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And aster, when the foresaid blast had the day I requested that before his death, his man (who following scorched divers of the confederates, was better acquainted both with the men, and and much distigured the faces and counte- the particulars than hiinselt) might be licensed nances of Grant, kookwood, and others; then 10 come unto him. Then prayed he pardon of did Winter call to inind his dream, and to his the king and lorris for his guilt. And lastly he renembrance thougtit, that the faces of his entreated to be beheaded ; desiring all men to associates so score..er, resembled those which forgive him, and that his death might satirty he had seen in his dreaun.
them for his trespass. . Then was sir Everard Digby arraigned, and To this speech forthwith answered sir Ed.
after his Indictment was read; wherein he ward Coke, Attorney-General, but in respect of was charged, not only to have been acquainted the tine (for it grew now dark) very briefly : with the Ponder-wreason, and concealed it, 1. For his Friendship with Catesby, that it and taken the doulle oath of secrecy and, was mere fully and wicked conspiracy. 2. Liis constancy therein, but likewise to have been Religion, error, and beresy. 3. This Promises, an actor in this conspiracy; and lastly to have idle and vain presumptions, as also his Fears, exposed, and openly shened himself in the re false alarms, concerning wives that were recte bellion in the country amongst the rest of the Sants, if they were buown so to be before traitors. All which atier he had attentively their husbands (thouge they were good Protesheard and marked, knowing that he had con tants) took them, and yet for outward and fessed it, and the strength and evidence of the worldly respects whatsoever, any would march proofs against hin, and convicted with the tes with such ; great reason there is, that he or timony of his own conscience, shewed his dis. they should pay for it, as knowing the penalty position to confess the principal part of the and burden before : for "volenii et scienti said Indictment, and so began to enter into a “non sit injuria;' no man receives injury in discourse. But being advertised that he must that, to which he willingly and knowingly first plead to the Indictment directly, either agreethi and consentetlı. But if she were no Guilty, or not Guilty; and that afterwards be recusant at the ume of marriage, and yet aftershould be licensed to speük his pleasure; he words be sutier her to be corrupted and seforthwith contessed the reason contained in the duced, by admitting priesis and romanists Indictment, and so fell into a speech, whereof into his house ; good reason likewise that he, there were two parts, viz. Motives, and Peti- be he papist or protestant, should pay for his tions. The first motile which drew him into negligence and misgovernment.--. Concernthis action, was not ambition or discontentmenting the Petitions for wife, for children, for of his estate, neither malice to any in parlia. sisters, &c. O how he doth now put on the ment, but the friendship and love he bare to bowes of nature and compassion, in the peril Catesby, which prevailed so much, and was of his private and domestical estate ! But so powerful with him, as that for his sake lie before, when the public state of his country, was ever contented and ready to hazard hin when the king, the queen, the tender princes, self and his estate. The next motive, was the the nobles, the whole kingdom were designed cause of religion, which alone, seeing (as be to a perpetual destruction; where was then said) it lay at the stake, he entered into reso this piety, this religious affection, this care? lution to neglect in that behalf, bis estate, bis all nature, all humanity, all respect of laws life, his name, bis memory, his posterity, and both divine and human, were quite abandoned; all worldly and earthly felicity whatsoever ; then was there no conscience made to extirthough he did utterly extirpate, and extinguish pate the whole nation, and all for a pretended all other bopes for the restoring of the Catho- zeal to the Catholick' Religion, and the juslick Religion in England. His third motive tification of so detestable and damnable a fact. was, that promises were broken with the Ilere did Sir Everard Digby interrupt Ur. Catholicks. And Instly, that they generally Attorney, and said, that he did not justity i he fered bırder laws froin this parliament against fact, but coplessed that he deserved the vilest recusants, as that recusants wives, and women death, and most severe punishment that might should be liable to the mulct as well as their be : but he was an humble petitioner for merhusbands and men. And further, that it was cy, and some moderation of justice.- Wheresupposed, that it should be made a premunire, upon Mr. Attorney replied, that he should not only to be a Catholick.
