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were over annually consumed before in our settling Trinidada by means of Slavery most bloody maritime wars, and in all the col- and the Slave Trade ; and on this part lective services of our marine.
“When the mind contemplates this dread of the subject we trace the same acuteful sacrifice, every other price to be paid for ness of remark, and the same accurate the future protection of our Sugar colonies and extensive knowledge of the subject seems of little account:--we sufficiently dis. which distinguish his preceding inquicern how well Africa will be avenged ; and ries. But we must deny ourselves and how probably those colonies, for the sake of
our readers the pleasure of any
further which we have hugged fondly to our basoms that deformed monster the Slave Trade, after quotations, though there are many pasits frightful aspect has been laid bare before sages, particularly those, beginning at the eye of the national conscience, may soon the 46th and 165th pages, with which we by a righteous Providence be made the sources would gladly have enriched our work. of our humiliation and ruin.
To the plan which the Author pro“ And yet, Sir, to you as the steward nf the national purse, 1 ought to add the important poses for the cultivation of the valuable remark, that such great and enduring efforts island of Trinidada, as well as to some of defensive preparation would not be less fa. points connected with it, objections may tal to our finances, than to the lives of our possibly be urged; but these, as they brave soldiers and seamen.-Did the islands
are not necessarily connected with what grow.not only sugar but gold, they might be it is the great object of the work to esbought too dear; and the people of this country might grudge to give for the defence of tablish, and as our limits will not admit those colonies another tenth of their incomes. of entering into any farther details, we
“Even another income tax indeed would shall not now discuss. Could the voice probably not long suffice for the new and enor- of the Christian Observer reach the mous demands of those distant survices. Nay, great bodiy of West India Planters, of if we may judge of their expensiveness on so large a scale, by a reference to the charges
which we entertain little hope, we should of comparatively trivial establishments hither. earnestly entreat them to give this able to maintained in that quarter, all the remain. pamphlet a careful reading; and though ing resources of taxation in Great Britain, we are aware of the stubborn power of would scarcely be able long to supply this vast early prejudice, we are disposed to hope and unprecedented drain. The manufactures and agriculture of this Island, the produce of that they might not be able wholly io our Colonies themselves, and the rich com.
resist the powerful arguments which merce of the East, and all the other tributes, the Author addresses to their self-intewhich British industry and enterprise levý rest, even if those which he deduces through a thousand channels, from the whole civilized globe, in aid of our national revenue from much higher sources should be might be devoted to West India security, and disregarded. The measure of aboliyet devoted in vain :-numerous, various, and tion, however, seems now to depend extensive, though they are, all might be ab. but little on the decision of West 1112 sorbed in this insatiable gulph, without les. dians. They may continue to resist it, sening the force of its devouring vortex. they may continue to swell the number
“ Charybdin dico ? Oceanus medius fidius vix of enslaved Africans in the island; but videtur, tot res, tam dissipitas, tam distantibus in locis positas, tam cito, absorbere potuisse.!”.
we fear that in that case they will only “We might throw the fate of our funds, accelerate instead of retarding the ruia into the same scale with that of our navy; which threatens them, while France, by merely tossing the sword of negro freedom, or negro force, into the other,
XVII. MILNER'S Sermons. would make it stil preponderate.” (p. 103.111.)
(Contimued from p. 176.)
It is observed in the life of Mr. Milner, In the Fourth Lefter our Author prefixed to these Discourses, that liis suggests various expedients for ward- compositions, whether already publishing off the threatened danger from our ed, or yet in manuscript, are most perWest India islands; and we trust they fectly free from plagiarism, and the will meet the eye and engage the se- Sermons before us certainly prove the rious attention of government, and of truth of the observation. They bear every one interested in the subject. every mark of original thought, with He then proceeds to combat both on po- the exception of one o. 2 Cor. ix. 15. litical and moral grounds, the plan which which, though an excellent discourse, is supposed to have been in agitation of least resembles Mr. Milner's lisud
manner. The general characteristics “s The man who is in a state of nature al. of these Sermons are boldness, strength, together, without any light, or views, or proand fidelity, in exposing the prevailing be decent, his character fair, and his conduct
fession of Christian principles. His life may errors and corruptions of human na
in society, in general, blameless or even use. ture, and in exhibiting the Gospel of ful. Or, he may be scandalously immoral. Christ as a sovereign remedy for both. Self, however, in either case, is his end, his The various means by which men de. grand object, his God. So wrapt up is he in ceive themselves as to their religious living for the love of God or of his neighbour.
