, that it appeareven in that end, which can justify a ed to me, at that time, a desirable exdeviation, in any degree, from Chris- pedient; and yet I have thought since tian candour and charity. Wishing to that the legislature shewed much wis. see these admissions established in dom, in at least postponing a complitheir fullest latitude, and practically ance with our wishes. Had they acted adhered to by the Christian Observer; differently, it is problematical to me I must yet confess, that A. B. extends whether we should not, ere this time, his candour farther than the case re- have been experiencing something of quires, in considering the objection of the same kind of toleration which our the Anti-Jacobin Reviewers to lie fellow Christians in France now enjoy ; against the "term” spiritual Religion, and whether a Chief Consul mighi not and not against the thing thereby de- now be exercising a negative on the signated. He will be convinced of the election of Independent pastors. contrary, if he reads the whole of the I certainly observed, with considerapassage alluded to, with the same at- ble regret, that at the commencement tention which has been bestowed upon of the French Revolution there was it by your very sincere friend and well. too great a dispositon in many of my wisher.

Y. brethren, in common

with a large number of persons of all descriptions,

to hail its approach, and to favour its SIR,

progress. But, Sir, I hope and trust, THOUGH a Dissenter both from habit I may even say I know and am confi. and principle, I am certainly well af- dent, that with respect to a large profected to the government under which portion of these, the mania is over; I live, and far from being particularly and that they have learned by experihostile to the Established Church. ence to value that excellent civil con

I am now an old man, Mr. Editor, stitution under which Providence has and consequently have been witness to placed us, as well as that mildness of many revolutions in sentiment, as well ecclesiastical rule which leaves us in as in states and empires. During the possession of the sacred rights of liberlast thirty years of my life I have been ty of conscience. Many of us, I am particularly attentive to the course of persuaded, feel the importance of mainevents; to the state of parties; and to taining a religious Establishment, and the tempers which have been exhibit- how much of our success and useful. ed in what may be called the religious ness we owe to the general informi:world. My rule of judgment has uni- tion and to the general respect for the formly been, what is sometimes too Bible, which is thereby produced. much overlooked by all parties, holy I should not have troubled you, Mr. Scripture; and though I may have Editor, with these remarks, were it not erred in my application of it on partie for a passage in a letter signed W. R. cular occasions, yet as it is the only inserted in your Third Number. The rule by which I have been desirous of author of that letter, whose piety and trying my own opinions, tempers, and successful labours (for I am sure I conduct, so it is the only one which I know the man) entitle him to great have endeavoured to apply to those of respect, has, I think, been misled, others.

partly by prejudice and partly by peUnder the conduct, as I conceived, culiar circumstances in his own case, of this infallible guide, I deemed it my and has unfairly extended that charge

To the Eilitor of the Christian Observer.

of disloyalty to the whole of our body, to rulers; who is dissatisfied with our which certainly ought to bave had a civil constitution; or who rails at the more narrow limit. That some of us Established Church, or its ministers, as have written and acted in a way which if they were Anti-Christian. I merely was directly calculated to excite sus mean to plead for that limitation of W. picions of our loyalty, I am not dis- R's sweeping censure, which truth posed to deny ; but I must at the same and charity require. He and all his exceedingly blame W. R's want of brethren are bound to exercise cancandour, in inculpating the whole dour and forbearance towards those body. He has therein imitated the who, though differing from them in conduct of the world, who extend the some points, yet wish them success in censure which some hollow hypocriti. their ministry; and they ought not to cal religionists may meril, to all who . forget that if the body of Dissenters profess a warm and zealous aitachment has been disgraced by some of its to Christianity.

members, its credit has been very amI do not mean to defend any Dis. ply redeemed by others. senter, who endeavours to fritter away I remain, your friend and wellby dangerous qualifications the Apos. wisher. tle's command of yielding obedience

AN OLD DISSENTER, *** Our Review of the Monthly Review is unavoidably postfioned.

III. LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL INTELLIGENCE,

&c. &c. GREAT BRITAIN.

It has been thought necessary to employ

powerful machines and large Leydlen jars for TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY.

the decomposition of water ; but Dr. Wollas. (Concluded from p. 190.)

ton, considering that the decomposition must Art. 22. Experiments on the chemical Pro- depend on duly proportioning the strength of duction and Agency of Electricity. By William of the charge of Electricity to the quantity of Hyde WOLLASTOX, M. D. F. R. S.

water, and that the quantity exposed to its The power of Mr. Voltas's electric pile is action at the surface of communication denow known to be proportional to the disposi. pends on the extent of that surface, hoped, tion of one of the metals to be oxidated by the that by reducing the surface of communicafuid interposed. A doubt has, however, been tion, the decomposition of water might be efentertained by many persons, whether this fected by smaller machines and with less pow. power arises from the chemical action of the erful excitation, and in this hope he was not fuid or the metal; or, on the contrary, whe- disappointed. ther the oxidation itself may not be occasion. Having procured small wires of fine gold, ed by Electricity, set in motion by the con. and given them as fine points as he could, he tact of metals having different conducting inserted them into capillary glass tubes, and powers.

after beating the tubes so as to make them That the oxidation of the metal is the pri- adhere to the point and cover it in every part, mary cause of the electric phenomena observ. he gradually ground them down, till with a ed, is, Dr. Wollaston thinks, to be inferred pocket lens he could discern that the point of from the experiments he relates, which are gold was exposed. curious and satisfactory, but cannot well be

By various trials he found, that when sparks here detailed.

were made to pass through water by means The chemical agency, therefore, of com. of a point so guarded, a spark passing to the mon Electricity is thus proved to be the same distance of one-eighth of an inch, would dewith the power excited by chemical means ; compose water, when the point exposed did but since a difference has been observed in not exceed one seven hundredth part of an the comparative facility with which the pile of inch in diameter. With another point, which Volta decomposes water, and produces other he estimated at one fifteen hundredth, a suceffects of oxidation and de-oxidation of bodies cession ofasparks one-twentieth of an inch in exposed to its action, the Doctor has been at length, afforded a current of small bubbles of some pains to remove this difficuliy, and he air. can produce, at least, a very close imitation The similarity in the means by which both of the Galvanic phenomena by common Elec. Electricity and Galvanism appear to be excittrieity.

ed, in addition to the resemblance which has

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been traced between their effects, shews that FAUVEL, who for some years lived at they are both essentially the same, and con. Athens, where he was employed in taking defirms an opinion that has already been advanc. signs of the remaining monuments of ancient ed by others, that all the differences discovera- Greece, has lately returned to Paris. After ble in the effects of the latter, may be owing having languished about two years in the prito its being less intense, but produced in much sons of Constantinople, into which he had been larger quantity.

thrown on the commencement of the rupture

between France and the Porte, he has at last Art. 23. Further Obscrvations on the Efects been set free, and returned to his native counwhich take place from the destruction of the try with many valuable discoveries and de. Membrana Tympani ; with an account of an signs. He is the first artist who has made Operation for the Removal of a particular Spe- researches into the celebrated Mount Olymcies of Deafness. By Mr. Astley Cooper.

pus, of which he has taken a plan, written a Corninunicated by Everard Home, Esq. F. R.S. description of its situation, &c. It is he who

It has been generally supposed that an aper- took moulds of the beautiful friezes of the ture in the Membrana Tympani necessarily . Temple of Minerva, at Athens, for M. Choidiminishes the power of tire ear; but Mr.

seul Gouflier, on the spot. Cooper has shewn that this is not the case,

Dr. VILIARS, of Grenoble, author of the and that even a complete destruction of the