look by the king to be honoured in the manner Ilis Petitions were, That siihence his offence of his death, having so far abandoned all reliwas confined and contained within himself, gion and humanity in his action : but that he that the punishment also of the same might was rather to admire the great moderation extend only to himself and not to be transferred and mercy of the king, in thai for so exorbitant either to his wife, children, sisters, or other : a criine, no new torture auswerable thereunto and therefore for his wife be humbly craved, was devised to be inflicted upon him. And for that she might enjoy her jointure ; his son the bis wile and children, whereas he said that for benefit of an entail made long before any the Catholick cause he was content to neglect thought of this action; his sisters, their just the ruin of himself, his wife, lis estate, and all ; and due portions, which were in his hands ; his he should have bis desire as it is in the Psalm, crer their rightful debts, which that he • Let his wife be a widow, and his children might more justly set down under his hand, he • vagabonds, let his posterity be destroyed, and
in the next generation let his name be quite , to the prejudice of the present state, that
put out.' For the paying of your creditors, it might otherwise have slept as before with siis equal and just; but yet fit the king be first lence and sufferance; it hath served for a satistied and paid, to whom you owe so much, shield of wax against a sword of power : it hath as th:t all you have is too little : yet these been used as an instrument of art to shadow things must be left to the pleasure of his ma false approaches, till the Trojan horse might jesty, and the course of justice and law. be brought within the walls of the parliament,
Earl of Northampton. You must not hold it with a helly stutred, not as in old time with stranye, sir Everard Digby, though at this time armed Greeks, but with hellish gunpowder. being pressed in duty, conscience and truth, I But howsoever God had blinded you and others do not suffer you to wander in the labyrinth in this action, as he did the king of Egypt and of your own idle conceits, without oppo- his instruments, for the brighter evidence of sition, to seduce oihers, as yourself have been his own powerful glory; yet every man of unseduced, by false principles, or to convey your- derstanding could discern, that a prince whose self by charms of imputation, by clouds of judgment had been fixed by experience of so error, and by shifts of lately devised equivo- many years upon the poles of the North and cation, out of that straight wherein your late the Suuth, could not shrink upon the sudden : secure and happy fortune bath been unluckily no nor since with fear of that combustion which entangled, but yet justly surprized by the rage Catesby that arch-traitor, like a second Phaeand revenge if your own rash hunours. If in ton, would have caused in an instant in all the this crime (mois horrible than any man is able eleinents. His majesty did nerer value forto express) I could lament the estate of any tunes of the world, in lesser master than reliperson upon earth, I could pity you; but gion, with the freedom of his thoughts : he thank yourself and your bad counsellors for thought it no safe policy (professing as he did, leading you into a crime of such a kind, as no and ever will) to call up more spirits into less benunrbeth in all faithful, true and honest the circle than he could put down again ; he men, the tenderness of affection, than did in knew, that omne regnum in se divisum desolabiyou the sense of all humanity.—That you were tar, philosophy doth teach, that wbatsoever once well thought of and esteemed by the late any man may think in secret thought, that where qucen, I can witness, baving heard hier speak one doth hold of C'ephas, another of Apollo, of you witli chat grace, which might bare en- openly dissension ensues, quod insitum adeno couraged a true gentleman to have run a better solo est, in id quo alitur natura vertente degecourse. Nay, I will add further, that there nerat; and the world will ever apprehend, that was a time wherein you were as well affected Quorum est commune symbolum, facillimus est to the king our master's expectation, though transitus.--Touching the point itself of promisperhaps upon false rumours and reports, that ing a kind of toleration to Catholics, as it was he would have yielded satisfaction to your un divulged by these two limbs of Lucifer, Watson probable and vast desires ; but the seed that and Percy, to raise a ground of practice and wanted moisture (as our Saviour, himself re- conspiracy against the state and person of our porieth) took no deep root: that zeal which dear sovereign, let the kingdom of Scotland hath no other end or object than the pleasmg witness for the space of so many years before of itselt, is quickly spent; and Trajan, that his coming hither, whether cither flattery or worthy and wise emperor, had reason to hold lear, no, not upon that enterprize of the 17th himself discharged of all debts to those that of Nov. which would have put the patience of had offended more by prerarication, than they any prince in Europe to his proof, could draw could ever deserve by industry.—The grace from the king the least inclination to this disand goodness of his majesty in giving honour | pensative indifference, that was only believed, at his first coming unto many men of your own because it wils eagerly desired. -Every man affection, and (as I think) unto yourself; his doth huow how great art was used, what strong facility in admitting all without distinction of wits sublimed, how many ininisters suborned Trojan or of Tyrran, to his royal presence, apon and corrupted many years both in Scotland and just occasions of access; his integrity in setting in foreign parts, to set the king's teeth an edge open the gate of civil justice unto all his subo with fair p:omises of future belps and supplies, jects equally and indifferently, with
