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He had a vehement desire to be thought learned, and master of the controversies then on foot, which made him expose himself much in the conference at HamptonCourt (nn), between the episcopalians and

the

*' ters hired for that purpose. The proper employment

"of a prince is that of improving his own mind, and

"governing his people, in order to acquire more know

*' ledge, and consequently be able to accommodate his

'* government to their interest. It must not be omitted,

"that to be a great general, there is no need of being

"a hunter. Gujlavus Adolphus, marshal Turenm, the

"duke of Marlborough, and prince Eugene^ whose

*1 characters as able generals and illustrious men, will

"not be questioned, were not hunters; nor do we read

"of the huntings of Alexander, Ca/ar, or Scipio.

"I conclude therefore, that it is excufable in a prince

"to go a hunting, if it is but seldom, and to refresh

"him after his serious and often melancholy employ- •

"ments. I fay once more, I object to no honest plea- .

"sure; but the care of rendering a state flourishing and

"happy, and of protecting and encouraging arts and

"sciences, is unquestionably a much superior pleasure^

"and much fitter employment for a prince j and who

"ever betakes himself to any other, neither consults

"his pleasure nor his interest la)." {") *nt!",

1 *' Machiavel,

P.155--164.

(nn) Which made him expose himself much in the 8vo.Lond. conserence at Hampton Court, &c] This conserence *74l* was begun Jan. 14, 1603. in pursuance of a proclamation for that purpose, dated. Oct. 24, of the fame year. The prosessed design of it was to examine into the objections of the puritans, against the doctrine, government, and discipline of the established church, and rectify abuses crept into it. But the king had little of this at heart; his design was to shew his learning, and mortify the puritans, which he did as well as he could.

the puritans, where he set up for a disputant,

He talked therefore of the name and use of confirmation, and the occasionjof its being first brought in ; of absolution, private baptism, and excommunication; points well worthy the study of a king, and coming with great propriety from his mouth. "Absolution, "he declared, was apostolical, and a very good ordi"nance, in that it was given in the name of Christ to "one that desired it, and upon the clearing of his confa) Barlow't" science (a)." He maintained " the necessity of bapaccountof "tism, where it might be lawsully had, id est, mirenceTt'" "nistred by lawsul ministers, by whom alone, and by Hampton- "no private person, he thought it might not in any Court, in *t cafe be administred. After which he learnedly obthe Phenix " servecU that though the minister be not of the esp. 145. 8vo!" sence of the facrament [of baptism] yet he is of the Lond.1707." essence 0f the right and lawsul ministry of the secra(i) H. p. "ment (b)." These discourses passed between the king *47* and bishops alone on the first day, greatly, I dare fay,

to their rejoicing. On the second day, the ministers who were to propose the demands of the puritans being called in, viz. Reynolds, Sparks, Knewjlubbs, and Chadderton, together with Patrick Galloway, sometime minister of Perth in Scotland; and their objections being all reduced into four heads, the king took on him to dispute the matters contained in them, with the ministers. It would be endless to relate all he faid, for he loved speaking, and was in his element whilst disputing. Two or three instances of his ostentatious pedantry shall therefore suffice. "His majesty taxed St. Jerom for his "assertion, that a bishop was not divinœ ordinationis; "which opinion he much distasted, approving their "calling and use in the church, and closed it up with (<.) Id. p. "this short aphorism, no bijhop, no king (c)." *S> "Dr. Reynolds having made it an objection against

"the Apocrypha (ordered by the Common Prayer to ." be read) that the author of the book of Ecclesiasticus, chap, xlviii. 10. held the fame opinion with the

Jews

tant, and behaved with a great and visible

partiality.

"Jews at this day, namely, that Elias in person was

"to come before Christ; and therefore as yet Christ,

"by that reason, not come in the flesh : I fay Dr. Rey

"nolds having made this objection, his majesty calling

"for a bible, first shewed the author of that book;

"who he was, then the cause why he wrote that book;

"next analized the chapter itself, shewing the prece

"dents and consequences thereof; lastly, unfolded the

"sum of that place, arguing and demonstrating that

"whatsoever Ben Sirach had faid there of Elias, Elias

"had, in his own person while he lived, performed

"and accomplished (d)." He moreover declared," that (j) u. p.