Flora of Dauphine, has published the results membrane is not followed by a total depriva- of several barometrical measurements, lately tion of the sense of hearing. He has even

made by him among the French Alps, which, been induced in one species of deafness, to

if correct, give a much greater height to these try the effect of puncturing that membrane, mountains than has generally been supposed. which has been attended with evident advan

In the Department des Hautes Alpes, the cime tage. The species alluded 10 is that which

del Ozon is equal to 2104 toises, and there are arises from an obstruction of the eustachian

three summits still higher, but which have tube. As this operation will not afford relief only been measured by approximation. The in any cases of deafness except such as arise Departement des Basses Alpes, also possesses a from a closed eustachian tube, it should be peak near Marin a la Clapiere, of the height performed in those only which are clearly of of 2055 toises. The most lofty mountains, as that description. The criteria by which Mr.

indeed is the case through all the Alps, are Cooper judges whether the tube is closed or

granite; but there are ridges in these depart. open, are the following:

ments entirely calcareous, upwards of 1500 First. If the person in whom it is suspected toises above the level of the sea. to be closed should feel, in blowing the nose

The great number of beggars, and the violently, a swelling in the ear from the mem

miseries which they suffer, have induced a brane being at that time forced outward, the BENEVOLENT SOCIETY AT PARIS, to offer tube is open; for when closed, no such sensa

a gold medal, of the value of 2000 francs, for tion is produced.

the best answer to the following question :Secondly. The eustachian tube may be

“What are the most probable methods of exclosed, yet the beating of a watch may be tirpating indigence from the French Repubheard if it be placed between the teeth or

lic ?"-See p. 196 of our third Number. pressed against the side of the head; and if

The SOCIETY OF MEDICINE OF BOURit cannot be heard when it rests upon the

DEAUS, has offered a prize of 300 francs for teetli, this operation cannot relieve, as the

an Epitome of the Doctrine of Hippocrates. power of the auditory nerves must have been

The works of this father of medicine, serve destroyed.

as the text to the best books on this science, Thirdly. It is right to inquire if the deafness

but no one has yet methodically digested and was immediately preceded by any complaint in arranged his principles. the throat.

A circumstance is mentioned in the Report, Lastly. In a closed eustachian tube, there is by Tessier and HURARD, concerning the no noise in the head like that which accompa. Hock of Spanish sheep at RAMBOUILLET, nies nervous deafness

which seems entirely at variance with the obi Several remarkable cases are here related, servations of the shepherds and wool-growers in which the puncture was followed by the in South Britain. Some of the sheep were immediate restoration of hearing. It is an

allowed to be two years without being shear. encouragement that in this operation little ed; by this management the fleeces were found pain is felt, no dangerous consequences fol.

to be twice as heavy and twice as long, as the low; and even if it is sometimes performed yearly fleece of those which had been sheared unsuccessfully, the patient is left with the same

twice in the same period; nor did the animals capacity as before, of receiving relief from

themselves appear to be at all incommoded. other remedies.

Thus a staple of double the ordinary length FRANCE,

was obtained, and half the expenses of shearVERMIQuer has finished an engraving of ing were saved, without any loss in the quanhis grand Plan of Paris, on seventy-two sheets, tity or quality of the wool. on the scale of half a line to a French toise. A work by HUBER and SeNEBIER, on the The accuracy of this work is said to surpass Influence of various Gasses in the Germination every thing of the kind.

of Seeds, has lately made its appearance.

