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poses to repeal; and we may quote in goad; that driveth oxen and is occusupport of his opinion the words of the pied in their labours, and whose talk son of Sirach,“ The wisdom of a learn- is of bullocks? He giveth his mind to ed man cometh by opportunity of make furrows, and is diligent to give leisure. How can he get wisdom that the kine fodder," holdeth the plough and glorieth in the
II. VIEW OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS.
The termination of the war which has as Plenipotentiary the Citizen Joseph Buonaso long desolated the different quarters parte, Counsellor of State. of the globe, constitutes a new era in dom of Great Britain and Ireland, has named
His Majesty the King of the United Kingthe history of the world. We cordially the Marquis Cornwallis, Knight of the Most hail the re-establishment of peace, and Noble Order of the Garter, one of His Majeswe cannot announce it without expres- ty's Privy Council, General in His Majesty's sing a hope, that every Christian will Armies, &c. &c. offer up his individual praises to that dies, and the Government of the Batavian Re
His Majesty the King of Spain and the In. Being to whom we owe this mercy, public, have appointed the following. Plenipoand that his Majesty will also be pleas- tentiaries, to wit; His Catholic Majesty has ed to appoint a solemn day of Thanks- named Don Joseph Nicolas d'Azara, his giving to be observed by us as a nation. Counsellor of State, Grand Cross of the Order
of Charles III. Ambassador Extraordinary of May our animosities be, on this occa
His Majesty to the French Republic, &c. &c. sion forgotten! The proper observation
And the Government of the Batavian Reof our fasts, it is to be feared, was much public has named Roger Jean Schimmelpenhindered by political jealousies. May nick, its Ambassador Extraordinary to the we now " with one heart and one voice French Republic, &c. glorify God;" and may we remember,
Which said Plenipotentiaries having duly
communicated to each other their respective that no prayers or praises are accepta- powers, which are transcribed at the concluble to Him, unless accompanied by the sion of the present 'Treaty, have agreed upon spirit of kindness and love towards our the following articles: neighbours-towards men, that is to say,
Article I. There shall be Peace, Friendship, of every sect, of every party, and of and Good Understanding between the French
Republic, His Majesty the King of Spain, his heirs and successors, and the Batavian Repub
lic on the one side, and His Majesty the King DEFINITIVE TREATY OF PEACE
of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Between the French Republic, His Majesty the Ireland, bis heirs and successors on the other King of Spain and the Indies, and the Bata.
part. vian Řepúblic, (on the one Part) and His most efforts to preserve a perfect harmony
The Contracting Parties shall use their utMajesty, the King of the United Kingdom between their respective Countries, without of Great Britain and Ireland, (on the other Part.)
permitting any act of hostility whatever by
sea or by land, for any cause, or under any The First Consul of the French Republic, in pretext. the Name of the French People, and His Ma They shall carefully avoid every thing which jesty the King of the United Kingdom of might for the future disturb the happy Union Great Britain and Ireland, being equally ani. now re-established between them, and shall mated with a desire to put an end to the Ca. not give any succour or protection directly or lamities of War, have laid the foundation of indirectly, to those who would wish to injurd Peace, by the Preliminary Articles, which were
any of them. signed in London the 9th Vendemiaire, an. 10, Il. All the prisoners made on one side and (or the 1st of October, 1801.)
the other, as well by land as by sea, and the And as by the 15th Article of the Prelimi. hostages carried off' or delivered up during the naries it has been agreed on, “That Pleni. war and up to the present day, shall be restorpotentiaries should be named on the part of ed without ransom, in six weeks at the latest, each Government, who should repair to Ami- to be reckoned from the day when the Ratifi ens, and there proceed to arrange a Definitive cations of the present Treaty are exchanged, Treaty, in concert with the Allies of the Con- and on paying the Debts which they shall have tracting Powers."
