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management, and the scoffs and jeers wherewith they were insulted by their neighbours.


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Or if the reader likes it better in rhyme, it is given
in English, thus:

While Elizabeth was England's King,
That dreadsul name through Spain did ring.

How alter'd is the case, ad fa' me F

(f) Rapin, These jugling days of gude ^ueen Jamie! (f)

Vol. II. p.

Moan's -^"^ tnat it may not be imagined that libellers and fatyphænix Bri-rists only contemned James, and represented him in a tanmcus, p. more ridiculous light than they ought, I will add, that J' * the grave and knowing duke of Sully tells us, that Henry,

in derision, called James captain of arts and dark of arms; (g) and that he himself and his brother, had spoken in terms not very respectsul of him.

Nor did his own people come behind in ridiculing and censuring his conduct. "They mouthed out that ** Great Britain was become less than little England; "that they had lost strength by changing sexes, and "that he was no king but a fidler's son, otherwise he "would not suffer such disorders at home, and so much "dishonor abroad. And they fay surther, why

** should he assume to himself the title of desender of "the faith, that suffers the protestants of Germany "and France to be extirpated. That he might almost *' have purchased such a country as the Palatinate, with '' the money spent on ambassages; and that his promis,c ing the French protestants assistance (by their agents that interceded for them) made them the more re*' solute, and confident to their ruin: So that they "might well call England the land of promise. And "all that he got by his lip-labour assistance from the '* French king was, that his ambassador, Sir Edward *' Herbert, was snapt up by Luynes the young constable, ** and favourite there, with what hath your master to «' do with us and our business? Whereas the English 3 ** fleetsa

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But however weak and pusillanimous "James i conduct was abroad, at home be behaved very


"fleets, the glory of the world, (if employed) would *• have taught the French pride to know, that a looker"on sees more than the gamester, and he that strikes "with passion, will many times thank them that take "him ofF by friendly admonition, such discourses as "these flew up and down from lip to lip, that it was al"most treason to hear, much more to speak. "(A)—-How (4) Wifson) weakly, how imprudently must a prince have behaved p- 1goto have drawn on himself such bitter reflections,, and cutting farcasms both at home and abroad? how mean a figure must he have made, and with what contempt must his promises and threatnings be received? It could not be ill-will, it could not be malice, or the love of slander alone, which could bring on a regal character so much contempt when living: There must have beert foolish wretched management, as we have seen there Was, to render it passable. But of all things, princes should dread falling into contempt: seeing that thereby their reputation, and consequently their power ceases, and they are rendered incapable of executing any great design. For as cardinal Richlieu has well observed," re"putation is the more necessary in princes, in that '" those we have a good opinion of, do more by their . "bare words, than those who are not esteemed with *' armies. They are obliged to value it beyond lise; *' and they ought sooner to venture their fortune and '' grandeur, than to suffer the least breach to be made »c in the fame, since it is most certain that the least di"minution a prince receives, tho' never so flight, .is "the step which is of most dangerous consequence for *' his ruin. In consideration of which I declare freely, "that princes ought never to esteem any profit advan"tageous, when it reflects the least upon their honour; '' and they are either blinded or insensible to their true "interests, if they receive any of this nature. And in'' deed history teaches us, that in all times and in all *' States, princesof great reputation are always happier N 2 "thart

haughtily. He valued himself much on his hereditary right, and lineal descent, [rrr]


"than those, who being inserior to them in that point, "have surpassed them in force and riqhes, and in all (») Rich- _ " other power." (/) Pity it is but princes knew what 1'T0\polltI" was faid of them! if they had any thirst after fame, any meat, part desire of real glory, it would excite them to direct their zd. p. 46. actions to ihe good of the public, and it would make them weigh and consider things so, as that their resolutions might appear to be the result of prudence and discretion. If they will not act thus, but blindly follow .their own whims and humours, or submit to be led by weak, ignorant, self seeking men, as was the cafe of James; they may depend on it, that tho' flattery mounts up their imaginary excellencies to the clouds, and represents them as demi-gods for power and wisdom, standers-by will laugh at them, and posterity expose and condemn them.