1

Among a number of important facts the fol- as the soaking of the vegetable matters emlowing may be selected. The presence of ployed in the fabrication can be brought to oxygen is necessary to the germination of all maturity. seeds, and in most cases it is requisite that the Dr. CARRADOR), in some experiments and oxygen should be unconi bined with any thing observations which he has made towards deterbut caloric; a few seeds, however, such as the mining the Influence of Oxygen on Germination, pea, are capable of decomposing water, &c. thinks he has established two essential points; therefore, if well moistened with water, even that vital or oxygen air is necessary to the deprived of its air, will germinate in almost grand process of germination, but that in any kind of gas, and even in oil. Pure oxygen order to give the impulse or the principle of gas, however though it accelerates germina- this germination, the immediate contact of the tion, renders the plants very feeble, and the air is not necessary, but it is indispensible to most favourable proportion is that of one its continuation or progress, since the germen fourth oxygen and the rest azot, which is the already animated, or the small plant, cannot same as common air ; in an atmosphere of grow nor vegetate, unless it enjoy the immeless than one-eighth oxygen, germination will diate influence of this vital fluid He accounts not take place. An excess of carbonic acid is from hence for the mischief arising from seeds more injurious to seeds than of azot, and of being kept too long in water, and from abun. this than hydrogen A mixed air of hydrogen dant rains afier seed time; since the water, and oxygen, by germination, is converted into keeping the seeds too long in a state of subhydrocarbonous gas.-Bull des Scien x. No. mersion, prerents their healthy germination, 55; and see Nich. Ph. Fourn. 8vo. Vol. I. p. and therefore wet seed-limes presage scanty 157-159.

harvests. See Nich. Phil. Fourn. Vol. I. p. SPAIN.

204-210. Proust, Professor of Chemistry at Madrid,

GERMANY. has published a work, entitled An Inquiry into GALVANISM is at present a subject of occu. the Means of Improving the Subsistence of the pation of all the German philosophers and Soldier. It contains some things of general chemists. At Vienna an important discovery utility. He states a cheap and ready method has been announced—an artificial magnet, emof procuring an agreeable and nutritious food ployed instead of Volta's pile, decomposes from bones; which is by grinding them be water equally well with that pile, or the electween a pair of toothed iron cylinders. The trical machine; whence it has been conclud. bones thus ground, are to be boiled in eighted, that the electric, galvanic, and magnetic or ten times their weight of water, for four fuids are the same. hours, or till about half the water is wasted; It is well known, that on the borders of lakes, when the liquor will be found, upon cooling, the banks of broad rivers, and the shore of to be of a due gelatinous consistence. A ves- bays, a certain optical illusion often takes sel with a tight cover should be used, and it place when the spectator is in an elevated should not be of copper-Nich. Phil. Four. situation. The opposite bank, under certain Svo. Vol. I, p. 100-102.

circumstances, is seen floating, as it were, in A weekly collection of Tracts and Direc- the air. This phenomenon is usually ascribed tions, relative to the improvement of Spanish to refraction ; but Professor DE Luc, has Husbandry, has been, for some time, in a published a paper in Der Gesellschaft Naturcourse of regular publication at Madrid.' forschneder Freunde zu Berlin, Neue Serbiften, The MSS. of the Swedish naturalist Loc. Vol. iii

. 1801, in which he attributes it to the IANG, who died in South America, in 1756, rays of light being reflected from the vapours, are publishing at Madrid, by R. Cavanilles, which, in consequence of this reflection, apDirector of the Royal Botanic Garden. pear so dazzling to the eye, that they conceal

The observatory of Cadiz furnished the the objects situated below, and present the science of astronomy, for some years past, same appearance as the heavens. See Tilloch's with important observations; but it has of late Phil. Mag. Vol. XII Art. 27. been neglected General Mazarado has built M. KAUTSCH, of Leutomischel in Bohemia, a new one in the Isle de Leon, to which he has has finished a work of immense labour, on the appointed four astronomers, who have resided Eclipses of the Sun; having calculated for the there these two years. A telescope twenty. whole of the nineteenth century, charts, in five feet long, made under the direction of Dr. which are exhibited all the circumstances of Herschel, is expected there soon.

those eclipses, for every country of the earth ITALY.

where they will be visible. M. LOSANNE has presented to the Agri.