other to that heppy end of attaining his due right in favours that succeeded by the progression of England, when the sun should set, to rise more peace; are so palpable and evident to all gloriously in the same hemisphere, to the woninen, that have either eyes of understanding, der both of this island and of the world. But or understanding of cap: city, as yourself and all in vain; for jacta erut alou, the king's commany others have been driven of late to excuse pass had been set before, and by a more cerand countenance your execralle ingratitude taio rule, and they were coinmonly cast off as with a titse and scandalous report of some tur- forlorn lopes in the king's favour, that ran a ther hope and confort yielded to the Catho conrse of ranking themselves in the foremost licks for toleration or connivance, before his front of foreign correspondency.-Upon notice coming to the crown, than since bath been given to his majesty from hence some years beperformed, inade good or satisfied.--I am not fore the death of the late queen, that many inen ignorant, that this seditious and false alarm
were grown suspicious of his religion, by ruhath awaked and incited many working spirits mours spread abroad, that some of those in fo
reign parts, that seemed to be well affected to were subject, both in points of faith, and limihis future expectation, had used bis name more lation of loyalty : And last of all, forcasting to audaciously, and spoken of his favour to the what end their former protestation would come, Catholics more forwarrily than the king's own when present satisfaction should shrink; he conscience and unchangeable decree could ac was ever fearful to embark himself for any furknowledge or admit (either with a purpose to ther voyage and adventure in this strait, tban prepare the minds of furcign princes, or for a his own compass might steer him, and his judg. practice to estrange and alienate affections at ment level him.- It any one green leat for Cahome) not only utterly renounced and con tholics could have been visibly discerned by the demned these encroachments of blind zeal, and eye of Catesby, Winier, Garnet, Fawkes, &c. rash proceedings, by the voices of his own mi- they would neither have entered into practice nisters, but was careful also for a caution to with foreign princes during the queen's time for succeeding hopes, so far as lay in him, that by prevention of the king's lawful and hereditary the disgrace of the delinquents in this kind, the right, nor have renewed the same both abroad minds of all English subjects chiefly might be and at home by missions and combinations, secured, and the world satisfied.-No man can atter his majesty was both applauded and enterspeak in this case more confidently than myself, ed. It is true, that by Confessions we find, that received in the queen's time, for the space that false priest Watson, and arch traitor Percy, of many years, directions and warnings to take to have been the first devisers and divulgers of heed, that neither any further comfort might be this scandalous report, as an accursed ground, given to Catholics, concerning future favours, where on they might with some advantage, as it ihan he did intend, wbich was to bind all sub was conceived, build the castles of their conspijects in one kingdom to one lair, concerning racy:— Touching the first, no man can speak the religion established, howsoever in civil mai more soundly to the point than myself; for beters he might extend his favour as he found just ing sent into the prison by the king to charge cause: nor any seeds of jealousy and diffidence him with this false aların, only two days before sown in the minds of Protestants by Semeis and his death, and upon his soul to press bim in the Achitophels, to make them doubttul of bis con- presence of God, and as he would answer it at stancy, to whom he would contirm with bis another bar, to confess directly whether at dearest blood, that faith which he had sucked either of both these times he had access anto from the breast of his nurse, apprehended from his majesty at Edinborough, lis majesty did the cradle of his infancy, and maintained with give bin any promise, hope or comfort of enhis utterinost endeavour, affection and strength: couragement to Catholics concerning toleration; since he was more able out of reading and dis- / he did there protest upon his soul that lie could puting, to give a reason of those principles which never win one inch of ground, or draw die he had now digested and turned to nutriment. smallest comfort from the king in those degrees, -He that wrote the Book of Titles before