contracted during their captivity. Each of the The First Consul of the French Republic, Contracting Parties shall respectively disin the Name of the French People, lias named charge the advances which shall bare been
made by any of the Contracting Parties for as above, shall belong in full sovereignty to the the support and maintenance of prisoners in French Republic. the countries where they have been detained. The southern bank of the said River, from There shall be appointed by mutual consent the same mouth, and all the territories to the for this purpose a commission, specially em- South of the said line, shall belong to Her powered to ascertain and determine the com. Most Faithful Majesty. pensation which may be due to any one of the The navigation of the River Arowary, along Contracting Parties. The time and the place the winole of its course, shall be common to shall likewise be fixed by mutual consent for both Nations. the meeting of the Commissioners who shall The arrangements which have been agreed be intrusted with the execution of this Arti. upon between the Courts of Madrid and Lis. cle, and who shall take into account, not only bon, respecting the settlements of their boun. the expenses incurred on account of the Priso. daries in Europe, shall nevertheless be adherners of the respective Nations, but likewise on ed to conformably to the stipulations of the account of the Foreign Troops, who before be- Treaty of Badajos. ing taken, were in the pay, and at the disposal VIII. The territories, possessions, and rights of one of the Contracting Parties.
of the Sublime Porte, are maintained in their III. His Britannic Majesty restores to the integrity, as they were before the War. French Republic and its Allies, viz. His Ca. IX. The Republic of the Seven Islands is tholic Majesty and the Batavian Republic, all recognised. the possessions and Colonies which respec X. The Islands of Malta, Gezo, and Comi. tively belonged to them, and which have been no, shall be restored to the Order of St. John either occupied or conquered by the British of Jerusalem, to be held on the same condi. Forces during the course of the present War, tions on which it possessed them before the with the exception of the Island of Trinidad War, and under the following stipulations : and of the Dutch possessions in the Island of 1. The Knights of the Order, wliose Lan. Ceylon.
gues* shall continue to subsist, after the ex. IV. His Catholic Majesty cedes and gua. change of the Ratification of the present rantees in full property and sovereignty the Treaty, are invited to return to Malta, as soon Island of Trinidad io His Britannic Majesty. as the Exchange shall have taken place. They
V. The Batavian Republic cedes and gua- shall there form a general Chapter, and prorantees in full property and sovereignty to His ceed to the Election of a Grand Master, cho. Britannic Majesty all the possessions and esta sen from among the Natives of those Nations blishments in the Island of Ceylon, which pre- which are to preserve their Langues, unless vious to the War belonged to the Republic of that election has been already made since the the United Provinces, or to the Dutch Easi. Exchange of the Preliminaries. India Company.
It is understood that an Election made subVI. The Port of the Cape of Good Hope re. sequent to that epoch, shall alone be considermains to the Batavian Republic in full sove. ed valid, to the exclusion of any other that reignty in the same manner as it did previous may have taken place at any period prior to to the war.
that epoch. The Ships of every kind belonging to the 2. The Governments of the French Repub. other Contracting Parties sball be allowed to lic, and of Great Britain, desiring to place the enter the said Port, and there to purchase Order and Island of Malta in a state of entire what provisions they may stand in need of as independence with respect to themselves, heretofore, without being liable to pay any agree that there shall not be in future either a other imposts than such as the Batavian Re- French or an English Langue ; and that no in. public compels the Ships of its own Nation 10 dividual belonging to either the one or the pay.
other of these Powers shall be admitted into VII. The territories and possessions of Her the Order, Most Faithful Majesty are maintained in their 3. There shall be establislied a Maltese integrity, such as they were antecedent to the Langue, which shall be supported by the terWar. However the boundaries of French ritorial revenues, and commercial duties of and Portuguese Guiana are fixed by the River the Island. This Langue shall have its pecuArowary, which empties itself into the Ocean liar dignities, an establishment and a mansion above Cape North, near the Islands Nuovo and house. Proofs of Nobility shall not be necesPenetentia, about a degree and a third of sary for the admission of Knights of this Lan. North Latitude. These boundaries shall run along the River Arowary, from its mouth the * The word Langue may be translated by most distant from Cape North to its source, that of Class or Tribe. The Knights were and afterwards on a right line, drawn from considered as consisting of eight Classes or that source, to the Rio Branco towards the Tribes (commonly called Langues) of which West.
