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(/) Lord

Bacon's essay on simulation and diflimU' tion.

Scottish clergy, but that they had received


*' have that penetration of judgment, as he can discern
"what things are to be laid open, and what to be se- .
"creted, and what to be shewed at half lights, and to
"whom and when, (which indeed are arts of state, and
"arts of lise, as Tacitus well calleth them) to him a
"habit tof dissimulation is an hindrance and a poorness.
"But if a man cannot attain to that judgment, then
"it is left to him generally to be a dissembler." (/) I
will conclude this note with a passage from honest
Montaigne, which I dare fay every reader of like cha-
racter will applaud. "As to this virtue of dissimula-
"tion, I mortally hate it; and of all vices find none
"that does evidence so much baseness and meanness of
"spirit. 'Tis a cowardly and servile humour to hide
"and disguise a man's self under a vizor, and not to
"dare to shew himself what he is. By that our fol-
"lowers are trained up to treachery. Being brought
"up to speak what is not true, they make no consci-
"ence of a lye. A generous heart ought not to belye its
"own thoughts, but will make itself seen within, all
tS there is good, or at least manly. Aristotle reputes it
"the office of magnanimity, openly and prosessedly to
"love and hate, to judge and speak with all freedom;
"and not to value the approbation or dislike of others
"in comparison of truth. Apollonius faid, it was for
"slaves to lye, and for free men to speak truth. 'Tis
V the chief and sundamental part of virtue, we must

"love it for itself. A man must not always tell

"all, for that were folly; but what a man fays, should "be what he thinks, otherwise 'tis knavery. I do not "know what advantage men pretend to by eternally "counterseiting and dissembling, if not, never to be "believed when they speak the truth. This may once c* or twice pass upon men; but to prosess concealing c* their thoughts, and to brag, as some of our princes "have done, that they would burn their Jhirts'if they V. knew their intentions, and that who knows not hovi to

*! difemble,

provocations by the king's actions, to behave towards him as they did (N).


"dissemble, knows not how to rule: is to give warning .'' to' all who have any thing to do with them, that all "they fay is nothing but lying and deceit." (g) (g) Mon

taigne's es. (N) The clergy had received provocations to behave t^s *" towards him as they did.] Thave given an account ofp. 507, gVo! the undutisul behaviour of the clergy towards James L°nd-1686. from Spotswood: but bishop Burnet tells us, " there is "a great desect runs through archbishop Spotswood's "history, where much of the rude opposition the king "met with, particularly from the assemblies of the "kirk, is set forth; but the true ground of all the "jealousies they were possessed with, is suppressed by "him." (a) These jealousies were of his being in his fa) Burnet, heart a Papist, founded on facts delivered to them by Vol. i.p. 5. the English ministry, and from his favouring and employing those of that religion. Walsingham, as I have already observed, " thought James was either inclined "to turn Papist, or to be of no religion. And when the "English court faw that they could not depend on "him, they raised all possible opposition to him in Scotland, insusing strong jealousies into those who were "enough inclined to receive them." (b) Dr. Birch^t) Id. ib. fays, " the king of Scots was indeed, at this time [1599] "much suspected of inclining to popery; and a copy ''of a letter, offering obedience to the Pope, signed ^lBlrc1j'S "by that king, was brought from Rome by the ma/2ervæw of the '' as Gray, and (hewn to queen Elizabeth; who sent negotiations "Sir William Bowes ambassador to him, to advertise^tween the "him not to build on the friendship of Rome." (c) England,

< [This was the letter for which lord Balmerinowas France, and

condemned, but pardoned, in the year 1609; it beingBrusse's» p« faid he surreptitiously got the king's hand thereto, which Lon'd. 17I5. he himself consessed.] And we find, in 1596, the mi-Spotswood, nisters complaining to the kino; of " the favour p-rant-£'45S-

«, j L • ri , 1 • Burnet, p.6.

*' e& to the. popiih Lords j the countenance given toand note


However, I am far enough from defending their whole behaviour (O). In 1589, James married a daughter of Denmark, (after

"to the lady Huntley, and her invitation to the baptism »" of the princess; the putting her in the hands of the "lady Levingjione, an avowed and obstinate papist ; and *• the alienation of his majesty's heart from the mini"sters, as appeared by all his speeches public and pri

(J) Spots- "vate." (d) In short, the ministers were jealous of

*W0*»p,4*9.his majesty's intentions; they suspected his behaviour, and were afraid that he only wanted an opportunity to crush them, and the religion they prosessed. 'Twas the belief of this, that made them break out into such indecent expressions, and undutisul behaviour; and the knowledge of their own power and influence over the people, which inspired them with courage and boldness. And, I think, all impartial persons must allow, that iF ever 'tis excufable to go beyond bounds in any thing, it is in desence of religion and liberty, in opposition to popery and tyranny. Most of these men remembered the fires which popish zeal had lighted; they had seen the blood spilt by it, and therefore it is not to be wondered at, that they were more than ordinarily moved at every thing which had the least tendency to bring them back into so deplorable a state.

