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f scribes always-, your majesty s mojl humble stave and "dog, Steiny.

"Not to blot these papers with the bawdy that is in "some of these letters of king James, 1 shall only ob"serve, that such was the familiarity and friendship •' between him and Buckingham, that in one of them he H teils Buckingham, he wears Steiny's piclure under his "waistcoat, next his heart; and in another, he bids "him, his only sweet and dear child, hasten to him to '' Birely that night, that his white teeth might Jhine upon "him. But the reader may better judge of the rest of '' king 'James's familiar letters to the duke of Bucking*' hami by the following short one, which runs thus f' verbatim, and is without date.

"My only sweet and dear child, '* Blessing, blessing, blessing on thy heart's roots, and "all thine, this Thursday morning. Here is great store *' of game as they fay, partridges and stoncorleurs: I ^' know who shall get their part of them; and here is "the finest company of young hounds that ever-was "seen. God bless the sweet master of my harriers, "that made them to be so well kept ali summer; I "mean Tom Badger. 1 assure myself thou wilt punc"tually observe the dyet and journey I set thee down <c in my first letter from Theobald's. God bless thee, M and my sweet Kate, and Mall, to the comfort of 'f thy

"dear Dad,

"James R.

'* P. S. Let my last compliment settle to thy heart, "till we have a sweet and comfortable meeting, which "God send, and give thee grace to bid the drogues "adieu this day.

"Now the reason why James gave Buckingham the (k) Com"name of Steiny, was for his handsomeness, it being pleat historT ♦' the diminutive of St. Stephen, who is always painted yol "f*"' \f with a glory about his face (k)." 697. Folio.

I.ond, 1706.

mon conversation (u) j and stuck not, on


I have now given my authorities for the assertion in the text, the inference I leave to the reader, being unwilling to fay more on a subject so difagreeable tothe ears of the chaste and virtuous. I have added nothing, nor suppressed any thing; and therefore, as a meer relator, am liable, I think, to no censure. Had I met with any thing favourable to James in this matter, I would have declared it with great pleasure; but I cannot a\low myself to invent, in order to vindicate.

(n) He used cursing and swearing.] Here follow

my proofs. "He would make a great deal too bold

f' with God in his passion, both in cursing and fwear"ing, and one strain higher, verging on blasphemy; i' but would in his better temper fay, he hoped God "would not impute them as sins, and lay them to his (a) wddon,'" charge, seeing they proceeded from passion. (#)•" y. 172. An excellent reason this! and an admirable excuse for an acknowledged crime. James, weak a« he was, would have seen the folly of this plea in others, and would have censured them for making use of it. But any thing will serve for an excuse to those who chuse to do as they have been accustomed, and will not be at the pains to reform. That Ja/rtes was a swearer, appears from Lord Clarendon, who fays '* he renounced "with many oaths the having communicated the prince's (i)Cbren- "journey into Spain (£)." Oaths are highly indecent «°% °' *n Princes: they are greatly impolitic also, as lessening the regard which ought to be payed unto them in courts of judicature, and leading thereby to perjury. Princes therefore should shew the greatest reverence to oaths, in order thereby to keep up their facredness, and secure the truth and fidelity of their subjects. Those of them who will not thus behave, pay generally very dear for their liberty; for their servants and subjects taking example by them, run into the fame excess, whereby they receive the greatest damage. So that interest alone, if

• well.

Occasion, to utter the most bitter imprecations (kk) on himself, and on his posterity.


Veil understood and considered, will engage those who bear rule, to set before men good examples, and abstain from the appearance of evil; and such of them as are not induced hereunto by a sense of it, have no great reason to boast of their understanding. *