self-love, that he has not any the least relish of siate are here detected and displayed. If he do a kind and useful action to his neighThe man of the world, the careless sin., bour, it is, with him, altogether, lost if he do ner, the self-righteous formalist, the de- not conceive of it as contributing to the agsigning hypocrite, are each presented in grandizement of himself
He must be praishis true colours; and, in the delinea- ed, esteemed, and extolled. He would have tion of these characters, there is an in- every one give way to his humour. He would
cross others, but he would never be crossed dividuality and minuteness of descrip- himself. He will kindle strife and contention, as well as a cioseness of applica- tion; but then others,-never himself,mare to tion, which, while they plainly prove blame. He desires to be honoured very much the deep penetration of the author, and beyond his real desert, yet would be thought
modest and humble. He cannot bear that his thorough acquaintance with the hu- other men should be preferred to himself, yet man heari, can scarcely fail to impress you must not call him a vain-glorious man. and convince the consciences of his rea- He naturally looks at himself as the most imders. Mr. Milner is, however, equally portant of all beings; to whose satisfaction striking and perspicuous in bringing every one ought to contribute, as if he were forward the great truths of Christianity, might, one should think, consider that others
more worthy than all others ; yet, though he as the remedy for all our spiritual dis- are as selfish as himself, he makes no alloworders, and in applying them to the ances for their selfishness; but upbraids them heart with all the tenderness and feel- for this very spirit, which he cherishes so much ing of a true pastor. These discourses in his own temper. His love extends but little afford ample instruction to the serious affection for his children and family, perhaps
beyond himself, for though he may have some inquirer, and the most solid grounds of also for his country or his party, yet as he has comfort and peace to the sincere peni- been used to consider these as parts of him. tent. Those who are exposed to trials self, his love is still but selfish. He is looking and temptations will also here find much still at his own things, not at the things of excellent advice and support, and the
others.” (p 82, 83.) experienced Christian encouragement Another part of the same admirable and direction in pressing forwards in Sermon contains a lively description, his heavenly course. Many other to- on the other hand, of a religionist, who, pics occur in these discourses, but those which we have stated appear to be the in a crude manner, acquired superficial notions
“By hearing the word of the Gospel, has, most prominent and important.
of the doctrines of the truth; and, though a. The Sermons which seem to us to stranger to the faith and hope of the Gospel, possess superior excellence, are the fancies, that because he holds the doctrines of sixth, the seventh, and the seventeenth; the fall and of salvation by Christ alone, and from these we shall extract a few dox opinions he takes for faith, though he never
through grace, he must be right. His orthopassages, to enable our readers to form
came truly as a lost sinner to Christ; and his a true judgment of the spirit and style decent morality, though it flows not at all from of the author.
Christian principles, he mistakes for the fruits The sixth discourse is on Phil. ij. 3, of the Spirit
. Thus he is doubly armed with 4, 5. and is entitled, “ Lowliness recome good works, though, in reality, he has neither.
a false hope. He thinks he has both faith and mended from the Example of Christ,” in How is he to be tried ? Turn not away in anthe introduction to which Mr. Milner ger, I beseech you, from the charitable work, shews the inseparable connection which which is before me, of attempting to undeceive subsists between the doctrines and the you, and thus to save your precious soul from precepts of Christianity.
destruction. But if any will not give a fair In one part of this discourse, the au: they are saved by grace, as to fancy that they
hearing; if any are so vainly confident that thor has drawn a striking picture of need not try what manner of spirit they are of,
their very unwillingness to be probed, is, itself, itself,-this they neither see nor suspect." a suspicious circumstance against them. Bring (p. 242.) your state to the test: you cannot stand the Through the whole of this masterly test: your fruits are even contrary to those of discourse, the author discovers a thoa sound Christian. You have the same, or as striking marks of selfishness as the man of rough knowledge of his subject, and mere ignorance whose case we have just be- dissects, with great skill, that hollow fore considered; the same covetousness, un- pharisaical religion, which so frequent. reasonableness, envy, contentiousness, vain. ly passes for what is real, and in poses glory, and pride. Or if you are altered in
not only upon others, but upon the some respects, still your plan is selfish; though it may now wear a religious form, as it for person hiniself. merly did a worldly one. You may expect to
In perusing the last Sermon in the be honoured and looked upon as a person of volume, entitled, “ St. Peter's Courage, considerable consequence in Religion : you and his Want of Faith,' we were someare infallible as a Pope, and camot mistake: what surprised at the use which is made ynu bear not the least contradiction with pa- of the miracle of that apostle's walktience : you are ever apt to imagine your attainments in Religion to be greater than those ing on the water. St. Peier's conduct of others; and no one understands so well as in this instance so much resembles the you.--Is this lowliness of mind? Is this es. forward boldvess which marks his chateeming others better than yourself?” (p. 86.) racter, that it may seem rather to af
The foregoing passage evinces a ford a lesson of the nature and effects deep acquaintance with the genius of of presumption than of faith.