(O) I am far enough from desending their whole behaviour.] The behaviour of the clergy was very rough, and bordering upon rudeness. They treated majesty with too much familiarity. They prostituted their pulpits to affairs of state, and rebuked after such a manner as tended more to provoke, than to reclaim. In these things they were blanie-worthy. But I should not do them justice, were I to omit their zeal for what they thought truth; their labour and diligence in the business of the ministry, and their speaking the truth with all boldness. These were virtues for which James's clergy were eminent; and therefore they were held in high



ter having objected against the dignity of that royal house, merely through ignorance about it:) (P) and the lady being driven by a


esteem by the major part of that kingdom, as will all of that proseiEon every where be, who imitate them h'rein, for they are things praiseworthy, and of good report.

(P) He married a daughter of Denmark, after having objected against the dignity of that royal house, through mere ignorance about it.J James, notwithstanding all his boasted learning, was desective in history, the knowledge of which is most necessary for princes. He had so little skill in this, that he knew not the state and condition of so near a country to him as Denmark; nor was he acquainted with the rank the kings of it bare in Christendom. "He was informed, "he faid, that the king of Denmark was descended 'i but of merchants, and that sew made account of "him or his country, but such as spoke the Dutch "tongue (a)." 'Tis amazing that any one of James's (a) Melvil, elevated station should be Ib grossly ignorant. Had he p-,',64never read of the power of the Danes, their ravages and conquests both in England and Scotland? was he never informed that marriage had been contracted between his own family and that of Denmark? nor that in the year 1468 Christian I. king of Norway and Denmark, renounced all right and title for himself and his successors to James III. king of Scotland, to the ijles of Orkney, upon a marriage between him and his daughter \b) ? 'Tis plain he knew none of these things, and (i)C»mh» therefore was miserably qualified to contract alliances, '^^ '£

or enter into treaties. However Melvil informed Gibson,

him of these matters, which made him so exceedingedit-2-p' glad, "that he said he would not for his head but *1*72°;Lon4' H that he had shewn the verity unto him." "Some"time after, as faid is, he called his council together in "his cabinet, and told them how he had been advising


tempest into Norway, he, impatient of the detention of his bride, went thither and consummated the marriage. From whence,


"about his marriage fifteen days, and asked counsel of ." God by devout prayer thereon, and that he was now ff)Melvil, t: resolved to marry in Denmark." (c) The lady whom p. i77. James took to wise was Ann, second daughter of Frederick king of Denmaik. Our historians give her the character of a courteous and humane princess, and one in [i) Spots- whom there was much goodness (d). Itwill notperhapsbc W0° ;apn'd unacceptable to the reader if I give the character she bore Wilson's lise among foreigners, who, oftentimes, speak more justly of king than subjects. "She was naturally, fays the duke of Iio"fo1p.' "SuHy, bold and enterprizing: she loved pomp and Lond. 1653." grandeur, tumult and intrigue. She was acquainted "with all the civil factions, not only in, Scotland, oc*''• casioned by the catholicks, whom she supported, 'and "had even first encouraged ; but also in England, where "the discontented, whose numbers were not inconsi"derable, were not sorry to be supported by a princess "destined to become their queen.—In public she affect"ed absolutely to govern her son (prince Henry) whom "it was faid (he thought to inspire with sentiments in "favour of Spiin: for none doubted but she was in• "clinec* to declare herself absolutely on that side (*•). of ih/duk"" Afterwards, he tells' us, he received letters from of Sully, p. "Beaumont, (the French resident) informing him, that 211,113. u t|le queen was disposed to pleasures and amusements, jim'o. "and seemed wholly engaged in them, and nothing Lond. 1751. " else. She so entirely neglected, or forgot the Spanish "politics, as gave reason to believe siie had in reality "only pretended to be attached to them, through the £/)Id.Vol.*' necessity of eventual conjunctures." (/) Whoever U.p-179* knows the rank of Sully, as favourite and prime mi-' nister to Henry the Great of France, and ambassador extraordinary to James, will pay great deserence to his account; for it cannot but be supposed he had the best informations. And indeed from Wimuaod's state


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