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Auids—the positive containing the principle of electric matter and phlogiston, and, together oxygen, and the negative that of phlogiston. with proper galvanic experiments, shew that These united to water constitute the two the same substance elaborated from the alikinds of air, viz. dephiogisticated and infiam ment by the brain is the cause of muscular mable. He says they tend likewise to con- motion, the nerves being the most sensible of firm a conjecture advanced by himself many all electrometers. years ago, respecting the similarity of the

**We are under the necessity, in consequence of the importance of the events connected with religion,

which bave unexpectedly occurred towards the close of the month, to defer to a future Number much of our Literary and Philosophical Intelligence.

HISTORICAL DEPARTMENT.

I. STATE AND PROGRESS OF RELIGION,

CONCORDAT.

FRANCE.

to the intelligent as to the physical world. It Re-establishment of the Catholic Religion.

is very necessary to be cautious of separating

a people from every thing that is a guide to LEGISLATIVE BODY.

men. Law, without morality, cannot subsist;

law applies only to a single action: religion emSITTING OF 15TH GERMINAL, (APRIL 5.) braces the whole of a man's life: religion has

need of ceremonies, of practices that speak to

the eyes. There are forms which true philosoThe Counsellors of State, Portalis, Regnier, phy respects as much as pride disdains them; and Regnaud (de Saint Jean d'Angely,) were it is by these forms that a religion addressing introduced into the Hall with music playing itself to the senses is popular. Religion has and military honours.

moreover need of discipline, for without rules After reading the decree by which the Gove what is there to hinder those who profess the ernment charged these three orators in pre same principles from separating and forming sent to the Legislative Body the CONVENTION a multitude of separate systems of religion. made between the French Republic and the It is by positive religions that men were inHoly See ;

duced to quit the forests, to unite and become Portalis mounted the Tribune. France, civilized. It is religion alone that affords a consaid he, has been great in war; she has been solation for the inequality of rank, for chagrin great in peace; she ought now to consecrate and affliction, that collects, and relieves from the salutary institutions which are to secure it their fatignies, the inhabitants of an immense to ber. He reminded the Legislative body territory The Goveroment could not, there. that the Catholic religion was at one time the fore, hesitate to adopt an institution which prevailing religion in France, the Constituent makes the most essential truths the domains Assembly wished to reform its discipline ; it of the public conscience, which calms every placed its property at the disposal of the na- mind, which calls all men to justice and hution, and prescribed to its priests an oath manity, and establishes equality among all which produced a schism. From that period ranks. the French priests were divided into two Some persons would have wished for a reli. classes, those who took the oath, and those gion more conformable to our manners and to who refused it The minds of men were irri. our ideas of liberty If the strength of the tated, theological dissentions increased; from law consists in its being feared, the strength this confusion originated laws which bore the of religion consists in its being believed, and marks of the circumstances that had produced belief is greater in proportion as the origin of them, and in which conscience was more or the dogma is more remote. Christianity has less oppressed.

the sanction of time and the respect of nations, It was in this state that things were, when and though it is distinguished into Catholic the Government undertook to re-establish the and Protestant, these are only two branches peace of religion. A primary question pre. from the same trunk. Christianity lias civisented itself: is religion in general necessary lized Europe; it has created a social disposito bodies of people? is it necessary to men? tion in the countries where it has penetrated; Whatever may be the degree of perfection to it connects itself with the progress of the Arts which we are arrived, the multitude is more and Sciences. struck with what is imposed on it by order, It is connected with no form of government: than what is proved to it to be right The it is the religion not of one state, but of the idea of a universal legislator is as necessary world. It is hoped that its abuses will be pre

vented by establishing the priesthood without agreement, and the Organic Articles of the leaving it any power of nomination, and by Protestant forms of Worship, the tenor of leaving it no other care than that of preaching which is herein aftermentioned, shall be proinorality and religion.

mulgated and executed as laws of the ReIn order to terminate the schism that reign- public. ed in the church of France, it was necessary Convention between the French Government, and either to declare the chief of the state the

bis Holiness Pope Pius VII exchanged the chief of its religion---to create a national pa