the nor further than that he would have them apo late queen's death, declares abundantly by seek- / prehend, that as he was a stranger to this state, ing to possess some foreign prince of the king's so till be undersiood in all points how those hereditary crowns, when the cause should come matters stood, he would not promise tavour any to the proof, and may witness instead of many; way; but did protest that all the crowns and what hope there was of the king's favour or af kingdoins in this world, should not induce bim fection to Catholics in the case of toleration or to change any jot of his profession, which was dispensation, with exercise of conscience. For the pasture of his soul, and earnest of lus eternal every man may guess that it was no slight or inheritance. He did confess that in very deed, to ordinary degree of despair, that made him and heep up the hearts of Catholics in love and duty other of his suit renounce their portion in the to the king, he had imparied the king's words to son and heir of that renowned and rare lady many, in a better tune, and a bigher kind of Mary queen of Scotland, a incumber of the Roc descant, than his book of plain song did direct; man church; as some did in David, Nulla no because he knew that others like sly bargemen bis purs in David, nec hæreditas in gilio Isai: looked that way, when their stroke was bent For hereof by letters intercepted in their
For this he craved pardon of the sage into Scotland, the records and proofs are king in humble manner, and for his main trea. evident. His majesty, so long as he was in ex soos of a higher nature than thiese figures of pectation of that which by the work and grace hypucrisy; and seemed penitent, as well for of God he doth now possess, did ever seek to the horror of his crime, as for the falsehood settle his establishment upon the faith of Pro of his whisperings.--It bindered not the satistestants in generality, as the most assured sheet faction which may be given to Percy's shadow anchor. For though he found a number on the (the most desperate Boutefeu in the pack), other side, as fuithful and as well-affected to tbat as he died impenitent, for any thing we his person, claim and interest, as any men know : so likewise he died silent in the particualive, as well in respect of their dependency lars. For first, it is not strange that such a upon the queen his mother, as for the taste traitor should devise so scandalous a slander which they had of the sweetness of himself; 'yet out of the malice of his heart, intending to finding with wiat strength of blood many have destroy the king by any means, and to advance been over-carried out of a fervency in zeal in all nieans that mylit remove obstructions and former times, observing to wb.i censures they impediments to this plot of gunpowder. The
more odious that he could make him to the who had both at his entry shewed so much party malecontent, and the more sharply that loyalty, and had kept theinselves so free since be could set the party malecontent upon the from all conspiracies.—Then did his lordship point and humour of revenge: the stronger also (the rather to shew how little truth sir was his hope at the giving of the last blow, to Everard Digby's words did carry in any thing be glorified and justitied. But touching the which he had spoken) plainly prove, that all truth of the matters, it will be witnessed by his protestations wherein he denied so conmany, that this traitor Percy after both the stanıly to be privy to the Plot of Powder, were first and second return from the king, brought utterly false, by the testimony of Fawkes (there to the Catholicks no spark of comtört, of en present at the bar) who had confessed, that couragement, of bope; whereof no stronger certain months before that session, the said proof of argument doth need, than that Fawkes Fawkes being with Digby at his house in the and others were employed both into Spain country, about what time there had fallen much and other parts, for the reviving of a practice wet: Digby taking Fawkes aside atter supper, suspended and covered, after Percy's coming told bim that he was much afraid that the back; as in likelihood they should not have powder in the cellar was grown dank, and that been, in case he lrad returned with a branch of some new must be provided, lest that should olive in bis mouth, or yielded any ground of not take fire.- Next, the said earl did justly comfort to resolve upon.-Therefore I thought and greatly comniend the lord Mounteagle for it thus far needful to proceed, for the clearing his loyal and honourable care of his prince and of those scandals that were cast abroad, by country, in the speedy bringing forth of the these forlorn hopes and graceless instruments. letter sent unto him; wherein he said, that he It only remains that I pray for your repentance
had shewed both his discretion and fidelity. in this world for the satisfaction of many, and Which speech being ended, Digby then acforgiveness in the next world, for the saving of knowledged, that he spake not that of the yourself; having had by the biog's favour so breach of proniise out of his own knowledge, long a time to cast up your account, before but from iheir relation whom he trusted; and your appearance at the seat of the great auditor. namely from sir Tho. Tresham.
