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He was attended by great numbers of Scots in his coming into England, who were advanced to great honours (y), and shared

largely

"in them. And it is a known and undeniable

"truth, that cowards are much more cruel and vindic

"five than men of courage are: for a coward can

*' never enough secure himself of his enemy ; insomuch

"as when he is lying dead at his seet, he is yet afraid."

(b) Never was the truth of this doctrine better exem- (i) King

plified than in the execution of Thomas; and there- £""," s

fore I had reason to fay, that James thereby made good 5s7.

the observation, that cowards never forizive. How

much more amiable is the character of those princes who have forgot, on their accession to the throne, personal injuries ? .how deservedly famous is the faying of Lewis XII. of France, in answer to those who would have persuaded him to shew severity to La Tremouille: "God forbid that Lewis XII. should revenge thequar'•' reis of the duke of Orleans." (c) This was truly great (0 See Boand magnanimous. But James's conduct was wholly i'"poke's mean, and betrayed the poorness of his soul. spir't 0fnpa.

triotisin, p.

i Quippe minuti jtl'^T'

Semper & infirmi est animiexiguique voluptas (^) Juvenal,'

Ultio {d). Sat. 13. v.

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-Revenge, which still we find

The weakest frailty of a seeble mind. Creech.

(y) He was attended by a large number of Scots, who were advanced to great honours ] . ** The persons "who attended him were the duke of Lennox, the earls "of Marr, Murray, and Argile, the Lord Hume, Sir, "George Hume, Mr. James Elphinjion, Sir David "Murray, Sir Robert Ker, with the ordinary gentle"men of the chamber, besides several of the clergy." (a) But besides these, there were a great multitude fa) spot*Wfho came in with him, and reaped the benefit of his wood»^fi. E 3 favour.

iargely in his bounty, at the expence and much to the regret of the Englisli nation,

to

favour. Lennox, Marr, Hume, and Elphinjlon were

made privy counsellors of England, and many of the

Scots became afterwards adorned with some of the

n,lTi"«l''highest English titles. Sir Robert Ker (b) was advanced

ways written to the earldom of Somerset, Lennox was made duke of

by the Scot -Richmond, Esme Stuart, his younger brother was cre

andnotCarr ate^ earl of March, the marquis of Hamilton earl of

as by the Cambridge, Sir John Ramsey viscount Haddington of

E"81'*' , Scotland, earl of Holderness, and James Hay earl of

chronic" p Carlistt (c). Nor were they bare honours which the

448. Lond. Scots got, for they had also large lucrative posts, and

1684. FoJ. uncommon donations, as will appear bye and bye. So

that there seems some reason for the following lines ot a

fatyrical writer, though they are much too severe.

(J) King *t she (</) royal branch from Pictland did succeed,

james, *' ^yitn troopsofSMfrand scabs from north by Tweed,

"The seven first years of his pacific reign, "Made him and half his nation Englishmen. "Scots from the northern frozen banks of Tay, "With packs and plods came whigging all away. "Thick as the locusts which in Egypt fwarm'd, "With pride and hungry hopes compleatly arm'd: "With native truth, diseases, and no money, ." Plunder'd our Canaan of the milk and honey. *' Here they grew quickly lords and gentlemen, (e) State "And all their race are true-born Englishmen." (e)

poems, Vol.

Lond. 1703. Had there been then an union of the two kingdoms,

8»u« this had doubtless been good policy ; but as there was

.' ftot, these promotions could serve nootherend, but to

create jealousies among the English, and excite com

- plaints. For why should men of another country have

the power of legislation? why should they whose pro

'_ "perty lay elsewhere, and whose connexions were at a

.. - • . distance,

(z), to whom it is, with some good degree

of

distance, have a power of enacting laws which they themselves might easily get out of the reach of, and their families be wholly free from? But such was the will of James, who, though he seldom considered himself, cared not to be counselled, and therefore generally acted unwisely.