Mr. Christianity, and with the human heart, Milner, however, considers Peter's even when covered with the veil of a conduct in this instance as arising from religious profession.
his zeal, his courage, and the generous The Sermon on Gen. xlviii. 15, 16. warmth of his feelings. But may not entitled “ Jacob blessing the Sons of Jo- these valuable qualities, when unseaseph,” exhibits a patriarchal scene of sonably exerted, injure the person or the domestic kind, drawn by the hand
cause whom they mean to serve ? of a master, with great feeling, and There is, indeed, an opposite characchaste simplicity of colouring, and con ter, which our author justly describes, tains inany excellent practical lessons, and reproves in the following terms: some of them peculiarly adapted to the
" Alas! how many, who call themselves circumstances of the present times. Christians, neither know nor care, in any de
In the seventeenth Sermon, which gree, for this love to Christ, nor are anxious is from 1 Sam. xv. 30. Mr. Milner has, to possess the dispositions which flow from it. exhibited the character of Saul; the Fancying that their general cold assent to refirst king of Israel, and in doing so has and believing little or nothing concerning af
vealed Religion is the real faith of the Gospel; given a strong and lively portrait of fections wrought by the Holy Ghost, they those hypocritical pretenders to reli- move heavily in all their religious course.” gion, who resemble him. Speaking (p. 346.) of such persons, he observes,
This is, truly, the frigid zone of “They will bear no cross; they will exer. Christianity; but then there is a torrid cise no self-denial for God's sake. They con zone, which it is quite as dangerous to sult what is pleasing and agreeable. By this inhabit. Men ought not to be driven they measure doctrines, practice, and every from one extreme to another. There thing, in which they are concerned. Cheap duties and services, which cost them nothing, are rash and forward spirits in the rethey will practise : difficult burdensome du- ligious world, who require a check to ties, which would cause trouble to them, or
prevent them from injuring themexpose them to reproach, they disregard. Whatever happen to be the fashionable vir: selves, and the cause in which they are tues they will follow: what is not agreeable to embarked. To such characters there the manners of the times they live in, they is a striking lesson of instruction in the hate; and no precepts of God, however ex case of St. Peter, which we wonder pressly declared, can move them to it. Yet that. Mr. Milner should so entirely they have a world of reasons and arguments to support their disobedience. The grand source
overlook in this Sermon. . of all their argument, the very hinge on which
We were disappointed in not finding all their opposition turns,-a rebellious heart amongst these Discourses, one wholly Christ. Obsery. No. 5.
devoted to the important subject of We conceive that Mr. Overton has in Justification. A full and perspicuous substance proved his point, and that he statement of this doctrine, from the has done this by quotations so ample pen of so able, so diligent, and so con and abundant, and by testimonies so scientious a Divine, would have been clear and concurrent, as to leave little highly gratifying to his serious readers. doubt in the mind of any fair and attenIt is but justice to observe, that we
tive reader of his valuable book. have met occasionally with an expres
We wish it were possible to submit sion in the course of this valuable work, this question to any man who should be which we should gladly have seen ex
new to the subject, and who, after trachanged for another, which would have velling through the volumes written on been less objectionable, and yet would the one side and on the other, should have equally conveyed to the reader decide, with the common justice of an the author's meaning. But no candid arbitrator, which of the two parties apman, who considers all the circum. proached the nearest, in point of docstances under which these posthumous trine, to the letter and spirit of the Artidiscourses have been given io the world, cles, and to the opinions of those who will for one moinent regard this petty assisted in drawing them up. Mr. Overimperfection as detracting from their ton, in our opinion, would unquestionareal worth, or justifying any abatement bly be pronounced by such an umpire, of the just measure of commendation
so far as the question lay between him which we have bestowed on their au
and his adversaries, to be, in point of thor, who is now indeed insensible to
doctrine, the more true son of the
Church. human praise, and is reaping the reward of his great and beneficial labours
But it may be asked, "if the doctrines
for which Mr. Overton contends, be, as in the vineyard of Christ. In our text number we shail give
is alleged, conformable to our Articles some account of the life of this eminent and Homilies, how does it happen, that divine, which is written by his brother
hey should meet with so much opposithe Dean of Carlisle, and prefixed to
tion even from many of the Clergy the volume of Sermons now reviewed.
themselves ?"' We answer, that habits
of thinking are continually undergoing (To be continued.)
a change; and that although written articles may obstruct and retard that change, they cannot altogether prevent
it. * That, moreover, a time of indiffeXVIII. OVERTON'S True Churchmen rence respecting doctrines often sucascertained.