Then spake the Earl of Salisbury, especially Now were the Jury returned, who having to that point, of his majesty's breaking of pro delivered their Verdict, whereby they jointly mise with Recusants, which was used and found those seven prisoners, arraigned upon urged by sir Everard Dighy, as a motive to the former Indictment, Guilty; Serjeant Philips draw him to participate in this so hideous a craved Judgment against those seven upon treason. Wherein his lordship, after acknow their conviction and against sir Everard Digby ledgment that sir Everard Digby was his ally, upon his own Confession. and having made a zealous and religious pro Then the Lord Chief Justice of England, testation concerning the sincerity and truth of after a grave and prudent relation and defence that wbich he would deliver : shortly and clearly of the lass made' by queen Elizabeth against defended the honour of the king herein, and freed recusants, priests, and receivers oi priests, his majesty from all imputation and scandal of together with the several occasions, progresses irresolution in religion, and in the constant and and reasons of the same; and having plainly perpetual maintaining thereof; as also from demonstrated and proved that they were all having at any time given the least hope, much necessary, mild, equal, moderate, and to be less promise of toleration. To which purpose justified to all the world : pronounced Judge he declared how his majesty, as well before his coming to this crown, as at that very time, Upon the rising of the court, sir Everard and always since, was so far from making of Digby bowing himself towards the lords, said," promise, or giving hope of Toleration, that he If I may but hear any of your lordships say, ever professed he should not endure the very you forgive me, I shall go more cheartully to motion thereof from any.-And here his lord. the gallows.-Whereunto the lords said, God ship shewed what was done at Hampton-Court forgive you, and we do. at the time of Watson's treason, where some And so according to the Sentence, on Thursof the greater recusants were convented: And day following being the 30th of January, es. being found then not to have their fingers in ecution was done upon sir Everard Digby, treason, were sent away again with encourage. Robert Winter, Jobn Grant, and Thomas ment to persist in their dutiful carriage, and Bates, at the West end of Paul's church; and with promise only of thus much favour. That on Friday following, "upon Thomas Winter, those mean profits which had accrued since the Ambrose Rokwood, Robert Keyes, and Guy king's time to his majesty for their recusancy, Fawkes, within the old Palace-Yard, at Westshould be forgiven to the principal gentlemen, minster, not far from the Parliament-House,
The following History of the GUNPOWDER-Plot, written by King James himself, is
extracted from the first Collection of his works published during his life-time by
Mountague, Bishop of Winchester. While this land and whole monarchy flou- enabling them to deliver at that time to the rished in a inost happy and plentiful peace, as king some petition for toleration of religion, well at home, as abroad, sustained and con which should be delivered in some such order, ducted by these two main good pilars of all and so well backed, as the king should be loth good government, piety and justice, no fo to refuse their requests; like the sturdy beggars, reign grudge, nor inward whispering of discon- craving alins with one open hand, but carrying tentment any way appearing: the king being a stone in the other, in case of refusal. And upon bis return from bis hunting exercise at therefore did the earl of Salisbury conclude Royston, upon occasion of the drawing near of with the lord Monteagle, that he would, in rethe parliament-time, which had been twice gard of the king's absence, impart the same prorogued already, partly in regard of the sea Letter to some more of his majesty's council, son of the year, and partly of the term : as whereof my lord Monteagle liked well, only the winds are ever stillest ininediutely before a adding this request, by way of protestation, storm; and, as the sun bleaks often hottest to That whatsoever the event hereof might prove, foretel a following shower; so, at that time of it should