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,' that any should assert its being liable to

fce contradicted or controuled. He treated

his

*' shall see how they agree in the person of a king, "God hath power to create or destroy, make or un"make at his pleasure, to give lise or send death, to *'judge all, and to be judged, nor accomptable to none: "to raise low things, and to make high things low at ** his pleasure, and to God are both soul and body due i "and the like power have kings: they make and un"make their subjects ; they have power of raising, and "casting down; of lise and of death ; judges over all "their subjects, and in all causes; and yet accomptable "to none but Qod only. They have power to exalt low "things, and abase high things, and make of their sub"jects like men at chefs; a pawne to take a bishop or '' a knight, and to cry up or down any of their sub"jects, as they do their money. And to the king is "due both the affection of the foul, and the service of W «• Jam- " the body of his subjects." (d) And in the fame speech r29.' are the following words: "I conclude then this point "touching the power of kings, with this axiom of divi"nity, that as to dispute what God may do, is blas"phemie ; but quid vult Deus, that divines may law"sully, and do ordinarily dispute and discufle; for to "dispute a posse ad ejse is both against logicke and divi"nitie: so is it sedition in subjects, to dispute what a W •*• t' "king may do in the height of his power.". (/) These J' passages shall suffice to shew James's notions of the regal

power; their opposition to those of his preceptor; and that lord Bolingbroke was very much mistaken in faying that" James retailed the scraps of Buchanan." (/) Lettfrs (yj I thought to have concluded this note here, but I find on the sprit it pr0per to add that James had the utmost indignation

or intnotisn, . S • /• . • i » i' i i

. 216. against those who held that princes were accountable, or controulable. This appeared from his citing a preacher before him from Oxford, who had asserted that the inferiour maiestrate had a lawsul power to order and correct

h1s parliaments in many cases most contemptuously [ttt] both by words and actions;

giving

rect the king if he did amiss; and who for the illustration of his doctrine, had used that speech of Trajan's unto the captain of his guard j Accipe hunc 'gladium» quem pro me si bene imperavero distringes; sin minus contra me; i.e. receive this sword, which I would have thee.use for my desence if I govern well ; but if I rule the empire ill, to be turned against me. The preacher of this doctrine being strictly examined by the king concerning it, laid the blame on Pareus, who ia his commentary on the Romans, had positively delivered all which he had vented in his sermon, even to that very faying of the emperor Trajan. Whereupon the king, tho' he dismissed the preacher, on account of his youth, and the authority he had produced, gave order to have the book of Pareus burnt in Oxford, London and Cambridge; which was done accordingly, (g) So (g) Heyhigh was James's opinion of regal power, so ill could he Ws lifeof bear opposition to it, tho' in a foreigner, and one with * 'p* whom he had nothing to do!

f Ttt] He treated his parliaments in many cases most contemptuously] Here follow my proofs. In his speech to the parliament in 160 c, speaking of the house of commons, he tells them, that " that was not a place "for every rash and hair-brained fellow to propose new "laws of his own invention." That " they should be "warie not to propose any bitter or seditious laws, _ "which could produce nothing but grudges and dif"contents between the prince and his people •, and that '' it was no place for particular men to utter their pri"vate conceits, nor for fatisfaction of their curiosities, "and least of all to make (hew of their eloquence, by "tyning the time with long studied and eloquent ora"tions." (a) And he adds just afterwards, *' that (*)K. Jam. "men should be ashamed to make thew of the quickness *£»» p"of their wits here, either in taunting, scoffing, or5'

» "detracting

giving himself extraordinary airs of wisdom

and

"detracting the prince or state in any point, or yet in "breaking jests upon their sellows, for which the or- • "dinaries or ale-houses are fitter places, than this ho"nourable and high court of parliament."

In his speech to the parliament at Whitehall, in the year 1609, he" wishes the commons to avoid three *' things in matters of grievances.

"First, fays he, that you do not meddle with the "main points of government; that is my craft: trac"tent fabrilia fabri; to meddle with that were to *' lesson me : I am now an old king; for six and thirty "years have I governed in Scotland personally, and now *' have I accomplished my apprenticeship of seven years "here; and seven years is a great time for a king's *' experience in government. Therefore there would "be too many Pbormios to teach Hannibal: I must "not be taught my office.