RUSSIA. cultural Society of Turin, the result of his Literature is greatly revived in Russia under experiments with regard to fabricating paper the auspices of the present Emperor. A new of the bark of the erigerum canadense, and the university is established at Dorpat, and sevepappus of the carduus nutans, and serratula ral learned foreigners have been invited to fill avensis. The Society have expressed their the professional chairs. The book-trade, which sense of the utility of these experiments, and under the late Emperor had been entirely anhave declared, that paper of a very excellent nihilated, is now left very much at large. The quality may be made in this manner, as soon curiosities and exquisite works of art which Christ. Obsery. No. 5.

2 U

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have been collected from every part of Europe, great Linnæus, and those of other Swedish especially under the reign of Catharine II., naturalists and travellers. are said to be really astonishing:

Last winter the King assigned 5000 rixThe Academy of Petersburg has sought for dollars to defray the expenses of ineasuring a an astronomical observer, but hitherto in vain, degree of the meridian in the northern parts and the fine observatory of that city is still of his kingdom, in order to ascertain the true useless, notwithstanding the great number of figure of the earth, as the want of regularity excellent instruments which it contains, s in the degrees of the earth has led to a suspi

cion that there was an error in that taken in SWEDEN.

1736. In the month of April, Messieurs Two men of learning, M. M. VON EHREN- SWANBERG and OFVERBOM, iwo members of HEIM and ZIBET, are at the head of the Swe. the Academy, set out for Tornea. They dish ministry. The King has lately given erected signals and built small observatories, striking proofs of patronage of the sciences, and returned in October; their first journey He has ordered the edifices belonging to the having been attended with complete success, University of Aebo, in Finland, to be rebuilt except that they were not able to find the norupon an enlarged scale; and has increased the thern point of the base of 1736. They were salaries of all the professors and inferior offi- to resume their operations about the middle cers belonging to that of Upsala. He has pre. of January. To form a just idea of the zeal sented to the Stockholin Academy of Sciences, and courage which this enterprise requires, the cabinet of natural curiosities formed by our readers may turn to the work published in Queen Louisa Ulrica, in the palace of Drot. 1738, by Maupertius, entitled Figure de la ningholm, which contained the collections of Terre determiné par les Observations faites au Hasselquist and Solander, disciples of the Circle Polaire.

STATE AND PROGRESS OF RELIGION.

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ISLAND OF CEYLON.

ed. Of the rest of the island, the Dutch An accurate list has been procured of possessed only the sea coast, and few all the inhabitants in the district of if any Protestant Christians are to be Jaffnapatam, in the island of Ceylon, found beyond their jurisdiction. The by which it appears that the number extent of their territory round the islof Protestant Christians is far greater and on the sea coast, amounted to much than could possibly have been expect. more than the district of Jaffnapatam. ed. The list is as follows, viz. " What a field," observes the person Protestant Christians Men 50352

from whom we have received this acWomen 55236

count, “is here opened for faithful Boy's 18011

missionaries,” Girls 15297

Letters of a recent date from a gen;

138896 Roman Catholic

tleman then on the island state, that } Men 3573 Chrisians

the schools begin to wear a very faWomen 5693

vourable aspect, and that there is good Boys 1261

reason to hope that in a litile time Girls 1105

9632

genuine Christianity may be diffused Pagans Men 3943

throughout the British territory. “We Women 5044

have not done much,” he adds, “in Boys 1181

making proselytes, as our labours have Girls 1194

been chiefly confined to the better in11362

struction of those already converted.” 159890 The Missionary Christian David, had

been appointed to superintend, the From the above statement, some sch ols, which were instituted in great idea may be formed of the number of numbers in Jaffnapatam, and much Protestant Christians on the coast of good was expected from his assiduity the rest of the island. Jaffnapatam was and zeal. We have heard that the wholly under the power of the Dutch, English liturgy has been translated by whose means the first Christianity into the Malabar language, the lanintroduced among the natives by the guage spoken by the Christians of Portuguese, was reformed and extend- Ceylon, and is used by them.

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