(kk) He stuck not to utter the most bitter impreca-' tions on himself, and on his posterity.] When the trial of the murtherers of Sir Thomas Overbury was going forwards, the king went from Whitehall to Theobald's, and so to Royjlon, and having sent for all the judges, he kneeled down in the midst of his lords and servants, and used these words to the judges. "My lords, I charge "you, as you will answer it at that great and dreadsul *' day of judgment, that you examine it [the poisoning "of Overbury\ strictly without favour, affection, or *?• partiality ; and if you spare any guilty of this crime, "God's curse light upon you and your posterity; and 'f if I spare any that are found guilty, God's curse "light on me and my .posterity for ever (a)." And in(<0 WeMo^ the second year of his reign " several lords having de-p'93* '.' clared in the star-chamber, that some of the puri- v "ritans had raised a false rumour of the king, how he "intended to grant a toleration to papists; the lords "severally declared, bow the king was discontented "with the faid false rumour, and had made but the "day before a protestation unto them, that he never "intended it, and that he would spend the last drop of "his blood before he would do it; and prayed, that *! before any of his issue should maintain any other re"ligion than what he truly prosesied and maintained,that "God would take them out of the world (b)." These (j) Croke*» are deep and horrible imprecations, and enough to makereports'part a, man tremble to think on the profaneness of the mouth L0nd. 1683. that could utter them; especially when it is known F«li°* ^hat notwithstanding there were so many witnesses to


And yet notwithstanding, upon times, he gave himself great airs of religion (ll), and


these his words) he spared Somerset and his lady, the principal actors in Overburys tragedy; and that he not only intended, but did grant a toleration to papists, as will be shewn hereafter. How far his imprecations have afsected his posterity, is not, I think, for man to fay. But, without breach of charity, we may assert, that James was very rash and inconsiderate, and guilty of a great fault in calling down the judgments of heaven, thus on himself and his family. 'Tis good advice which the wise man gives, and which was worthy of the regard of this British Solomon, in the following words, " Be not rash with my mouth, and let not thy "heart be hasty to utter any thing before God; for "God is in heaven, and thou upon earth; therefore IcTEcefeC "^et tny words be sew (c)." A sense of the omnipre•r. «► sence, power, wisdom, and majesty of the superintend

ing mind, would have restrained James from these rash and horrible wishes ; but he seems to have had little notion of any of these things, but rather to have been , one of those who deal in holy things without any feel

ing These, in lord Bacons opinion, are " the great "atheists, who must, fays he, be needs cauterized in fa!) Bacon's " the end (d)." Deplorable state! dismal condition! tfky on happy those, who, by an uniform course of virtuous acAtktiCm. tions, can look on the almighty being as their friend .' who are caresul at all times to do what they themselves think right, and agreeable to him: the religion of luch is real, and their happiness.certain.

(ll) He gave himself airs of religion, &c] Here follows a passage from Sully, tending to verify the text. *' James asked me, fays he, whether I went to the "protestant church in London? upon my replying that *c I did, then, faid he, you are not resolved, as 1 have "been informed, to quit our religion, after the ex"ample of Sancy, who thought thereby to make his


talked aster such a manner, as to lead those


*' fortune, but, by God's permission, did just the con"trary. I treated this report as a calumny, and faid, • "that my living in France in friendship w.ith so many ^* ecclesiasticks, and being so frequently visited by the "pope's nuncio, might, perhaps, have given rise to it. "Do you give the pope the title of holiness? faid "James. 1 replied, that, to conform to the custom *' established in France, I did. He was then for prov"ing to me, that this custom was an offence against "God, to whom alone this title could justly belong. I "replied, that I supposed a greater crime was not hereH by committed, than by so frequently giving to prin"ces such titles as they were well known not to de♦' serve (a)." Let us add the following memorandum („) Suify'i of the illustrious archbishop UJher to Sully, and we shall memoirs, need nothing more to convince us of the solemn airs of *•

religion James, at some times, could put on. "I was "appointed by the lower house of parliament, to preach "at St. Margaret's, Westminster, Feb. 7, 1620. Feb. "13, being Shrove Tuesday, I dined at court, and be"twixt four and five killed the king's hand, and had "conserence with him touching my sermon. He faid, "I had charge of an unruly flock to look unto the next Sun"day. He asked me how I thought it cou'd stand wi:h "true divinity, that so many hundred should be tied (up"on so short warning) to receive the communion upon '' a day, al! could not be in charity, after so late con"tentions in the house: many must needs come with"out preparation, and eat their own condemnaiion: '' that himself required all his whole houshold to receive '' the communion, but not all the fame day, unless at "Easier, when the whole Lent was a time of prepa"ration. He bad me to tell them, I hoped they were *' all prepared, but wislied they might be better j to "exhort them to unity and concord; to love God '' first, and then their prince and country; to look to *' the urgent necessities of the times, and the miserable


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