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the ill treatment they received. But James's


the merchants effects, and sending the mariners whom

he took, in the Indies to the gallies; Lerma very sharply

answered, " that Firardo (hall be called to account for

(<flWin- et tnat ne (jid not instantly execute them." (d) In

u.°e'.Z°i' sllort' such was the il1-treatment the subjects of the Britifli Crown received from the Spaniards, that Sir Henry Nevite, in a letter to Mr. Winwood, dated June 4, 1606, writes, "that upon Sunday last divers mer"chants and merchants wives were at the court, and "made grievous complaint unto the king, the one of "their servants, and the other of their husbands, im"prisoned and put to the gallies in Spain, and of much "injustice and oppression done there to our nation; be*; sides some particular contumely to theking personally; ''the like complaint was made before to the lords. I "hear it hath moved much, and this I will assure you, "that the kingdom generally wishes this peace broken, "but Jacobus Pacicfius I believe will scarce incline to . "that side." (1?) At length the patience of the mer

aiy, chants began to fail. They faw no relief from James,

and therefore applied to the house of commons, to be a means for them to obtain letters of mart. The commons received favourably their address, and desired the assistance of the upper house. But this was resused. Tho' this gave occasion, fays lord Salisbury, in a letter to Sir Charles Cornwallis, dated July 15, 1607, " to "the lords of the council yesterday, to call the mer"chants before them, and to acquaint them with the "substance of these answers sent from Spain; and to "advise them (if they find such a general ill ufage in "Spain as they complain of) to be more moderate in "their trade thither, and to withdraw their stock and "factors from thence5 that so his majesty might grant "them letters of reprisal, without prejudice to others "that have large stocks there. Otherwise it would "prove a most preposterous course, 10 grant letters of "Marte, where the king of Spayne hath so great occa"sion to revenge himself upon, and we scarse a ship or

'' mao

pacific disposition continued; nor could the


"man to requite him in it." (f) But letters of Mart(f )*'*"• and reprisal were never granted; tho' the Spaniards con- Ir< ' g_' tinued to treat the Englijh extreamly ill, even when they pretended great friendship. For Sir Walter Raleigh speaks of it as a known fact, in a letter to king James himself, " that the Spaniards murthered twenty-six Eng"lishmen, tying them back to back, and then cutting "their throats, when they had traded with them a whole "month, and came to them on the land, without so '' much as one sword." (g)—Surely the Spaniards must (?) Ralrigh't have had a very great reliance on the pacific disposition of ji°rp.S',76.* James, to act after this manner, in their circumstances! and most amazing is jt, £hat the national spirit had not exerted itself, in its own desence, more than it did.— Before I leave this subject, I cannot help remarking that almost all our treaties with Spain, seem to have been but badly observed by her. This first arose from the negligence of James, in making the peace. He tontented himself with concluding a treaty of amity, and mutual trade to each others dominions; but trade and commerce being denied to the east and west Indies, and the Spaniards looking on all America as their own, it came to pass that they seized all vessels they found in those seas, though going only to those colonies which were indisputably discovered by the Englijh. So that there was a continual war there, when there was peace in Europe. In 1668, and 1671, treaties were again made with that nation, whereby the right of commerce and navigation, and the bounds of the several territories possessed by the two crowns in America, were fixed. But these treaties were but ill observed likewise; and («s«tfi« great complaints were made by the English, of the hard- represcntashipsthey suffered from the Spaniards, (h) In 1713, a new t!onofthe treaty was made at Utrecht. But this was observed tr°"g t° the others. Complaints soon followed it; as they George I. in did that made at Seville, in 1729. The representation Torbuek't Of our merchants with regard to their ill-treatment hyp"j*^"°"' the Spanish guarda cojlas; the imprisonment of our Vol. ix.' L 3 brave p-414»

distresses of his only daughter, and her numerous progeny, excite him to enter into a \var[LL^J for their defence: But he suffered


brave failors to the number of seventy; the cutting off Jenkins's ear, and many other things still fresh in memory brought on the late war, which was ended by the peace at Aix la Chappille, the effect of which must be

left to time to discover. What can be the reason

that our treaties with Spain have been thus ineffectual for the maintenance of peace and friendship? Are they more false than others, or we more incroaching in order to obtain those riches they so carefully guard from us? are not the treaties sufficiently plain and explicit? do, they admit of different senses, and bear divers constructions ? or have we not capacity sufficient to negotiate ad-vantageoufly with them ?—These things must he determined by those who have opportunities and abilities sof their discussion. For my own part, I must fay

(i) Vir. E ^on nostrum tantas componere Utes. (/)

3.1.198. *Tis not in me this contest to decide. Trapp.

