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age of the elephant when the accident took licate and sensible reagent, to distinguish it place. There are, however, no data from from strontian. By saturating with an acid, which this point could be correctly ascertain- and then seeking silicia or alumina, by ammo. ed. The elephant certainly recovered, and nia, no trace of them can be found, nor indeed from the situalion of the spear-head, together of any thing else.

I do not, however, say with the quantity of bony matter afterwards that the potash is perfectly free from every deposited, it is probable that the animal lived other substance. I believe it contains a little a considerable time after the wound bad been carbone, produced by the decomposition of received.

the alcohol, and is therefore a subcarburet Art. 10. Description of the Arseniates of Cop- of potash; but carbone can be of no conse. per, and of Iron, from ibe County of Cornwall. quence in the generality of experiments in By the Count De BOURNON. Communicat. humid docimasia. The same method, emed by the Right Hon. Sir Joseph Banks, Bart. ployed with carbonate of soda is the only one K. B. P.R.S.

to procure soda in a state of equal purity.” Art. 11. Analysis of the Arseniates of Copper,

(Concluded in our next.) and of Iron, described in the preceding Paper ;

FRANCE. likewise an Analysis of the red Octuedral Copper The New Planet discovered about a year Ore of Cornwall; with Remarks on some parti. ago by Piazzi, at Palermo, from the smallcular Modes of Analysis. By RICHARD Che. ness of its size, and from its situation not havvenix, Esq. M. R. 1. A. Communicated by ing been ascertained with sufficient exactness, the Right Hon. Sir Joseph Banks, Bart. K. B. had escaped the researches of all astronoP. R. S.

mers, till Baron Zach discovered it at Gotha. The Count de Bournon, in the former of Having announced this to Lalande, the latter these papers, examines some arseniates of communicated the intelligence on the 25th copper and iron as a naturalist; attending Jan. to the Astronomers of Paris ; who have chiefly to their chrystallization and outward been since diligently employed in searching appearances. Mr. Chevenix investigates the for it, and investigating its circumstances and same as a chemist, by a complete analysis of laws. Mechain had already discovered it on their constituent parts—the result tends to de. the 24th Jan. and found it had 188° 16' of termine the degree of confidence which may right ascension and 11° 52' of declination. It be placed upon the chrystallographical are appears not larger than a star of the seventh, rangement, and to shew how far sciences, eighth, or even ninth magnitude ; and, of nearly allied, may receive new light and con course, has not two seconds of apparent, nor firmation from reciprocal aid. Mr. C., in a 600 leagues of real diameter, and is five times note, justly reprehends the loose manner in less than the earth. From the observations which some chemists employ chemical terms. hitherto made upon its orbit, there is reason He says,

By potash, or soda, I mean those to suppose that its revolution is performed in alkalis pure, obtained according to the method 4.1.2 or 5 years. proposed by Berthollet. I know of no other. A commission appointed by the NATIONAL It is much to be desired that the epithets INSTITUTE to examine the phænomena of caustic, pure, saturate, &c. should be regarded GALVANISM, and to repeat the experiments as tautology, which they really are. There is of Professor Volta, have communicated the reno potash purer than potash. When it is not sult in a report, in which they explain the pure, we should say, instead of “I took so theory, and its identity with electricity. much potash,” “I took so much of a mixture By the NATIONAL INSTITUTE, at its Sit. of potash, and whatever other substance is ting of Jan. 25, M. HAYDN was elected Fo. mixed with it.”-Thus, instead of calling lapis reign Associate th Class of Literature and causticus, caustic potash, or potash, as is often Fine Arts, having 323 votes, M. Klopstock done, we should say, “ I took so much of a 272, and Mr. Sheridan 251; Major RenNELL mixture of potash, sulphaie, muriate, carbon. to that of Moral and Political Sciences by 334 ate, and sulphuret of potash; siliceous and votes, Count Rumford having 289, and M. aluminous earths, iron and manganese,” for Muller 278; and to the Class of the Mathesuch I find, by analysis, lapis causticus to be. matical and Physical Sciences Dr. Maske. To all this is added, by apothecaries, a little Lyne by 266 votes, Dr. Herschell having 246, lime. Yet this is the substance sometimes and Dr. Priestley 219. called potash -Mr. C. obtains his potash by Menou has addressed a letter to Bonaparte treating Dantzic pearl ash with lime, and era. from Marseilles, in wbich he announces the porating in a well plated copper vessel, a white return of the Institute and Commission of mass is left. This mass, dissolved as far as Arts from Egypt; and recommends by name it can be in alcohol, and the liquor distilled to the principal persons who composed these two dryness in a plated alembic, gives an alkali of societies; many of whom, he says, bave a perfect whiteness. In this state it is dange- brought home very valuable collections and rous to touch it, its action on animal matter is designs. so sudden and so violent. It attacks all stones The LIBRARY OF THE INSTITUTE, estab. with the greatest ease and rapidity. Dissolv. lished at ALEXANDRIA, is arrived at Mared in water, it makes not the least cloud in seilles ; and is, at present, deposited in one of barytes water, or in a solution of nitrate or the halls of the Museum. A catalogue of it muriate of that earth to be used as a very de. has been made by order of the Prefect, for the

