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ed in the hands of queen Elizabeth, for the

moneygeneral, and two Englishmen whom the queen should name, should be admitted into the council of the estates. (a) Accordingly Elizabeth sent, the earl of Leicester to saJCanjtheir aid, had the towns put into her hands, and her go- Q"^^ vernor had a place among the States-general; whereby in compie'at the English had a share in their councils, and they were Hist.V0l.1i4 keptiadependanceonthem. 'Tis well known with whatp'5°8* valour and conduct the Dutch resisted the Spaniards, and by the help of their auxiliaries, rose themselves to an admired and envied state of power, wealth and liberty. Spain weary with endeavouring to enslave them, was contented to treat with them as Free-States, and concluded a truce at Antwerp, March 29, 1609. 'Twas then Holland listed high it's head, and looking on the cautionary towns as manacles and (hackles on them, and searing that James, whose meanness of spirit, connexion with the Spaniards, and great want of money were known, might one day deliver them into their enemies hands, as by them he had been requested; 'twas then, I fay, that they determined if possible to get them from him, but upon the easiest terms. But this was not to be done in a hurry, they took time, and acted after such a manner, as sully accomplished their purpose. Tho' the towns were garrisoned by the English, the garrison was paid by the Dutch. In order therefore to bring about what they had in view, they ceased, all at once, to pay the English garrison, as by treaty they were obliged. Complaints were hereupon made to Sir Noel Careti, the Dutch ambassador at London. He excused it by the poverty of his masters; but withal insinuated as from himself, that if his Britannic majesty would defire it of the States, they, Out of their regard for him, would take up money at high interest, and at once discharge the whole debt due to the crown of England. 'James listened to the propofal, and wrote about it to the States. By them Barneilelt was sent over, who negotiated so ably, that the king agreed to deliver up the M a towns

money me had from time to time expended

on

towns for less than three millions of florins, in lieu of eight millions that were due, and about 18 years interest. (*)See [b) This Was in May 1616. What the opinion of the RirthwartB, wor]d was on this affair, will appear from part of a letter CabaU,pp.3 from Sir Thomas Edmondes, written from Paris the iofi. fame month, to Sir Ralph Wtnwood. In it he observes

ActaRcgU, that the agreement for the restoring the cautionary Coke Vol. towns, was thought strange by the principal persons in I. p. 51. the French council, and particularly by Monf. Villeroy, Howcll's wno was Qf 0pinjonj u tnat no consideration of utility

16. Lo'tid'. "ought to have made his majesty quit so great an in1715, gvo. *• terest as he had, for the retaining that people, by M that means, in devotion to him; alledging for ex"ample that they here, without any (uchgages, do dis*' burse yearly unto the States, the sum of 200,000 "crowns, besides the absolute remittal of twelve or thir•* teen millions of livres, which they had disbursed for '' them in the last wars,, only to draw that people to a "like dependence on this state, as they do on his ma"jefiy. Adding also thereunto, that his majesty having "ordinarily a greater power over the affections of that "people, by the more natural love which they bare un"to him, than they here can promise themselves, but "only in respect of the present great faction, which "they have made by the means of Monf. Barnevelt; it "seemeth, by the course which we have now taken, that "we absolutely quit the advantage tothem. SirThomas "then adds, that those who be his majesty's zealous '* servants, are sorry to fee such a divorce, as they in"terpret it, between his majesty and that people: and "after mentioning the negotiation for a match with (c) Birch's "Spain, he concludes with faying, I am sorry, that cur of Sir Tho.' " »«#"'" (>f that be the cause) Jhould carry us to these

Edmondes, "extremities." (c) Coke, and Bur net in speaking

p. 396. of this affair are guilty of a great mistake. The former Vol. i. p. Opposes it was contrary to the seventh article of the 53. peace made with the Spaniards in the year 1604: (d)

And

on her troops in their service, for comparatively a trifling sum; and thereby lost the