23d Fructidor, an 9, ( September 10, 1801.) triarch; and then it would be necessary to change the religious system, which could not

The First Consul of the French Republic, be done at all in the present circumstances, and and his Holiness the Sovereign Pontift, Pius could be done at no time without much dan- Viltii, bave named for their respective pleniger; or to recur to the chief of the universal potentiaries: church, whose authority may be regulated by

The First Consul, the Citizens Joseph Bothe law of n tions, without the necessity of naparte, Counsellor of State ; Cretet, Coun. war or scandal among ourselves. It would be sellor of State; and Bernier, Doctor of Theosilly to fear the renewal of the ancient preten. logy, Curé of St. Laud d'Angers; having full sions of the Court of Rome. Its chief, as a powers. sovereign las only the respect, that weakness His Holiness appoints his Eminence, Signor and religion inspire, to support him As head Hercules Gonsalvi, Cardinal of the Holy Roof the church, the clergy of France have fre man Church, Dean of St. Agatha, ad Suburquently contended with him, and we still re ram, his Secretary of State ; Joseph Spina, collect the declaration of 1632, which denied Archbishop of Corinth, Domestic Prelate of his all temporal influence of the Pope. The cler. Holiness, Assistant of the Pontifical Throne: gy are to be paid : the Constituent Assembly and Father Coselli, Theologist of the Counsel had consecrated that principle. In declaring of his Holiness, who have received full powers that the Catholic religion is that of the three for the purpose. Consuls, it is not said that it shall become the Who, having exchanged their full powers, governing religion; but only that it shall be have executed the following Convention : the religion of those who govern, and who Convention between the French Government, and ought to have a religion in Saxony the chief

bis Holiness, Pius VII. of the estate is Catholic, and the inhabitants

The Government of the Republic acknoware Lutherans. By a provision of the conven

ledges, that the Catholic Religion, Apostolic tion the Pope regards the purchasers of na.

and Roman, is the Religion of the great mational property as indefeasible proprietors, not that the Roman Pontiff is supposed more than jority of French citizens.

His Holiness also acknowledges, that this any other pontiff' to possess the right of dis. religion bas derived, and is likely to derive, solving contracts, but to remove even the the greatest advantages and lustre from the smallest inquietude. The prohibition of mar.

establishment of the Catholic Faith in France, riage to the Clergy will, perhaps, raise objec. and from the particular profession of it, by the tions. Men consecrated to the divinity ought Consuls of the Republic. to be honoured, and to abstain from every

They, therefore, after this mutual acknow. thing that may subject them to the suspicion ledgment, macle as well for the interest of reof wanting corporai purity. The Catholic

ligion, as for the support of the internal tranworship requires a constant labour and atten. quillity of their respective states,

have tion, and it was thought necessary to spare

agreed

as follows: them the embarrassments of a family. It has

Art. 1. The Catholic Religion, Apostolic been said, that the Catholic religion has too

and Roman, shall be freely exercised in many rights and ceremonies: these rites are the sanction and preservation of its doctrine. conformity to such regulations of police as

France. Its worship shall be public, but in The Catholic Religion is reproached with Government shall judge necessary for the cursing all those that are without its bosom, public tranquillity. and of being intolerant and unsociable. Mon

2. There shall be maile by the Holy See, in tesquieu saw in this principle only a motive

concert with the Government, a new division for being attached to the religion which

of French dioceses. teaches it ; for, says he, when a religion gives 3. His lloliness shall declare to those who us the idea of a choice made by the divinil, have now the rank of French Bishops, that he that must attach us very strongly to the reli. confidently expects from them all manner of gion so chosen.

sacrifices, even that of their Sees, for the sake" Regnauld (de St Jean d'Angely,) then read of peace and unity. After this exhortation, if the following Plan and Convention:

they shall refuse to make this sacrifice, which

the interest of the Church requires (a refusal, The formalagreements made a: Paris, the which, however, his Holiness does not ex26th Messidor, an. 9, between the Pope and pect,) other persons shall be provided for the the French Government, (the Ratifications of government of the Bishoprics, constituted by which were exchanged at Paris, the 10th of the new division of Sees, in the following maniSeptember 1801,) the Organic Articles of said

PLAN OF A LAW.