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Minister of the Interior ; but the inhabitants after Moses. He was born in Spain, and of Marseilles flatter themselves that the Mi- lived long among the Arabiana, whose lannister will claim only the Arabic MSS. for the guage he employed much in his writings. National Library; as the French, Latin, Ita. A Bookseller of Brunswick proposes to publian, and English books, which are found in lish the interesting correspondence of George this collection, may be met with in all the Li. FORSTER, with many of the most distinguishbraries of Paris, and the carriage of them to ed naturalists in Europe, as Camper, Sparrthat place would cost a great sum ; while they man, Thunberg, Lichtenberg, &c. would be of real service to Marseilles, three

PRUSSIA. fourths of them not being found in its Library. Dr. ACHARD, of Berlin, nominated by the

CHAPTAL, the Minister of the Interior, King of Prussia to investigate the manner of presented a Report to the Consuls on the 6th extracting sugar from a species of the Beet of February, containing the project of a MAG- plant, has published the following results obNIFICENT WORK UPON EGYPT, to be form. tained by the commission charged with the ed from the materials collected during the ex- experiments. Fifteen hundred quintals of Beet pedition to that country. The Report states, plant yielded 5952 pounds of raw sugar, 400 that the Antiquities, Manners, Industry, Go- quintals of residuum, and 111 of syrup. The vernment, and Natural Productions of the residuum, taken like coffee, is excellent. It country, had been the particular subjects of may serve for the distillation of aqua vitæ, and observation ; that considerable collections of the food of cattle. If the culture of this plant its minerals, plants, insects, fishes, and birds, and the extraction of its sugar gain a footing had arrived in France; that architectural plans in Prussia, that state may save two million and designs, perspective views and exact and a half of rix dollars, which it expends ancopies of the bas-reliefs which decorate the nually in the purchase of this commodity. ancieni edifices, had been formed; and that a Our readers may see a full discussion of the great quantity of engraved stones, medals, subject of the Beet plant, in a paper printed in precious MSS, and some other objects of art the xviiith vol. of the Transactions of the Lonand antiquities, had been collected It is pro. don Society for the Encouragement of Arts, posed to unite all these materials, and to pub- Manufactures, and Commerce. lish them in one work, after the manner In the last setting of the Royal ACADEMY adopted by the different Academies of Europe. of Sciences, GALVANISM was the chief sub

This collection will comprehend, I. A Des. ject of attention. The Counsellor Herhard cription of the Monuments, and Memoirs upon demonstrated that nickel in contact with the Antiquities : which will contain, 1. The zinc, produced the same effects as silver and plans of the places where they are situated; leather. The Counsellor Klaproth communi. 2. Views of the country, and of the monu- cated some Galvanic experiments made upon ments taken under different aspects; 3. Plans a large scale by Van Marum, at Haerlem, and of edifices, elevations, sections, and exact de- his counter-proofs upon Teyler's large electrisigns of the architecture and ornaments, and cal machine. These experiments confirm the those of the obelisks; memoirs concerning the theory of Volta, concerning the identity of antiquities and designs of astronomical sculp- Galvanism with electricity. tures; 4. Designs of the most interesting bag