"Secondly, I would not have you meddle with such "antient rights of mine, as I have received from my '• predecessors, possessing them, more majorum: such "things I would be lbrrie should be accounted for "grievances.

"And lastly, I pray you to beware to exhibit for "grievance, any thing that is established by a settled '* law, and whereunto (as you have already had a "proof) you know I will never give a plausible an*' fwer: for it is an undutisul part in subjects to press . " their king, wherein they know before-hand he will (*) K. Jam;" resuse them." (b)

works, p. fjad James stopped here he might have been excused, ("see Hey- Elizabeth had set him an example of directing the comwood mons to be cautious in making use of their liberty of

7°*'!,s" , speech ; and they complained not of it. (c) But he

hend s his- r , * , W . , , , K .

toricalcol- went farther, for in the year I02r, the commons havIcctions, p. ing drawn up a petition and remonstrance to the king, tot' L03,463,concerning the danger of the protestant religion at home 1SS0. ' and abroad, and advised him to aid the protestants in

tb«

and authority, and undervaluing their power,

skill

the wars in which they were engaged; break with the king of Spain, and marry his son to a princess of the reformed religion, with some other things: the commons having drawn up this petition and remonstrance, and it coming to the king's ears that they were about to present it, the following letter was written by him to the speaker, from New-Market:

Mr. Speaker, "We have heard, by divers reports, to our great '* grief, that our distance from the houses of parliament "caused by our indisposition of health, hath embold-' "ned some fiery and popular spirits of some of the "house of commons, to argue and debate publickly of "the matters far above their reach and capacity^ "tending to our high dishonor, and breach of preroga"tive royal. These are therefore to command you, "to make known, in our name, unto the house, that '* none therein shall presume henceforth to meddle with "any thing concerning our government, or deep mat"ters of state, and namely not to deal with our dearest: *' son's match with the daughter of Spain, nor to touch f( the honour of that king, or any other our friends and '* consederates: and also not to meddle with any man's "particulars, which have their due motion in our or"dinary courts of justice. And whereas we hear, "that they have sent a message to Sir Edward Sandys, "to know the reasons of his late restraint, you shall in "our name resolve them, that it was not for any mis"demeanor of his in parliament. But to put them out "of doubt of any question of that nature that may arise *' among them hereafter, you shall resolve them in our *' name, that we think ourselves very free and able to ** punish any man's misdemeanors in parliament, as "well during their sitting as after: which we mean "not to spare hereafter, upon any occasion of any "man's insolent behaviour there, that shall be minis

"tred

skill and capacity. And not contented herewith

"tred unto us; and if they have already touched any ** of these points, which we have forbidden, in any "petition of theirs, which is to be sent unto us, it is "our pleasure that you shall tell them, that except they "reform it before it come to our hands we will not

tj) Frank- *c deiga the hearing, nor answering of it." (d) Heref King*' upon tne Commons drew up another petition, which

James's,p. they sent accompanied with the former remonstrance;

60. and to which the king answered among other things, " that

VofTp. "he must use the first words whlch 1ueen Elizabith ^j,' "had used, i« an answer to an insolent proposition,

"made by a Pohnian ambassador unto her; that is

"legatum expeflabamus heraldum accippimus; that he

"wished them to remember that he was an old and ex

"perienced king, needed no such lessons as they had

"given him; that they had usurped upon the prero

"gative royal, and meddled with things far above their

"reach, and then in the conclusion protested the con

"trary; as if a robber, fays he, would take a man's

"purse, and then protest he meant not to rob him.

"After this he asks them how they could have presumed

"to determine about his son's match, without com

"mining of high treason? These are unfit things,

*c (the breaking of the match with Spain, and conclud

"ing one with a protestant) to be handled in parlia

"ment, exeept your king should require it of you: for

"who can have wisdom to judge of things of that na

"ture, but such as are daily acquainted with the par

"ticulars of treaties, and of the variable and fixed

"connexion of affairs of state, together with the knovv

'' ledge of the secret ways, ends, and intentions of

"princes in their several negotiations? otherwise a

"small mistaking of matters of this nature may pro

"duce more effects than can be imagined: and there

*' fore, ne futor ul»ra crepidam." He concludes with

saying, " we cannot allow of the style (in the petition

'and remonstrance) calling it your antient and'.«»

"doubttd.

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