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4. The First Consul of the Republic shall be so disposed, to form establishments and within three months after the publication of foundations in favour of the churches. his Holiness's bull nominate to the Archbi. 16. His Holiness acknowledges in the First shoprics and Bishoprics of the new division; Consul of the French Republic the same and his Holiness will confer the canonical in. rights and prerogatives which the ancient Gostitution according to the forms established vernment possessed with him. with regard to France before the change of 17. It is agreed between the contracting its government.

parties, that in case any of the successors 5. The nomination to the Bishoprics which of the First Consul, now being, should not shall afterwards become vacant, shall be also be a Catholic, the rights and prerogatives made by the First Consul; and the canonical mentioned in the above article, as well as institution shall be confirmed by the Holy See, the nomination of the bishoprics, shall be as in the foregoing article.

regulated with respect to him by a new con6. The Bishops, before they enter upon their vention, functions, shall take before the First Consul The ratifications shall be exchanged at Pain person, the oath of fidelity, which was in ris in the space of forty days. use before the change of government, express Done at Paris the 26th Messidor, of the ed in the following terms: “I swear and pro aih year of the Republic. mise to God, upon the Holy Evangelists, to

(Signed) Joseph BONAPARTE. preserve obedience and fidelity to the govern

HERCULES, Cardinal GONSALVI. ment established by the Constitution of the French Republic. I also promise to have no

JOSEPH SPINA, Archbishop of

Corinth. correspondence, nor to assist at any council or

BERNIER. cabal, either within the country or out of it,

F. CAROLUS CASELLI. that shall be contrary to the cause of the public tranquillity; and if in my diocese, or elsewhere, I shall learn of any plots or machina

The principal Organic Articles of the Con

cordat. tions prejudicial to tire state I shall inform the government of it."

No bull, brief, &c. of the court of Rome, 7. The clergy of the second order shall take shall have any effect in France without the the same oath before the civil authorities ap consent of the Government. pointed by the Government.

No individual apostolic nuncio, legate, &c. 8. The following prayer shall be recited, shall be permitted to exercise their functions at the end of divine service, in all the Catholic in France but with the consent of the Governchurches of France,

ment, and in a manner conformable to the Domine, salvam fac Republicam ! liberties of the Gallican Church. Domine, salvos fac Consules !

The National Council, or Diocesan Synod, 9. The Bishops shall make a new division shall not take place without the consent of Goof parishes in their dioceses, which shall how- vernment. ever not be conclusive till it has received the The Council of State shall take cognizance consent of the Government.

of disturbances caused by the ministers in the 10. The Bishops shall name the Curés. execution of their functions, or of other perTheir choice must however be agreed to by sons against them. the Government.

Bishops may add to their titles the qualifi11. The Bishops may have a chapter in their cation of Citoyen, or Monsieur. Cathedral, and a seminary for their diocese, No man can be named a Bishop but a without the Government being bound to en- Frenchman, aged at least thirty years, having dow them,

an attestation of his morals delivered by a Bi12 All the Metropolitan, cathedral, paro. shop, and afier an examination of his doctrine chial, and other churches, that have not yet by a Bishop and two Priests. been disposed of, shall be placed at the dispo Bishops may not quit their Sees without sal of the Bishops.

permission of the First Consul. 13 His Holiness, for the sake of peace, and The Clergy in general shall wear black the happy re-establishment of the Catholic re. clothes, the Bishops violet coloured stockligion, declares that neither he nor his suc- ings. cessors shall trouble in any manner the pos There shall be a Liturgy and a Catechism sessors of ecclesiastical property that has been for the French Church. alienated, and that consequently the owner The new Calendur, which begins at the ship of the said property, together with all the Autumnal Equinox, is preserved. The names revenues and rights attached to it, shall re. of the days shall be as in the ancient calendar. main with the said possessors or those to Sunday shall be the day of rest for the Public whom they have transferred it.

