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to treat with them, and thereby rendered the affairs of the unfortunate Frederick his sonin-law desperate and deplorable. / Nor was his conduct better in other affairs. He tamely suffered the British flag [mmm] to be affronted, and his merchants ships to be

taken

"peror and the king of Spain, that every thing (hould

"be done as the ambassador had proposed. This was

"the reason he was more and more intoxicated with

"the notion that the best way to fave the Palatinate,

"was to live in a good understanding with the court of

(x)Wel- "Vienna, and Madrid." (*) In short, such was the

»o?rs8p!e" management of Gondomor in this affair, and such the

*g.' weakness of James, that in a letter to the duke of

Lerma, we find the ambassador boasting, " that he

"had lulled king James so fast afleep, that he hoped

"neither the cries of his daughter nor her children, nor

"the repeated solicitations of his parliament and sub

"jects in their behalf should be able to awaken

(j) Acta "him." (j)

Regia, p. j sljaH only add that the Palatine family remained in **** exile till the year 1648, when, by the treaty of Munjiert

they were restored to the best part of their dominions, without having received any considerable helps from the royal house to which they were so nearly allied, during all their misfortunes.

[mmm]. He tamely suffered the British flag to be affronted, &c] Let us hear Weldon. "The earl of "Hertford, who was sent ambassador to the arch duke, *' was conveyed over in one of the king's ships, by Sir "William Monfon. In whose passage a Dutch man of "war coming by that ship, would not vaile, as the "manner was, acknowledging by that our sovereignty "over the sea. Sir William Monfon gavehim a shot to "instruct him in manners; but instead of learning, he "taught bim by returning another, he acknowledged

"no

taken by the Dutch, when trading to the ports

of

"no such sovereignty. This was the very first indig"nity and affront ever offered to the royal ships of "England, which since have been most frequent. Sir "William Monson desired my lord of Hertford to go "into the hold, and he would instruct him by stripes "that resused to be taught by fair means: but the earl "charged him on his allegiance first to land him, on •' whom he was appointed to attend. So to his great "regret, he was forced to endure that indignity; for "which I have often heard him wish he had been hang** ed, rather than live that unfortunate commander of '• a king's (hip, to be chronicled for the first that ever *' endured that affront, although it was not in his power

** to have helped it." (a) -But, fays an admirable (*)We'

writer, speaking of this affair, " two things are cer- 0fnk]ncg°urt "tain; one that queen Elizabeth would have severely james,p.4$, "punished her officer, and have exacted ample repa"ration from the states-general; the ether, that king "James did neither. This commonwealth had been "raised by queen Elizabeth, and was still in want of "the support of England. The sovereignty of her state "had not been yet acknowledged by any of the "powers "of Europe. How much the pacific temper of James "was capable of bearing, had not yet become so ap"parent as he made it in the course of his reign. "From all which it is easy to collect that if he had de*' manded fatisfaction, he must and would have receiv"ed it. But the good prince was afraid, where no sear *• was, and bore dishonourably what he might have "resented fasely; nay, what he ought to have resent'* ed in any circumstances, and at any hazard. We "are not to wonder if so poor a conduct as this, soon "brought king James into contempt, mingled with . "indignation, amongst a people eagerly bent on com"merce, and in whom high notions of honour and a^joid"gallant spirit had been insused, by the example of castle's re«* queen Elizabeth, and encouraged during the whole ^fl0krS0onflha «' course of a long reign." {b) Engiana,

Tho' p. iv

of Spain or Flanders, though the1r own, at the*

fame

Tho' what I have' related from Weldon is probably true, yet 'tis but justice due to the reader to inform him, that Sir William Monsan himself, in his naval trafts, fays nothing of striking or not striking the flag j but confesses that an affront was offered by two Dutch men of war. He adds, that he sent for the captains aboard his ship; that he threatned to right himself upon them; but that he dismissed them at the entreaty of my lord Hertford, on their excusing themselves, and promising to punish the offenders. How severely these offenders were punished, may be collected from hence. One of these captains, fays Sir William Monfbn, was he, who since that time committed a foul murder upon his majesty's (t)Old- subjects in Ireland, that were under protection." (c)-^ castle's re- But for the honor of the English nation let it beobserm"k-' 1' ved, that till the disposition of James was known by his „Je.1 subjects, the commanders of our ships acted very difserently. For on his accession to the throne, " the "duke of Sully being chosen by Henry the Great of "France, for an extraordinary embassy into England, "embarked at Calais in a French ship, with the French "flag on the main top-mast; but no sooner was he in "the channel, than meeting with a yatch which came "to receive him, the commander of it commanded the "French ship to strike. The duke thinking his qua"lity would secure him from such an affront, resused it "boldly; but his resufal being answered with three can"non, shot with bullets, which piercing his ship, pierced "the heart of the French, force constrained him to do, "what reason ought to have secured him from, and "whatever complaints he could make, he could get {A Card;. "no other reason from the English captain, than that as aal Rich- "his duty obliged him to honor his quality ofambassador* lieu's poli- "it obliged him also to compel others to pay that respect and testa- "to his master'silag, which was due to the sovereign of ment, part "the sea." (d) Thus speaks the famous cardinal *d'Tii*ii R*cM'eu 5 and Sully himself, though he tells the story jj°'5< n ' somewhat differently, owns that the English commander