Spain and Portugal furnished two, Italy one, In consequence, the Northern bank of the Germany one, Lavaria one, and France three. River Arowary, from the said mouth to its The number of Knights sent by France was, source, and the territories that lie to the then, about three hundred and thirty-nine out North of the line of the boundaries laid down of the thousand,
gue; and they shall be moreover admissible the time of its restoration to the Order, his to all offices, and shall enjoy all privileges Representative, as well as his Successors, shall in the same manner as the Knights of the other be bound to take an oath for their punctual Langues. At least half of the Municipal, Ad- observance. ministrative, Civil, Judicial, and other em 12. His Sicilian Majesty shall be invited to ployments depending on the Government, shall furnish 2000 men, natives of his Stales, to be filled by inhabitants of the islands of Mal serve as a Garrison in the different fortresses ta, Gezo, and Comino.
of the said Islands. That force shall remain 4. The forces of His Britannic Majesty shall one year, to bear date from their restitution evacuate the Island, and its dependencies, to the Kniglits; and if, at the expiration of within three months from the exchange of the this term, the Order should not have raised a Ratifications, or sooner if possible. At that force sufficient, in the judgment of the Guaranepoch it shall be given up to the Order in its teeing Powers to garrison the Island and its present state, provided the Grand Master, or Dependencies, as is specified in the 5th paraCommissaries, fully authorized according to graph, the Neapolitan Troops shall continue the Statutes of the Order, shall be in the there until they shall be replaced by a force Island to take possession, and that the force deemed sufficient by the said Powers. which is to be provided by His Sicilian Majes. 13 The different Powers designated in the ty, as is hereafter stipulated, shall have arrived 6th paragraph, to wit; France, Great Britain, there.
Austria, Spain, Russia, and Prussia, shall 5. One half of the Garrison, at least, shall be invited to accede to the present stipube always composed of native Maltese ; for lations. the remainder, the Order may levy Recruits, XI. The French troops shall evacuate the in those Countries only which continue to pos- kingdom of Naples and the Roman States ; sess the Langues. The Maltese Troops shall the English Forces shall also evacuate Porto have Maltese Officers. The Commandership Ferrajo, and generally all the Ports and isl. in Chief of the Garrison, as well as the nomi- ands that they occupy in the Mediterranean, nation of the Officers, shall pertain to the or the Adriatic. Grand Master, and this right he cannot resign XII. The Evacuations, Cessions, and Resti. even temporarily, except in favour of a Knight, tutions, stipulated by the present Treaty, and in concurrence with the advice of the shall be executed in Europe within a month; Council of the Order.
on the Continent and Seas of America and Af6. The independence of the Isles of Malta, rica in three months ; on the Continent and of Gezo and Comino, as well as the present Seas of Asia in six months, which shall arrangement, shall be placed under the pro- follow the Ratification of the present Definitection and guarantee of France, Great Britain, tive Treaty, except in case of a Special ReAustria, Spain, Russia, and Prussia.
servation. 7. The Neutrality of the Order and of the XIII. In all cases of Restitution, agrees! Island of Malta, with its dependencies, is upon by the present Treaty, the fortifications hereby proclaimed.
shall be restored in the condition they were in 8. The Ports of Malta shall be opened to at the time of signing of the Preliminaries ; the Commerce and the Navigation of all Na. and all the works which shall have been contions, who shall there pay equal and moderate structed since their occupation, shall remain Duties: these Duties shall be applied to the untouched. maintenance of the Maltese Langue, as speci It is agreed besides, that in all the stipulafied in paragraph 3, to that of the Civil and ted cases of Cessions, there shall be allowed Military Establishments of the Island, as well to the inhabitants, of whatever rank or nation as to that of a general Lazaret, open to all they may be, a term of three years, reckoning colours.
from the notification of the present Treaty, to 9. The States of Barbary are excepted from dispose of all their properties, whether acthe conditions of the preceding paragraphs, quired or possessed by them before or during unti), by means of an arrangement to be pro- the continuance of the present War; during cured by the Contracting Parties, the system of which term of three years, they shall have hostilities, which subsists between the Sates of free and entire liberty to exercise their reliBarbary, and the Order of St. John, or the gion, and to enjoy their fortunes. The same powers possessing the Langues, on concur. power is granted in the Countries that are ring in the composition of the Order, shall" irereby restored, to all persons, whether inbave ceased.
habitants or not, who shall have formed any 10. The Order shall be governed, both with establishments there, during the time that respect to Spirituals and Temporals, by the those countries were in the possession of Great same Statutes which were in force when the Britain. Knights left the Isle, as far as the present As to the inhabitants of the Countries re. Treaty does not abrogate tliem.
stored or ceded, it is hereby agreed, that no 11. The Regulations contained in the Para- person shall, under any pretence, be prosecut-graphs 3, 5, 7, 8, and 10, shall be conrerted ed, disturbed, or molested, either in person or into Laws and perpetual Statutes of the Or. property, on account of his political conduct der, in the customary manner ; and the Grand or opinion, or for his attachment to any of the Master, or, if he shall not be in the Island at Contracting Parties, on any account whatever", Christ. Obsery. No. 4.