ceeds a period of peculiar zeal for them;
and that in the same manner as the te(From p. 252.)
nets of the Apostles are admitted by us We have in our former numbers given to have been departed from by the Pau large analysis of Mr. Overton's work, pists, so it is at least possible (we mean and we now proceed, according to the not to affirm the two cases to be parallel) purpose which we professed, to state that the opinions of the Reformers may our own gei eral sentiments on this im be forsaken by some of their successors portant publication. We shalt, howev of the same Protestant Church. Our er, forbear from minute criticisms. The Clergy, it may be added, are not a few great features of the work will suffi of them the sons of the laity, are educiently occupy our attention.
cated at the same places, and nearly in The object of Mr. Overton is to shew, tlie same manner, and naturally partake that the doctrines preached by those of in the current opinions of the age. In the Clergy, to whom the name of Evan a period, therefore, of the world, in gelical has been given, are contained in which those sentiments extend themour Articles and Homilies, and are also selves, to which the holders of them the doctrines intended to be asserted by give the name of liberal, the presumpthose' who had the principal share in tion lies on the side of a considerable laying the foundations of our Church. departure from the strictness of the an
cient faith, even among many of the fends are true Churchmen, undertakes Clergy,
also to shew that the Calvinistic opinions Now, if under such circumstances, a held by many of them are the opinions controversy respecting doctrine should of the Church. arise, the efforts of some Church men, The doctrinal Calvinism of the Church and of those especially who should has- of England, however, Mr. Overton adtily take up their pen in the cause, are mits, is of a very moderate and qualifilikely to be directed to the object of ed kind. There is in truth, as he also accommodating the articles to the ex- admits, a certain kind of Arminianism, isting taste, rather than to that of main- which is distinguished from a certain taining them in their whole original kind of Calvinism only by a very nice force; we may add that this course of line. We shall not enter into the disproceeding may more particularly be quisition of this curious and somewhat expected to take place, if there should metaphysical point, especially as Mr. exist any persons who injure the credit Overton, (p. 97.) in stating his opinion of the real tenets of the Church, either that the Church of England is moderateby pushing them to a length not in the ly Calvinistic, declares, “that whether contemplation of the framers of them, the Church of England has determined or even by any little faults or singulari- this way or the other on some of the ties in style or manner, on the part of abstract points agitated between the those persons who should faithfully Calvinists and Arminians, is 'not our dcpreach them. Above all, this is likely termining point; on this circumstance to be the case, if those articles to which we do not found the truth of our main a more lax meaning has come, in pro- position.” And he also intimates that cess of time, to be affixed by some of it is not so much Calvinism which he is the members of the Church, are held, anxious to defend as “ the doctrine of according to their original signification, salvation by grace, through faith in the by any great portion of Dissenters; for, Redeemer;" a doctrine which he allows according to this supposition, that class many sincere Christians “hold essenof preachers in the Establishment 'who tially," who disown the name of Calvinstrictly interpret their own articles, may ist. Thus much it is right to say, in be thought in some degree to favour justice to Mr. Overton, and to do away Dissenters, and may at the same time the too exclusive cast which his perbe favoured by them. Under those cir- formance sometimes exhibits. cumstances, it will be difficult for the We have observed that the Articles sounder members of the Establishment of the Church of England teach those to obtain from their jealous brethren doctrines which are now termed Evanthat fair and patient hearing which is gelical; meaning by these Original Sin, necessary to an impartial decision of the Salvation by Grace through Faith in subject.
Christ, and Regeneration by the Holy We would refer those who may doubt Spirit; and if ii be also admitted that the probability of such a departure from they are (as Mr. Overton cndcavours to the strictness of the national faith as we prove) inoderately Calvinistic, yet our have supposed, to the situation of Scot- Church may, as we think, be fairly conland at the present day. That the doc- sidered as intending to comprehend trines consented to by the members of within her pale both the devout and that Establishment, on their entrance evangelical Arminian, and the practical into it, are Calvinistic in a remarkably and sober Calvinist. high degree, no one who reads over the Her Seventeenth Article in particu
coich confession of faith can a mo- lar, though it appears to be Calvinistic, inent doubt; and yet very Anti-Calvinis. yet seems also to carry in it marks of a tic tenets have made so great progress compromising spirit. She in this, and in that country, that two-thirds of the in her other Articles, rejects Antinoclergy may be considered as holding mianism, as every sound and sober Calthem.
vinist also does; a heresy, perhaps, the Mr. Overton, in his endeavours to existence of which many of our modern prove that the clergymen whom he de. Calvinists may not be so ready as our