AMERICA. reliefs, engraved stones, medals and inscrip The proprietor of the Museum of Philadeltions, and copies of MSS.; 5. Descriptions of phia, on his return from a scientific journey to the burial places of the ancient Egyptians, and the interior, has brought with him a large and paricularly of the tombs of the Kings at valuable collection of the bones of animals. Thebes; and, 6. Results of the investigations Among these are a quantity of very large entered upon to ascertain the construction and bones, out of which he has formed a complete dimensions of the Pyramids, and the astrono skeleton of the animal called the Mammoth ; mical situation of these monuments. To this a species which seems to have perished, but first part will be prefixed the results of the the existence of which has been supposed from surveys which were made, in order to deter. some discoveries made in the North. This mine the respective situation of the two seas. skeleton was found in Orange County, in the II. This collection will contain, under the State of New York. Its height is 12 feet. names of their authors, Memoirs, Designs, The head is 4 1-2 feet long; the tusks 10 feet; and instructive Notes, which relate to the Ag- and the other parts in proportion. Clef du riculture, Commerce, Arts, and, in general, Cabinet, No. 1798. to the Civil State of Egypt; and, 111. The Dr. DWIGHT, of Connecticnt, in a publick Works written upon subjects of Natural His- discourse printed in a New York paper, actory, which will be accompanied with appro- cused Pichon, the French Charge d'Affaires, priate engravings. The whole will be preced- of publishing a prospectus of a new edition of ed by an Introduction. The Consuls have the works of Godwin. Pichon addressed a published a Decree conformable to this Re- letter to the Secretary of the United States in port.

the National Intelligencer, of the 5th of OctoGERMANY.

ber, printed at Washington, wherein he denies A Notary of Hamburgh has offered for sale the fact ; and says that the object of his letter a MSS. of MAIMOnides, written with his is to repel an imputation brought forward with own hand. The Jews regard this illustrious the sole design of injuring him. The necessiRabbin, as the greatest man of their nation ty which the writer felt for this vindication of

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himself, indicates a degree of soundness in the incapable of being taken in by the stomach, public sentiment of the Americans, which we may be, with great advantage, applied by fricare happy to record.

tion over the skin, so as to affect the whole vi. A PUBLIC LIBRARY has been lately estab. tal system in the manner desired lished at WASHINGTON, for the use of the M. Lowitz, of St. Petersburgh, some time members of the general government, and of since, made many experiments to reduce the legislature of the United States.

honey to the state of sugar, by treating it with TURKEY.

powdered charcoal. He could not fully effect In the Turkish Printing Establishment at his purpose. Yet, he succeeded so far as to CONSTANTINOPLE, which has existed for two form a syrup of honey, which might be used years under the favour of the Sultan Selim, a just as agreeably and usefully as honey in Dictionary is now printing of the Turkish, making either tea or punch. That, however, Greek, Latin, French, and Persian languages, in which Lowitz failed, has been recently acin three volumes folio; and ninety sheets are complished by M. CAVEZZALI, a chemist of already printed. In Constantinople there are Lodi in Italy. He took a certain quantity of besides two Greek printing-offices, under the the purest and whitest honey which he could inspection of the Patriarch Neophytus; but procure. This he set to boil in mixture with in these, only church books are printed. pulverised egg shells As the boiling conti. RUSSIA

nued, he carefully skimmed the mixture. In NICOLAI KALNGIN, of Moscow, who has the skimmings, there was some appearance of presented to the Emperor an account of a me a peculiar acid which he could not then ana. thod of giving a dark green colour to cloth, lytically examine. When this scum ceased to by means of burnt nettles, has received 500 appear on the surface, he removed the liquor roubles; and the Emperor has ordered that from the fire. The liquor when cool, was a he may be appointed to a situation suitable to rich saccharine syrup. He set a part of it his knowledge and abilities in a royal manu. aside in a close bottle. That part was, after factory.

some time, found to have deposited pure crys. ITALY.

tals of genuine sugar, somewhat reddish'in M. Brera has recently ascertained by a colour. M. Cavezzali quickly made them, by variety of experiments, that Medical remedies alcohol, perfectly white.

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HISTORICAL DEPARTMENT.