"he had never seen a bible well translated into English ;I62» ,63

"that the translation of Geneva was the worst of all;

"that pains should be taken about an uniform transla

"tion of it, under certain restrictions, and more espe

"cially that no marginal notes should be added, hav

"ing found, faid he, in them which are annexed to

"the Geneva translation, some notes very partial, un

"true, seditious, and favouring too much of dangerous

"and traiterous conceits (e)." Thus James shewed his M id» p<

learning in the midst of the lords of the council, and 157.

the bishops and deans who attended. I doubt not, tho'

Reynolds was awed by the presence, and made not the

figure he was capable of, that he heartily despised the

prince who could talk after this rate, and dictate in

matters out of his province. Let us now see how

his majesty endeavoured to mortify the puritans.

After expounding the chapter of Ecclesiasticus just mentioned, he addressed himself to the lords, and faid, what, trow ye, make these men so angry with Ecdefiafticus? by my soul I think he was a bishop, or

"else they would never use him so (/)." In answer it\\^ Pt

to a question started how far an ordinance of the church 163.
was to bind, without impeaching christian liberty?
James faid, M he would not argue that point, but an-
'' swer therein as kings are wont to do in parliament,
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partiality. Indeed, bis conduct in this affair

was

"le roy s'avisera; adding withal, that it fmelled very "rankly of anabaptifm, comparing it to the ufage of "a beardless boy (one Mr. John Black) who the last *' conserence his majesty had with the ministers of "Scotland, in Dec. 1602, told him, that he would "hold conformity with his majesty's ordinances for "matters of doctrine j but for matters of ceremony, ?' they were to be left in christian liberty to every man, '' as he received more and more light from the illumi"' nation of God's spirit, even till they go mad, quoth "the king, with their own light. But 1 will none of '" that, I will have one doctrine, and one discipline, "one religion in substance and in ceremony; and "therefore I charge you never to speak more to that '' point (how far you are bound to obey) when the (g) li. p. "church hath ordained it (g)." Afterwards speaking loft. to the lords and bishops, he faid, "I will tell you, t

"have lived among this sort of men ever since I was ff ten years old; but I may fay of myself, as Christ "faid of himself, though I lived among them, yet, since

thifw-'h'T " * ka(* akiiilyto judge, iwas never of tnem (*)•*—:

notes (M) Thinking by somewhat Dr. Reynolds faid, that the puri

»nd(s) tans aimed at a Scotch presbytery, the king observed,

"that it agreed with a monarchy, as God and the de

"vil. Then Jack and Tom, and Witt and Dick shall

f' meet, added he, and at their pleasure censure me and

"my council, and all our proceedings. Then Will

"shall stand up and fay, it must be thus; then Dick,

, "shall reply, and fay, nay, marry, but we will have

{0 Id. p. "|t tnus (/)/» Afterwards asking if they had any thing

9' further to object? and being answered no, he faid, "if

"this was all, he would make them conform, or would

(*) H. p. "hurry them out of the land, or else do worse (k)."

This was the behaviour of James in this celebrated

conserence j a behaviour contemptible and ridiculous,

and such as must expose him to standers-by. »

What then must we think of archbishop Whitgift, who

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was such, as has been severely censured on almost all hands (00), as it well deserved.

In

faid " that undoubtedly his majesty spake by the special *' assistance of God's spirit?" What of bishop Bancroft, who on his knee protested" that his heart melted "with joy, and made haste to acknowledge unto al*• mighty God, the singular mercy in giving them such "a king, as, since Christ's time, the like had not "been (I)." Or what of the temporal lords, who(/)id. p. could applaud his majesty's speeches as" proceeding J74"from the spirit of God, and from an understanding '' heart (m)." May we not fay, that they knew well (m) id. p,how to dissemble, and to maintain the character of good >7°

courtiers better than of honest men? Barlow

thought he had done a great piece of service to James% by publishing this conserence j but a worse office, in reality, could not have been done him. Posterity, by his account, see James's pedantry j and to see it, is to despise it. The puritans, therefore, needed not to have complained so much as they have done of Barlow («). („) See Fulls he has not represented their arguments in as just alcr'9 char& light, nor related what was done by the ministers as ^/ee-,"0,, advantageously as truth required, he has abundantly p. 21. Lond] made it up to them by shewing,, that the bishops, their 1655. Folio,, adverfaries, were gross flatterers, and had no regard to their facred characters; and that their mortal foe James had but a low understanding, and was undeserving of the rank he assumed in the republic of learning. This he has done effectually, and therefore, whatr ever was his intention, the puritans should have applauded his performance, and appealed to it for proof of the insufficiency of him who set himself upas a decider of their controversies.

(00) His conduct was such, as has been severely

.censured, &c] I fay nothing of the puritans; they

were too much parties td be looked on as impartial

judges j and James's conduct towards them was such,

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