dependence

And the other fays, that James, after his coming to the crown of England, had entered into secret treaties with Spain, in order to the forcing the States to a peace; one article of which was, that if they were obstinate, he would deliver these places to the Spaniards. (<•) But in (e) Barnet, fact there is just nothing at all in this. The Spaniards,Vo1- •• m making the treaty in 1604, insisted on having thep' 17' cautionary towns delivered up to them, upon payment of the moneys due from Holland. This was stiffly denied. Whereupon fays secretary Cecyll, in a letter to Mr. Win-wood, dated June 13, 1604, "They are de-' "scended to content themselves with some modification, "which we have delivered in form of an article, "(which may be seen in Coke;) wherein, as we do for* "bear (at their motion) to express that his majesty "meaneth not to deliver the said cautionaries, to any "other but the states united, so if the modification be "well examined, you see it cannot any wise prejudice "either his majesty in honor, or the States in their "interest in the towns; for as long as. the election of "good and reasonable conditions for the States pacifica"tion, is referred to his majesty's judgment, there can "arise no inconveniency of it; it being always in his "majesty's hands, to allow or difallow of that, which "shall not be agreeable to the concurrency of his affairs "with the united provinces." (f) Thus speaks lord(rtw;nCecyll who had the chief hand in this treaty; and wood. Vol, upon a caresul perufal of the article reserred to, I am u- ?• 23persuaded he is right; and consequently the above-cited historians, as I faid, are greatly mistaken.

The following remark was communicated to me by the reverend Dr. Birch. The account given by Burner, vol. I. p. 15. Rapin, &c. of Barnevelt's coming over to England to negotiate the purchase of the cautionary towns from king James I. in 1616, is absolutely false; $s I cannot find the least trace of it in a series of M. S. M 3 Jetters,

dependence those provinces before had on the English crown. Nor did the cruelties exercised

letters, which I have read between Sir Dudley Carleton, who went over ambassador to Holland, in March 1615-16, and the two secretaries of state, Sir Ralph Winwood, and Sir Thomas Lake. The former, Sir Ralph Winwood, in his letters from Whitehall to the embasr fador, of the 10th of April 1616, mentions, that the lords had delivered their resolutions to the king, that it was more for his majesty's service upon honourable conditions, to render up the towns, than still to retain .them; and that his majesty had taken some days to advise of it. Sir Dudley Carleton in his letter to Sir Rich, Winwood from the Hague, of May 3d, complains, that a matter of that great consequence (tho' '' it had, fays "he, the beginning, before my coming hither, yet f' since my arrival, hath had some subject of further "treaty) is altogether managed by the minister of this *' state, (Sir Noel Caron) resident with his majesty, "without my having any hand therein." The king's pommission to the lords to treat with Sir Noel Caron concerning the surrender of the cautionary towns, is dated May 21, 1616, and that to Sir Horace Vere, to deliver up the Brill, on (he 22d.—Sir R. Winwood, in a letter to Sir Dudley, from Greenwich, on the 23d of May, gives him a particular relation of the proceedings in this treaty, that some years before, during his, employment in Holland, Sir Noel Caron, in the name of his superiors, made an overture to the king for the reddition of these towns, upon seasonable and honest composition; which being not hearkened unto, it lay asleep, yntil the month of December, 1615, at which time, Sir Noel being newly returned from his superiors, re-r vived that motion with earnest instance, and for that purpose expressly demanded audience of his majesty. It happened at the self-fame time, that the governor of thesfi towns delivered to Sir Ralph Winwood, to be exhibited tp the lords, a complaint, that the garrison had not

received

cised by the Dutch on the Englijh, at Amboyna, [000] and the depriving them of their

share

received their pay for many weeks: the danger whereof the lords taking into their consideration, the question was moved by a great counsellor of eminent place, whether it were not better for his majesty's service to render these towns, than still to hold them at so great a charge. Report being made to the king at the rising of the lords, that this question had been moved in council, he ac-? quainted them with the instance of Sir Noel, and then, gave them charge to advise and consult thereof, to deliver to him their judgment and resolutions; with which he, after the deliberations of 10 or 12 days, con» purred for the sale of the towns.

This account is absolutely inconsistent with the supposition of Barnevelt's journey to England, on the affair of the purchase.

Sir Thomas Lake mentions the result of the treaty, in a letter to Sir Dudley, from Greenwich, of the 28th of May, in these words:

"We have now determined of the return of the cau<"tionary towns, a matter vulgarly ill taken here, and "with many of the best. But necessity is of the coun"cil. I think your lordship will hear of it by those *' that have more hand in it than I."

[000] The cruelties exercised by the Dutch on the English at Amboyna, &c] Amboyna is an island in the East-Indies, and is the principal place where nutmegs, mace, cinnamon, cloves and (pice grow. In the year 1619, a treaty was concluded between James and the Dutch, with regard to the trade of the East-Indies, in consequence whereof, the English enjoyed part of the spice trade, and greatly enriched themselves. This made them envied by the Dutch, who were determined, if possible, to deprive them of the advantages they reap* -:

ed. A plot therefore was pretended, in which the English, with the assistance of a sew Jafonese soldiery, M 4 were

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