except for debts contracted with individuals, Majesty; and the Sublime Porte shall be in. or for acts subsequent to the present Treaty. vited to transmit its act of accession as soon
XIV. All the Sequestrations laid on either as possible. side, on Funds, Kevenues, and Credits, of XX. It is agreed that the Contracting Parwhat nature soever they may be, belonging to ties, upon requisitions made by them respectany of the Contracting Powers, or to their ively, or by their Ministers or Officers duly Citizens, or Subjects, shall be taken off im- authorized for that purpose, shall be bound to mediately after the Signature of this Definitive deliver up to justice persons accused of mur. Treaty.
der, forgery, or fraudulent bankruptcy, comThe decision of all claims among the indi- mitted within the jurisdiction of the requiring viduals of the respective nations, for debts, party, provided that this shall only be done in property, effects, or rights, of any nature cases in which the evidence of the crime shall whatsoever, which should, according to re be such that the laws of the place in which the ceived usages, and the Law of Nations, be accused person shall be discovered, would preferred at the epoch of the Peace, shall be have authorized the detaining and bringing referred to the competent Tribunals : in all him to trial, had the offence been committed those cases speedy and complete justice shall there. The expenses of the arrest and the be done in the countries wherein ihose claims prosecution, shall be defrayed by the party shall be respectively preferred.
making the requisition ; but this Article has XV. The Fisheries on the coasts of New. no sort of reference to crimes of murder, foundland, and of the adjacent islands, and forgery, or fraudulent bankruptcy, commitin the Gulf of St. Lau nce, are placed on ted before the conclusion of this Definitive the same footing as they were before the · Treaty. War
XXI. The contracting parties promise to The French Fishermen of Newfoundland observe sincerely and faithfully all the Articles and the inhabitants of the islands of St. Pierre contained in the present Treaty, and will not and Miquelon, shall have liberty to cut such suffer any sort of counteraction, direct or indi. wood as may be necessary for them in the rect, to be made to it by their citizens, or Bays of Fortune and Despair during the first respective subjects ; and the Contracting year, reckoning from the Ratification of the Parties guarantee generally and reciprocally, present Treaty.
all the stipulations of the present Treaty. XVI. To prevent all grounds of complaint XXII. The present Treaty shall be ratified and disputes which might arise on account of by the Contracting Parties as soon as possible, Captures which may have been made at sea, and the Ratifications shall be exchanged in subsequent to the signing of the Preliminaries, due form at Paris. it is reciprocally agreed that the ships and In testimony whereof, we, the undersigned property which may have been taken in the Plenipotentiaries, have signed with our hands, Channel, and in the North Seas, after a space and in virtue of our respective full powers, the of twelve days, reckoning from the exchange present Definitive Treaty, causing it to be of the Ratifications of the Preliminary Arti- sealed with our respective seals. cles, shall be restored on the one side and the Done at Amiens, the 4th Germinal, in other; that the term shall be one month for
the year 10, (March 25, 1802.) the space, from the Channel and the North
(Signed) BUONAPARTE, Seas, as far as the Canary Islands inclusively,
CORNWALLIS, as well in the ocean as in the Mediterranean;
AZARA, and two months from the Canary Islands to the Equator; and, finally, five months in all the
(A correct Copy,) other parts of the world, without any farther
7. Buonaparte. exception, or distinction of time or place.
XVII. The Ambassadors, Ministers, and other Agents of the Contracting Powers, shall
There has been no intelligence of any imenjoy respectively in the States of the said portance this month from France, except what Powers the same rank, privileges, preroga- relates to the re-establishment of Religion in tives, and immunities which were enjoyed that country, of which we have already, in a before the War by Agents of the same class. former part of this number, given a full ac. XVIII. The branch of the House of Nas.
count. Some farther details on the same subsau, which was established in the cidevant ject we shall reserve till next month. Republic of the United Provinces, now the
The Definitive Treaty of Peace between Batavian Republic, having experienced some
this country and France was ratified by Josses, as well with respect to private proper. the Chief Consul on the 17th inst. and the ty as by the change of Constitution adopted in ratifications were exchanged on the following those countries, an equivalent compensation day. shall be procured for the losses which they
The following is the statement of the shall be proved to have sustained.