Functionaries. 14. The Government will secure a suitable There shall be ten Archbishoprics, and fifty provision to the Bishops and Curés whose dio. Bishoprics. ceses and parishes shall be marked out by the The allowance of the Archbishops shall be new division

fifteen thousand livres annually, of the Bishops, 15. The Government shall take measures ten thousand. to permit those French Catholics, who shall No Clergyman shall be ordained

Priest.

1

ment.

who is not 25 years of age, and possessed of Consistorial Churches shall form the district 300 livres annual revenue.

of a Synod. The Curés shall reside in their parishes.

The nuinber of the Ministers, or Pastors, Priests, who do not regularly belong to any in the same Consistorial Churcli, cannot be diocese, shall not officiate.

increased without the authority of govern. No other holydays, except Sundays, shall ment. be kept without the consent of the Govern The Pastors cannot resign without stating

their motives to Government, which shall apThe bells shall only be rung for divine ser

prove or reject them. vice.

The title of election shall be presented to The Bishops shall visit every year a part of the First Consul for his approbation. their diocese; the whole every five years. All the Pastors now in exercise are provi

No religious ceremony shall take place out sionally confirmed. of the temples, in those towns, where there Each Synod shall be composed of a Pastor are temples dedicated to the different forms and a Notable of each church. The Synods of worship. The same temple shall be conse shall superintend the celebration of worship, crated only to one form of worship. The nup- and conduct of ecclesiastical affairs, and all tial benedictious shall be only given by the their decisions shall be submitted for the apclergy to those who have been married by the probation of Government. The Synods cannot civil officers.

assemble until they shall have received the France is divided into ten Archbishoprics; permission of Government, and no Synodal that of Paris containing eight Bishoprics; that Assembly shall last more than six days. of Malines containing seven ; Besancon, five ; Lyons, four ; Aix, four ; Toulouse, five ; Bour- Substance of the Organization of the Churches of deaux, three ; Bourges, three; Tours, seven ;

the Confession of Augsbourg. and Rouen, four. Making, in the whole, ten

The churches of this confession shall have Archbishoprics, and fifty Bishoprics.

Pastors, local Consistories, Inspections, and

General Consistories. Substance of the Organic Articles of the Protes

The Pastors and Consistorial churches shall tant Religion - First Chapter.

be subject to the regulations prescribed for No person shall exercise the ministerial the reformed Pastors and churches last men. functions but a Frenchman

tioned. The churches of the Confession of The Protestani churches and their ministers Augsbourg shall be subordinate to the In. shall have no connection with any foreign spections. Five consistorial churches shall power.

form an inspection, which is to assemble only The ministers and their communities shall by permission of Government. Each Inspecpray for the prosperity of the French Repub- tion to choose an Inspector, and two Lay men lic, and the Consuls.

of such choice to be confirmed by the First No doctrine, nor alteration of doctrine, shall Consul. be published ortauglit, without being first au There are to be three General Consistories : thorized by the Government.

at Strasburgh, for the Protestants of The Council of State will take cognizance Augsbourg, of the departments of the Upper of the designs of Ministers, and all dissensions and Lower Rhine ; a second at Mentz, for that may arise among them.

those of the departments of the Sarre and The maintenance of the Ministers shall be Mont-Tornere ; and the third at Cologne, for provided for, wherever the property and obla- those of the departments of the Rhine, Motions of the communities fall short.

selle, and Roer. The articles for the liberty of foundations, in the organic laws of the Catholic worship,

Such are the principal laws which shall be common to the Protestant churches.