not be imputed to him, as proceeding greatest calm, did this secretly hatched thun- from too light and 100 sudden an apprehension, der begin to cast forth the first fashes, and that he delivered this Letter ; being only flaming lightnings of the approaching tem mored thereunto for demonstration of his pest. For, the Saturday of the weck imine- ready devotion, and care for preservation of diately preceding the king's return, which was his majesty and the state. And thus did the upon a Thursday, being but 'ten days before earl of Salisbury presently acquaint the lord the parliament, the lord Monteagle, son and chamberlain with the said Letter. Whereheir to the lord Morley, being in his own upon they two, in presence of the lord lodgings ready to go to supper, at seven of the Monteagle, calling to mind the former intelliclock at night, one of his footinen, whom he gence already mentioned, which seemed to had sent of an errand over the street, was have some relation with this letter; the tender met by a man of a reasonable tall personage, care which they ever carried to the preservawho delivered him a Letter, charging bim to tion of his majesty's person, made them apput it in my lord his master's hands; which prehended, that some perilous attempt did my lord no sooner received, but that, having thereby appear to be inten ed against the broken it up, and perceiving the same to be of same, which did the more nearly concern the an unknown, and somewhat unlegible band, said lord chamberlain to have a care of, in reand without either date or superscription, did gard that it doth belong to the charge of his call one of his men unto him, for helping him office to oversee, as well all places of assembly to read it. But no sooner did he conceive the where his majesty is to repair, as his highness's strange contents thereof, although he was some own private houses. And therefore did the what perplexed what construction to make of said two counsellors conclude, that they should it, as whether of a matter of consequence, as join unto themselves three more of the council, indeed it was, or whether some fooli-b devised to wit, the lord admiral, the earls of Worcester pasquil by some of his enemies to scare him and Northampton, to be also particularly actirom bis attendance at the parliament, yet did quainted with this accident, who having all of he, as a most dutiful and loyal subject, con them concurred together to the re-examination clude not to conceal it, whatever might come of the contents of the said letter, they did conof it. Whereupon, notwithstanding the late- clude, That, how slight a matter it might at ness and darkness of the night in that season the first appear to be, yet was it not absolutely of the year, be presently repaired to his ma to be contemnel, in respect of the care which jesty's palace at ivhitehall, and there delivered it behoved them to have of the preservation of ihe same to the earl of Salisbury, his majesty's his majesty's person: but, yet resolved for two principal secretary. Whereupon, the said earl reasons, first, to acquaint the king himself with of Salisbury having read the Leiter and heard the same, betore they proceeded to any further the manner of the coming of it to his hands, did inquisition in the matter, as well for the expecgreatly encourage and commend my lord for tation and experience they bad of his majesty's his discretion, telling him plainly, that, what-tortunate judgment, in clearing and solving obstever the purport of the Lette: might prove scure riddles and doubtful mysteries; as also, hereafter, yet did this accident put him in because the more time would, in the mean pind of divers advertisements he had received time, be given for the practice to ripen, if any
rom beyond the seas, wherewith he had ac was, whereby the discovery might be more quainted, as well the king himself, as divers of clear and evident, and the ground of proceedhis privy-counsellors, concerning some business ing thereupan more safe, just, and easy. And the Papists were in, both at hoine and abroad, so according to their determination did the making preparations for some combination said earl of Salisbury repair to the king in his 2101 gst them against this parliajent-timue, for gallery upon Friday, being Allhallow's-day, in