I. STATE AND PROGRESS OF RELIGION.

PROTESTANT MISSIONS IN THE EAST Swartz had, planted, and Mr. Jænicke INDIES

had watered; but which, on account of We conceive it will not be unaccepta- the long conținued sickness of the latble to our readers to receive some ac. ter, had not for several years been count of the state of the Protestant visited. After a long journey, by way Missions in the East Indies, conducted of Vellore, Arnee, Cuddalore, Tranby the venerable Society for promoting quebar, and Negapatam, in all which Christian Knowledge. The account is places he had found much to do, he taken from the Report published last prevailed, at Tanjore,upon Mr.Jænicke, year by the Society.

though ill in health, to make the jourThe names of the Missionaries em- ney with him to Ramanadaburam, ployed by the Society, with their sta- where a new church was to be opened. tions, are as follows:

From Ramanadaburam they went to Rev. Christian William Gerické, at Madras. Tuttocorin, Manapâr, and several other Rev. Charles William Pæzold, at Madras. places, where there were congrega. Rev. Christian Pohle, at Tirutshinapally. tions, catechists, chapels, and schools, Rev. Joseph Daniel Jænicke, at Palamcotta. Rev. John Caspar Kolhoff, at Tanjore.

as far as Palamcotta, where Mr. J. forRev. Immanuel Gottfried Holzberg, at Tan: merly resided for several years, and jore.

laboured with great success. Having On the 27th of December, 1799, finished their business there, they set Mr. Gerické was about to set out for out for Madura, whence Mr. J. proTanjore, with an intention to visit the ceeded to Ramanadaburam, and him. churches beyond it, which the late Mr. self to Tiruchinapally, and thence by

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Tanjore, Tranquebar, and Cuddalore, to the Christians at Tanjore, objections back to Vepery, near Madras. Mr. were made to them, as arrangements J.'s health was much improved ; sọ which Mr. Swartz had not judged that, although he could not yet venture needful. To such objections they reto preach, yet he could speak in pri- plied, that during Mr. Swartz's time, vate with every one that came to him; his presence and word had been instead and hope was entertained, that this of all regulations; and that some indijuurney would be the means of his re- viduals of the Tanjore congregations covery. Ai Ramanadaburan, however, were no more that good people they he got a severe fit of the hill fever. had been, previously to his death. Mr. From this he recovered; but soon G. here adverts, with serious and af. after his return to Tanjore, he was fecting lamentation, to the calamity seized with an apoplectic fit, which, on brought upon the missionaries and the tenth day of May, 1800, put a pe- mission of Tranquebar, by the bad beriod to his very useful, though on ac- haviour of a new missionary;* and count of his sickness, for many years, observes that much might be done by very uneasy life.

His company on faithful and zealous men, particularly the journey had been of great advantage in the Southern parts of that coast. At to Mr. G., as he was intimately ac- Cuddalore there is a new church, and quainted with the congregations they another at Ramanadaburam; there is visited, some of which had been of his a church too at Palamcotta, and yet at own forming; and as he assisted in none of these places is there a misframing the regulations for enabling sionary; they are, therefore, anxious the country priest and catechists to that some good men should come out keep the congregations in good order, to make a proper use of them. at least for some time, without the The Society, however, have not yet presence of a missionary. All that been able to comply with the wish of was proposed and done by Mr. G. in their worthy missionaries, by sending this respect, had given Mr. J. much out to them new fellow.labourers. pleasure, and revived his dejected spi

* Sent out, not by this Society, but by the rits. At Ramanadaburam, he was par- Mission College at Copenhagen. ticularly happy to see the church,

(To be concluded in our next.) which had been built under his direction, opened with much solemnity.

In the way between Madura and On the 27th of October, the Abp. of Trichinapally, there was no congrega- Canterbury sent to the Society for tion to visit; and in a visitation of three Promoting Christian Knowledge, accongregations between the latter place companied with a note; a copy of the and Tanjore, Mr. G. was assisted by Memoir, lately published by the Rev. Mr. Kolhoff

. They consulted how to W. Mosely,'" on the Importance and get catechists and school-masters for Practicability of Printing the Sacred these congregations; to build chapels; Scriptures in the Chinese Language, and how also to meet the objections and circulating them in that vast Emwhich the heathens would make. The pire;" which, being read, was ordered road between Trichinapally and Tan., to be taken into furtlier consideration jore had formerly been very unsafe, on the 3d of November.

The Bishop the inhabitants being chiefly collaries, of London taking the chair on that day, or professed thieves; but since the late the Memoir was again read by the Mr. Swarız had been amongst them so Secretary; and, upon a motion made often, and had formed congregations in by the Bishop of Durham, it was unathose parts, they had heard nothing of nimously resolved to refer it to the robberies. These people thankfully East India Mission Committee, to make accepted certain regulations made a further report to the board as early during the visit of the missionaries, as possible. which regulations had also been well Of this Committee the Bishop of received in the more southern congre- Durham is chairman; and the interest, gations; but when they were proposed we understand, his Lordship takes in Christ. Obsery. No. 2.