French army, at the beginning of this XIX. The present Definitive Treaty of month: Peace is declared common to the Sublime Consular Guard
6,000 Ottoman Porte, the Ally of his Britannic Cavalry and Dragoon's
Chasseurs à Cheval and Hussars 30,000 To the Copy of the Definitive Treaty, pub. Artillery (horse and foot,) Miners,
lished in the Dutch Papers, is subjoined a and Pontoneers
separate convention between France and Ba. Infantry of the Line
250,000 tavia, whereby it is agreed that the IndernniLight Infantry
60,000 ty stipulated in favour of the House of Nas
sau, in the 18th Article of the Treaty of AmiTotal 387,000 ens, shall not be at the charge of the Batavia!
Republic ; , the French Government being In the above statement are not comprised guarantee to this effect towards the said Rethe numerous corps of Gens d'Armes, nor the public, three demi-brigades of Swiss auxiliaries, nor the Polish troops. By means of the military The following remarkable Ukase has lately conscription, the army can be recruited in been issued by the Emperor, which promises two months with 200,000 men. The number to have very important effects on the political of the general conscription for the five classes state of his extensive dominions. amounts for the whole Republic to upwards of “As we desire to give new encouragement 1,200,000 men !
to agriculture, proportioned to the means
which Russia possesses in consequence of The disturbances in the Valais still con her extent and position, we have judged it tinue, but little doubt can exist that the necessary to extend to our subjects the right power of France will become soon so predo- of acquiring lands without peasants (with the minant in that country as to crush all opposi- exception of lands which belong to gentle. ţion.
men,) and give to them the exclusive proper.
ty of all that is produced either by the surface The Chief Consul has announced the for. or the soil of these lands. In consequence we mal recognition of the Italian Republic by permit merchants, citizens, and all persons Prussia, and that the other Powers are dis- who enjoy the rights of the city, peasants of posed to follow his example.
the crown, to whatever department they beThe Republic of the Seven Islands appears long, also peasants freed by gentlemen, to to be in a state of considerable confusion, and purchase land of those who have the right to advice has been received from Venice, of an sell it, and to secure their acquisition by artiEnglish flotilla having appeared before Corfu, cles of sale, which shall be made in the name and landed a body of troops to suppress the of each, and preserved according to the orcommotions in that Island.
dinance in the Courts of Justice intended for
this purpose, in order that each man's proThe Emperor has announced to the Hunga- perty may be guaranteed in an inviolable manrian States his intention of holding a general ner. Diet at Presburgh, on the 2nd of May next, for the purpose of concerting the most effica This Country still appears to be in a state cious and practicable means of re-establishing of great distraction. Passwan Oglou is said the prosperity of that kingdom ; and of insur to be forming combinations for resisting the ing the preservation, utility, and glory of its Forte, should the attempt be made to reduce inhabitants; of consolidating and alleviating him to obedience. The insurgent Janissaries the weight of the public taxes; and of intro. still retain possession of Belgrane, where they ducing at the same time, a more speedy and are making preparations for a vigorous deperfect administration of Justice, as one of the fence against the Turkish troops said to have principal modes of augmenting the interior fe. marched against them. Egypt is also in a licity of the country.
very unsettled state, and it seems still doubtThe Senate of Hamburgh has received offi. ful whether the Beys can be subjugated. cial intelligence from Paris, that all the differences between the First Consul and that city In September last a Treaty between the are amicably adjusted.
Company and the Nabob Azeem al Dowlah
was ratified, whereby the succession to the A Letter has been published written by the Soubadarry of Arcot is settled, and the entire Prefect of the Departinent of Deux Netties to civil and military Government of the Carnatic the Mayor of Antwerp, informing him, that in vested in the Company. consequence of the Treaty of Amiens, the The last accounts from Madras announce Scheldt is now perfectly free, and inviting all the continued success of the Company's forces merchants to avail themselves of the benefits employed against the Insurgent Polygars in which this circumstance is calculated to af- the provinces of Tinnivelly and Ramnad, but ford them.
a doubt existed whether tranquillity could be
completely restored before the season for ac. On the 16th inst, the Treaty of Amiens re tive warfare was over: ceived the sanction of the Senate. Its annun The Victor sloop of war of 18 guns, comciation seems to have excited no public ex manded by Captain Collier, after a very close pression of joy among the people of that coun. and severe action, sunk La Fleche, French ne. try.
tional frigate of 36 guns.