[rrr] He valued himself much on his hereditary

right and lineal descent.] In his first speech to thepar

liament, March 19, 1603, he tells them, that the first

reason of his calling them together was, " that they

"might with their own ears hear him deliver unto

"them the assurance of his thanksulness, for their so

"joysul and general applause, to the declaring and re

"ceiving of him in,that seat, which God, by his birth

"right and lineal descent, had in the sulness of time

{*', King "provided for him." (a) And in other parts of the

jamrs's fame speech, he speaks of his lineal descent out of the

wor s, p. (( joins oj. jjgniy tjje seventnanc| 0f his being " li

(*) H. p. "neally descended of both the crowns" (b) (of England 487,488. and Scotland.) One should have thought an English parliament should have stared at hearing such an unusual language from the throne. But such was the complaifance they had for their new king, and so willing were they to make their court to him, that they spoke in like terms with him, and ecchoed back, not as has


|o the crown, and talked of it in most pompous

sometimes been done in an address, but in an act of parliament, his words and sentiments on this subject. For in the first act of parliament passed in this reign, intitled- N

a " most joysul and just recognition of the immediate, "lawsul and undoubted succession, descent and right "of the crown," we find the following expressions: *' Your majesty's royal person, who is lineally, right"sully, and lawsully descended of the body of the most "excellent lady Margaret, eldest daughter of the most "renowned king Henry the seventh, and they therein tc desire it may be published and declared in the high "court of parliament, and enacted by authority of the "fame, that they (being bounden thereunto both by "the laws of God and man) do recognize and ackndw** ledge that immediately upon the dissolution and de"cease of Elizabeth, late queen of England, the im"perial crown of the realm of England, and of all the "kingdoms, dominions and lights belonging to the "fame did by inherent Birthright, and lawsul and un"doubted succession, descend and come unto his most "excellent majesty, as being lineally, justly, and law"fully, next and sole heir of the blood royal of this *c realm." (c) This was complaifance indeed! and (c) Vide this together with their ascribing to him in the fame act, sta.r- *nn0 '* the rarest gifts of mind and body," and acknowled- t"TM0,, paging" his great wisdom, knowledge, experience, and totum. "dexterity," could hardly help rivetting in his mind his absurd opinions, and high self-estimation.

I call his notions 9s hereditary right, and lineal descent, absurd. For I know of no right that any persoa has to succeed another in wearing a crown, but what the laws give him; if he is by law appointed the next heir, his right to succeed is built upon the most stable foundation. But the laws relating to the succession may be changed, according as the exigencies of the state and the public good require; and if by such a change any person or family is set aside from succeeding, the right N 3 *" they

pous terms, tho' nothing could be more absurd and chimerical.


they might before have had vanishes, and without usurpation cannot take place. When that political law (fays a justly admired writer) which has established in "the kingdom a certain order of succession, becomes '' destructive to the body politic for whose fake it was ?• established, there is not the least room to doubt but "another political law may be made to change this or'c der; and so far would this law be from opposing the f first, it would in the main be entirely conformable to "it, since both would depend on this principle, that,

^pvtf'' *k fifty of the people is the suprearn law." (d) .

j; p.'jjg,' And indeed this hereditary right to the crown, hert J-ond. 1750. boasted of by fames, was " a meer chimera; contra"dicted by the general tenor of custom from the Nor"man invasion to his time; by the declared sense of "his immediate predecessors; by many solemn proceed"ings of parliament, and by the express terms of law,

c* Two families (for the race of Plantagenet was

f' grafted on the Norman race, and they may be rec"koned properly as one) had surnished, indeed, all "our kings; but this constituted no hereditary right. "When a prince of the royal family, but in a degree v remote from the succession, comes to the crown, in "prejudice to the next heir, hereditary right is violated, "as really as it would be if an absolute stranger to this *' family succeeded. Such a prince may have another, "and we think a better right, that for instance, which f' is derived from a settlement of the crown, made by "the authority of parliament; but to fay he hath an "hereditary right, is the grossest abuse of words imagi"nable. This we think so plain, that we should be "ashamed to go about to prove it.—Our kings of the ** Norman race were so far from succeeding as next "heirs to one another, and in a regular course of def' scent, that no instance can be produced of the next f heirs succeeding, which is not preceded and followed {J by instances of the nex.t heirs being set aside.'

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