S

CHINA.

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SOUTH SEAS.

the object, will not fail, we trust, to se- numbers of the convicts and seamen. cure an attention to it equal to its mag. Another had deserted them at New nitude.

South Wales. The remaining six ex. pected to sail for Otabeite in about

fourteen days from the date of their On board the Royal Admiral, a con- letters, (20th of February, 1801.) They vict ship, which arrived at New South complain of the improper behaviour of Wales, in the month of November, some missionaries, sent out by the 1800, went eight missionaries, belong- same Society to Otaheite, in the year ing 10 the London Missionary Society, 1796, who had quitted that station, as with an intention of proceeding thence they allege, without any just cause, to the island of' Olaheite, to join the and repaired to New South Wales, mission which has been attempted where their conduct has been such as there by jhal Society. One of their to fill them with sorrow, and make number had fallen a victim to an in- them ashamed to appear in the colony fęcrious fever, which had raged on under the name of missionaries. board the ship, and proved fatal to

II. A VIEW OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS.

FRANCE

Consul, proceeded to the formation of their In the month of December last, twenty-two Constitution, which was finally agreed upon on ships of the line, seventeen frigates, and eight the 25th of January. This Constitution is excorvettes, making in all forty-seven ships of ceedingly complex, and appears to us to be war, divided into five squadrons, sailed from composed of such heterogeneous materials, as the ports of France, with 25000 troops on to promise little permanence. The three board. The avowed object of this expedition electoral colleges of the Possidenti, Dotti, and is the reduction of St. Domingo, and Guada. Commercanti, are to appoint the members of loupe, to the obedience of the mother coun. the Consulta, of the Legislative Body, of the try, which they appear, in some measure, to Tribunals of Appeal, and of the Censurate. have cast off. A previous communication of The seat of government and legislation has the force and clestination of this very powerful ever been productive of jealousy in such states armament bad been made to the British go. as possess a number of great towns, the popuvernment, which had cousented to its sailing. lation of which is nearly equal. The First Smaller squadrons have since followed from Consul, has taken care that no cause for envy different ports upon the continent.

on this account should exist among the cities A Treaty was concluded between France of the Six Nations, or Italian Republic. He and Spain, on the 21st of March last, but it has posted the Possidenti at Milan, the Dotti has only recently been published. The most at Bologna, the Commercanti at Brescia, and important arucle in this treaty is the cession the Censurate at Cremona

His colleges are, of Louisiana to France, by which acquisition, as he himself once said of the Austrian army, it would appear, that the French will not only éparpillé en bouquets, disseminated all over Ita. be able to supply their islands with lumber ly; and are so posted and marshalled, as to and provisions, but will gain, in some inea answer any purposes rather than those of lesure, the command of the Mississippi. The gislation. There is little fear of plots and conother articles of the treaiy respect the renun. spiracies among them ; every principle of ciation, in favour of France, of the duchy of union is guarded against, and even communi. Parma, and the isle of Elba, and the making cation is nearly impracticable. of the prince of Parma king of Tuscany. The The government is to be entrusted to a Pre. Chief Consu! stipulates that he shall cause him sident, Vice-President, a Consulta of State, to he acknowledged in that'capacity by the other consisting of eight citizens; a Legislative powers of Europe.

Council, consisting of ten ; and a Legislative A Treaty between the Dey of Algiers and Body, composed of seventy-five members. the French has also been published; in viriue The President is to exercise his functions for of whicly, all the political and commercial re: ten years, and may be re-elected. He has the lations which existed between the two nations initiation of all laws and negotiations, as well previous to the rupture, are re-established. as of all affairs proposed in the Consulta. His No Frenchman, on any pretext whatever, is salary is fixed at 500,000 livres. The Roman to be detained hereafter as a slave in Algiers. Catholic religion is declared to be the religion

The most important intelligence, however, of the state; but liberty of conscience is alwhich has been received from France during lowed. The most extraordinary circumstance, the last month, respects the issue of the Italian however, attending this transaction, is the noconsultations at Lyons. The deputies of the mination of Bonaparte himself to the presi. ci-devant Cisalpine, now the Italian Republic, dency, on the avowed ground that no person having been joined at that place by the Chief was to be found in this New Republic of suffi.

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