same time, did it with impunity, arid he contented himself with remonstrating, when he ought to have required in a proper manner

der fired on the French, and obliged him to take dowit his flag, (e) 'Tis pity the name of this English captain (e) Suiy» has not been handed down to posterity.——I have faid maaqirti in the text that James suffered nbt only the British flag X.°ll|;7p8'» to be affronted, but his merchants ships to be taken byrissurpri. the Dutch, when trading to the ports of Spain or Flan- zins *« . ders. In order to understand this, 'tis necessary to ob-^jj'b" serve, that tho' James had made a peace with the Spa- been oveu niards, the warwas continued several years after between]ook^Lby them and the Hollanders. Such therefore of the Eng- °TMns and* lish ships as were found carrying goods to the Spaniards even by and trading with them, were frequently seized under a |>.urcllrt' 5rt pretence of their being contraband; when they them-historyi. selves connived at their own subjects doing the fame; and consequently were guilty of the greatest insults. Here follow some of my authorities. Lord Cranborne [Cecyle] in a letter to Mr. Wmwood, dated Oct. 23, 1604, tells him, " we are credibly informed) that the "States have not only sent new orders to their men of "war on the coast of Flanders, to impeach our trade "to the arch-dukes ports by all means possible, but also "to burn all such (hips as they shall take of foreign "princes. And withal are advertised, that many "of their own people are daily resorting (under colour "of private licences) to the said ports with all kind of "victuals and commodities. And that these be no vain "reports, their daily practice maketh demonstration j "for on Monday last was seven-night, five of their "ship?, laden with wine and falt, were seen peaceably to '* go into Newport, their men of war riding before the "harbour; and since likewise, his majesty's admiral "of the narrow seas, being upon occasion of service "upon the coast of Flanders, did see two Ulijftngers put ** into O/lend, in sight of four of their men of war, *' who never offered them violence. Besides, there '• are fifteen small fly-boats and pinks of Holland laden M "with

ner satisfaction. But notwithstanding this treatment, he delivered up to them the cautionary towns, [nnn] which they had deposited

"with fish-, gone this last spring-tide from Yarmouth .. , "towards Newport, with private licences as they gave (./) win- *' out from the admiralty there." (/) And it appears wood, Vol. from a variety of other letters of the fame secretary to • p- 34- Winiuood ambassador in Holland, that the Dutch ships never made any scruple of violating the neutrality of our ports, and treating even the English after such a manner W>It)- Z17- as produced complaints infinite and unsupportable. (g) But all these things James bore with patience. He contented himself with remonstrating, and the Dutch understanding his humour, went on pillaging his subsi-) Id.p.31 jects, often times their utter undoing, (h) To such a contemptible pass was this nation brought, in a short time, by the cowardice and pusillanimity of its sovereign!

[nnn] He delivered up to them the cautionary towns, &c] In the year 1585, the States of the Netherlands were so greatly distressed by the Spaniards, that they renewed the applications they had formerly made to Elizabeth, to accept of the government of the United Provinces, and take them into her protection. The queen heard their deputies with favour, but at first refused both their protection and government. But Antwerp being taken by the prince of Parma-, she soon afterwards, by the advice of her councilr determined to assist them upon condition, among other things, that Flujhing and the castle of Rammekms in fValkerin, and the Isle of Brill, with the city and two forts-, shoutd be delivered into the queen's hands, for caution to pay back the money which she should expend on her forces, with which she might assist them daring the war. It was moreover stipulated that the faid places, after.the money was repaid, should be restored again to theestates, and not delivered to the Spaniards, or any •other enemy whatsoever* And also that the governorgeneral,

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