There are to be two seminaries, one in the regulate the re-establishment of ChrisEast of France, for the instruction of Ministers tianity in France. We shall offer a few of the Confession of Augsbourg; and the brief remarks upon this new religious other at Geneva, for the reformed churches, constitution. The professors are to be named by the First

The first impression which it must Csul, and nu Minister to be appointed with, 01: ü certificate of bis having studied in the

undoubtedly make upon every serious Schnary of his religion. The rules for the mind will be that of joy. No person, 8 ::rnment of these seminaries to be also who venerates the holy name by which Suriin by the Government.

we are called, will hear without exultaSecond Chapter.-Reformed Churches.

tion that ai length the Lord's Day is to Tiar Reiormed Churches of France shall

be again honoured as a day of rest, and - l'ascors, local Consistories, and Synods. the religion of Christ, though under an

it 3411 be a Consistorial Church for imperfect form, acknowledged as the € 370000 souls of the same communion. Five public religion of France. It has been

one

indeed an affecting and melancholy panegyrists of religion, and propose to spectacle to the Christian world; it re-establish Christianity? Are they has been an example, pregnant with sincere disciples of Jesus Christ? Are dreadful consequences to mankind, 10 they influenced by a love of the truth? behold one of the principal nations of Have they renounced their infidelity? Europe deliberately casting off the Do they acknowledge the divine origin yoke of religion, and by a public act of Christianity ? No, it is but too evirenouncing the authority of Jesus dent that the principal actors in this Christ as its Lord. Had such an apos- drama are mere statesmen, who regard tate nation established itself in tran- religion only as a political engine. quillity, and flourished in prosperity, Their orator seems anxious to discover, this event would, though without any through the flimsy veil of respect he just reason, have shaken the attach- castsover Christianity, the reasons upon ment of many of the present friends of which alone he recommends it. It Christianity, and given occasion to her teaches men to respect the laws ; for enemies to blaspheme. We may re- without morality law cannot subsist. nark however, that hitherto the cause It promotes civilization-it affords a of infidelity has had little reason to consolation for the inequality of ranks triumph, or that of Christianity to be -it connects itself with the progress ashamed. For the act of renouncing of the arts and sciences. On these ac. the Christian faith has been succeed- counts its forms are to be respected ed by crimes and vices, cruelties even by philosophy; for it is by forms and massacres, prostitution of public religion, addressing itself to the senses, principle, and general profligacy of becomes popular. The Christian sysmanners, hitherto unexampled in the tem is to be preferred to others, bem civilized world. It was a tribute of cause it has the sanction of time, and respect paid to Christianity to extin- the respect of nations. Belief is stronguish her light before such deeds of ger in proportion as the origin of the darkness were committed, as have dogma is more remote. From such since polluted France. Future legis. men, and upon such grounds, what can lators will learn upon political grounds be expected! When infidelity becomes to reverence an institution, the de. the patron of Christianity, what may struction of which has been so dread- not be feared! fully injurious to civil society. The Throughout the whole of this poliexperiment has been solemnly made tical establishment, a jealousy of the of substituting philosophy in the room instrument which it is necessary to of religion, and such have been the employ, and an endeavour to use it as consequences, that in the short space an engine to strengthen the state, are of eight years it has been judged, even strikingly apparent. All the power is by philosophers themselves, absolute- most cautiously

lodged in the hands of ly necessary for the happiness of man- government. The Chief Consul is to kind to dethrone the idol they had appoint the Bishops and Archbishops ; erected, and to re-establish that reli- and though these are to nominate the gion which they had abolished. The inferior Clergy, yet their nomination return of order, of public tranquillity, must be approved by Government. of reason, in France, is accompanied The salaries of all ecclesiastics are to by the return of religion as their natu- be paid by the state-so entirely will ral ally.

the Ministers of religion be the creaBut while we rejoice in this public tures of Government. Nay, the Bishops honour paid to Christianity, we cannot and Clergy are retained by an oath to fail to observe the characters of the inform their rulers of any plot or mamen who pay it, and remark the mo- chination against the state, of which tives by which they are influenced ; they may hear. Should auricular conand our satisfaction is not a little damp- fession be still practised, it may be ed by this circumstance. For who are found a very convenient political inthe men who now stand forward as the strument. It is not difficult to conChrist. Obsery. No. 4.

2 M

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