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come in the present Wyandot county. When the government acquired by purchase lands from any of the tribes of Indians of Ohio, the stipulated price was one cent per acre, that is outside of the reservations. One easement the tribes enjoyed, the land set aside to them as reservation property was non taxable. At the foot of the Maumee rapids a treaty was signed on September 29, 1817, by Lewis Cass and Duncan McArthur, commissioners on the part of the United States, and the sachems and chiefs of the Wyandots, Delawares, Shawanees, Senecas, Potawatomie, Chippewa and Ottawa tribes of Indians, there was set aside a tract of sixteen thousand acres of land for the Wyandots, a part of which was in the northwestern part of Wyandot county and included a part of the north half of Crawford and Ridge townships, the center was to be at the Big Spring and hence was named the Big Spring reservation. The Wyandots also received a reservation of twelve miles square, the center was at Fort Ferree, which was located at the eastern part of the present Upper Sandusky.

By the same treaty a branch of the Delaware tribe of Indians received a reservation of nine miles square in the southeastern part of the present Wyandot county and was located in a part of the south half of Pitt and Eden townships and included Captain Pipestown at the mouth of the Broken Sword creek where it empties into the Sandusky river. In 1819 John Johnston, who served as government Indian agent for upward of half a century, reported eighty Delaware Indians on this reservation and 2,300 in Indiana under his charge. Captain Pipe, after whom the town was named, was the son of the Captain Pipe, chief of all the Delawares, who was so officious in the burning of the lamented Col. William Crawford on June 11, 1782. In 1829 the United States Government purchased this Delaware reservation for $2,000. Captain Pipe, Jr., and his people were removed beyond the Mississippi river, where the Captain died in about 1840. The mouth of the Broken Sword creek, where it empties into the Sandusky river, is surrounded by a dense underbrush. The Delaware village site and burying ground was located on the farm now owned by Cyrus Swihart, the land is gently rolling and good fertile soil. A number of years ago Mr. Swihart cut down a large apple tree near the burying site that was likely a century old. It measured two feet across the stump,

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had it not been for the tree's hollow trunk it would have made two cords of wood. The district school building in the vicinity where the "young idea is taught to shoot," is named the Pipe Town schoolhouse. One of the largest springs along the tortuous Sandusky river gushes forth its limpid waters and is known as the Delaware spring. It is located a short way below the mouth of the Broken Sword. Above the spring is a terrace, a good glacial gravel deposit. Several

years ago when Mr. Swihart was excavating for road purposes, he unearthed twelve skeletons, all of immature age. He placed them side by side at the spring and that night some vandal or vandals appropriated and carried away the whole bunch. This spring and others lower down the Sandusky river lent its name to the historic waterway. The word in the Wyandot dialect was pronounced Sa un dus tee, water within water pools, or “at the cold water.” In a very early day according to a statement by Chief William Walker, it was represented as Upper Cold Water and Lower Cold Water, and it is quite apparent that when that “higher civilization” took possession of this section of the country the name was changed to Upper Sandusky and Lower Sandusky, etc. Down the Sandusky river a short way from the spring is located one of the largest mounds in Wyandot county. It is one of the ten thousand mounds located in the Buckeye State. It is on the farm of the Henry Herring heirs. In 1896, when the writer and others explored it, it was ten feet in height and eighty-five across the base. On the side of the excavation the impression of every skin or bark basketful of the alluvial was plainly visible as it was dumped in, each dump apparently contained about one-half bushel of earth. Whilst the British Government held sway over the Ohio country for twenty years, from 1763 until 1783, the village site at the Delaware spring was known as Old Town. Here the Indian allies of the crown were paid their annuities and it is said they were paid $4.50 for each American scalp.

Near the Coon bridge spanning the Sandusky river and passing by the Delaware spring is still plainly discernible the Sandusky Scioto trail that for centuries was the red man's as well as the buffaloes' trail from the vicinity of Lake Erie to the Ohio river. It is an historic fact that the northern and southern Indians in an early day held the Ohio river as a sort of Mason and Dixon line and fought each other with as much desperation as the blues and grays did in our Civil war. This

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great trail kept mostly adjacent to the west bank of the Sandusky river, almost obliterated, yet vestiges of it can still be seen at various points.

In 1764 while the intrepid Pontiac was besieging Detroit and was urging an Indian conspiracy against the British rule, General Bradstreet collected a force of 3,000 men which embarked at Niagara in boats and proceeded up the lake to the relief of that post. Having burned the Indian cornfields and villages at Sandusky and along the rich bottom lands of the Maumee and dispersed the Indians whom there they found, he reached Detroit without opposition. Having dispersed the Indians besieging Detroit he passed into the domain of the Wyandots by way of Sandusky bay. He ascended the bay and river by boats to the Delaware spring site where he camped. And here a treaty of peace was signed by the chiefs and head men.

During the old Revolutionary war the Sandusky Indians were very troublesome and frequently sent murderous scalping parties to eastern Pennsylvania and Virginia, they were not alone in this as their towns were the halfway place between Fort Pitt and Detroit, so when the northwestern Indians went on their murderous forays on the border settlers in those states they always rested at those Indian towns on their outgoing and also coming back. The site about the Delaware spring toward the close of the Revolutionary war was apparently occupied by the Wyandots, so was Cranetown about four miles northeast from the present Upper Sandusky on the east bank of Crane run, a small tributary of the Sandusky river. About two miles further north on the west bank of the Sandusky river and about a half mile southwest from the Hayman bridge spanning that river, was located the Wyandot halfkings town. It was against those towns that the illfated expedition was directed against by Col. William Crawford in 1782. On the 25th of May of that year, 480 men and officers started from Mingo bottoms, about two miles below Steubenville on the Ohio river. The guides selected were Jonathan Zane and John Slover. The latter had been a captive among the Indians and was familiar with the Sandusky river country. The guides conducted the army in a northwestern direction for about 150 miles. On June 5th they arrived at the Delaware spring site and found to their astonishment the Indian town deserted. The troopers drank

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