(z) Shared largely in his bounty at theexpence, and much to the regret of the English.] Osborn observes, that the " exactions rose on the English were spent "upon the Scots, by whom nothing was unasked, and "to whom nothing was denied; who for want of ho"nest traffic did extract gold out of the faults of the "English, whose pardons they begged, and fold at in"tolerable rates, murther itself not being excepted («)."(a) pftora'i The fame writer tells us, " that the earl of Dunbar*°T s's' "swallowed at one gulp, together with the chancellor'' ship of the exchequer, all the standing wardrobe, "wherein were more jewels, pearl, rich robes, and "princely apparel, than ever any king of Scotland (if all "of them put together) could call his own before; all "which I have since heard rated by the officers at an "incredible sum, whose servants did use to shew them "for money, it appearing none of the least rarities in "London before this great dissolution." (b) Lord ^ jdp Clarendon assures us, "that James Hay, earl of Gar-516, , "UJJe, spent in a very jovial lise, above four hundred "thoufand pounds, which, upon a strict calculation,

"he received from the crown." (c) -Robert Kef, W Claren

earl of Somerset, had such vast favours bestowed upon ^[^J1 him, that even at the time of his fall, his estate was bellion, Vol. rated to the crown at three hundred thoufand pounds Lp.62.8yQ. (d). And Sir John Ramsey, when made a viscount, *TM' had a thoufand pounds land given him to support the title (rfjofcom, 'e). Again, fays Osborn, "the Scots hung on Jame» Pr S1?1 like horse-leeches, till they could get no more, fal- wla&'Tme* ling then off by retiring into their own country, mortal, Vol. E 4 '*' drP'P-iHS

of probability, said, that they behaved with
much rudeness and insolency (aa).
<, However

'' or living at ease, leaving all chargeable attendance on (/)Ofbom," the English." (/) 7 his is likewise confirmed bf *• S3Z' Frankland. The king's gifts inlands to the Scots, unthanksully and unfittingly, they fold (fays he) conveyf» trials ing that treasure into Scotland [g). These passages fuses King ficiently fliew how much of the wealth of England was Jam, p* bestowed on the Scots, and how much cause the English ioli.i-u..* had to be displeased at it; for there was not one of these men that was any way usesul to the English nation, though Dunbar and CarliJIe were men of great abilities j and therefore there could be no cause for these

excessive donations. The king himself was sensible

that his liberality to the Scots was very distasting, and therefore apologizes for it in a speech to the parliament, and promises for the suture to be more sparing. Let us hear his words. "Had I been over-sparing to them, '' .they might have thought Joseph had forgotten his '' brethren, or that the king had been drunk with his "new kingdom. If I did respect the English when I

"came first, what might the Scottish have justly

"faid, if } had not in some measure dealt bountifully

i "with them that so long had served me, so far ad

'* ventured themselves with me, and been so faithsul

"tome? Such particular persons of the Scottish

*' nation, as might claim any extraordinary merit at

*' my hands, I have already reasonably rewarded; and

'' I can assure you, that there is none left whom for I

th) King u mean extraordinary to strain myself surther." (h)

James's This was spoken Anno 1607, a little before his majesty

works, p. received Ker as a favourite, and heaped on him such

aJiop.542. immense treasures and large possessions as I have just

mentioned. Well therefore might the English grumble,

despise the king, and hate his countrymen, by whom,

they were thus fleeced.

(aa) To whom they behaved with much insolfncy

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However the English were not neglected

by

and rudeness.] This is attested by the Following homely
lines, which were every where posted.

"They beg our lands, our goods, our lives,
"'They switch ournobles, and lie with their wives;
"They pinch our gentry, and (end for our benchers -,
"They_/?ai our serjeants, and pistol our fencers."

Mr. O/born has explained these in a very entertaining manner, to whose works I reser the inquisitive reader

(a), Not contented to drain the kingdom of its'"' Oftor,>

wealth, and snatch its honours, they moreover claimed 4;2 of the precedency of the English nobility of the fame rank, eitionin

"At a supper made by the lady Elizabeth Hatton, ,682»

lf. there grew a question between the earls of Argil e and "Pembroke, about place, which the Scot maintained to H be his by seniority, as being now become all Britons: "at which our nobility began to startle." (b) And no(*) Winwonder, for whatever might be the antiquity of many wood 'me"

'it morials,

of the Scotch nobility, on which probably they valued Vol. m. themselves; yet that could entitle them to no place in p- "7. England, any farther than what courtesy and civility might require. To set up a claim of right to superiority by reason of it, could be looked on as nothing but an insult, and as such, doubtless, was resented. Indeed the Scots seemed so unable to bear their good fortune, and the English were so provoked at their insolent behaviour, that it was almost a miracle it had not issued in torrents of blood (c) r- A lesson this to princes (7 s"

» 1 '#.',' ,. r i 1 - bora, p.595*

not to be too bountisul to perions uled to low circumstances; seeing it will only tend to inspire them with pride and haughtiness, and excite envy and contempt in standers-by; much more not to enrich aliens at the expence of the natives, and cause them to lift too high their heads. There may indeed be exceptions to this rule, as when distinguished merit and great abilities are possessed, and these exerted fgr the good of a country;

but

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