f Lll] Nor could the distresses of his only daughter,

and her numerous progeny, excite him to enter into a

war. &c] This his daughter was Elizabeth, married

to Frederick the fifth, elector Palatine, Feb. 14, 1613,

f*)Win- N. S. to the great joy of all true protestants, (a) The

vnod,Vol. rnarriage was celebrated with great pomp, and the

•?• 454- prince gained the love and good -will of the English by

(*) Id. p. Jjis affability and great generosity, (i) The Spanish

**** ambassador, and the ambassador from the arch-dukes,

were not present at the marriage, being greatly enraged

at it, " searing indeed thereby," fays Mr. Trumbull to

'f Sir Ralph Wi»wood, that we do aim at wresting the

'' empire out of the Aus»rians hands, which they fay

"frra'1 never be effected, so long as the conjoined forces

"of all thec2tholiques in Christendom, shall be able to

'• maintain them in that right, which now they have

t' in

them to lose their territories, and be exiles in

a fo

"in a manner gotten by prescription*." (c) But they (<) u. p. had no reason for this their sear, for James so far from thinking to wrest the empire out of the Austrians hands, 'did not so much as seriously resolve to support his own daughter, and her children, in their possessions.—I need not enter into a detail of the reasons which induced the Bohemians to (hake off the Austrian yoke, and assert their own just privileges by electing Frederick for their king, Aug. 28,1619. Our historians will fatisfy the curiosity of such as want information in this matter. Let it suffice to fay, that aster the elector of Saxony, and the duke of Savoy,hzd resused the kingdom of Bohemia, Frederick accepted of it, without waiting the advice of James, his father-in-law, which, by his ambassador, he had asked,W^*^ (d) In consequence of this he was crowned king of Bo- £°p ,'2. °' hernia, and at first met with great success. For Silesia, Moravia, Lusatia, and Austria had taken up arms against the emperor Ferdinand; as did likewise Bethlem Gabor, a prince of great credit at the Ottoman porte, valiant, courageous, and already master of the greatest part of Hungary.—But his success did not last long. On November 8, 1620, was the battle of Prague fought, which proved fatal to Frederick, and his brave Bohemians. His army was scattered and routed; himself and queen obliged to fly with precipitation from that country ; and his people were subjected to all the insults and cruelties, of an enraged conqueror, and a bigotted prince; and withal he was censured for having engaged in an affair, without probability of success, the consequence of which was like to be fatal to him. 4frt this censure seems to have been ill founded. Things turned out very different from what might have been reasonably expected, and therefore though the elector Palatine was unfortunate, he was not to be deemed unwise.

"For who could have believed that the protestants of

"Germany would have abandoned him, they who

"' under the name of correspondents had engaged from

"the year 1609, to maintain liberty and the protestant

L 4 "religion

a foreign land, to the great amazement of


f' religion in the empire? They who believed that the *' emperor was an enemy to both? They, in short, *' who having been consulted by Frederick, their chief, f' in the assembly held at Rottenburgh, Septem. J2, f' 1619, answered that he ought to accept the crown or f' Bohemia, not only as being a new dignity, but also *c as what was necesfary for the public good of Germany, "and that of their allies, and advised him to set out *" immediately for Bohemia? Who could have believed '' that France, which in those times exclaimed so loudr f ly against princes that are too powersul, and solicited f' all Europe to make leagues against the house of Austria, "would neglect so favourable an opportunity of weakenf ing it? who would have believed that France would '* side yvith Ferdinand, against those who aimed at de'* priving him of a part of his power? who could have "believed that Bethlem Gabor, after such fortunate be•' ginnings, after all the reputation he had acquired, "and all the interest he had with the Turk, would be (' of no service to the Palatine? Let us therefore fay, "that Frederick was deceived by a train of events so "singular, that the most refined prudence could never f have suspected it. Let us not believe those who pref tend that the vanity of the duke of Bovil/on, his un,* cle, joined with that of the electress, threw him into *' an imprudent undertaking. They fay, that the duke "wrote to his friends at Paiis, that while the king of "France was making knights at Fountainbleau, he was "making kings in Genfrfw, Jie might have faid so; "but as he was one eCssS^aWfest men of his age, it is hifloHcal * "not Probable that he would have advised his nephew to discourse' on " accept a crown, if he ought in prudence to have re^.eiise of cc su(ed -t.» [ey But ]e?: us return to our history.——

Ado'iphus J*!o sooner had Frederick lost the battle of Prague, and atthcend v.'iih it the kingdom of Bohemia, but almost all his allies pf the last forsook him. He now found himself proscribed by the bisdictiot emperor, attacked by the Spaniards in his own country fi"yjp. 678. the Palatinate, and had at length the misfortune ter


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