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most desperate affairs, and of pushing on the


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"ship's exceeding wisdom, your lordship out of your true noble disposition, hath ever equalled the care of the faftie and honor of your countrie with your own lise. I verily persuade myself that the king's own christian and earnest inclination to peace,

"lead on the treaty with speedy seet. 'But by

"those collections that I have made, and relations of "others well practised in this state, I find that England "never lost such an opportunity of winning honor and "wealth unto it, as by relinquishing the war with Spain. "The king and kingdom were reduced to such an es*' tate, as they could not in all likelihood have endured "the space of two years more ; his own treasurie was "exhausted, his rents and cuiioms snjigned for the most "part for the payment of money borrowed, his nobi"lity poor and much indebted, his merchants wasted, "his people of the countrie in all extremitie of necessity, his devices of gaining by the increase of the valuation of money, and other such of that nature, v all plaid over; his credit in borrowing, by means of "the incertaintie of his estate during the war with, "England much decayed, the subjects of his many "distracted dominions held in obedience by force and "seare, not by love and dutie; and therefore rather a "care and burthen, than a relief and strength to him. "Himself very young, and^in that regard with his "people in no great veneration; and the less for sufsering himself to be wholly governed by a man generally hated of his own country; his strength at sea not able to secure his ports at home, much less his Indies, or his treasure homewards (g)" This is fe) Winrather a stronger picture of the deplorable st^te of Spain TMooi' VoU than Sir Walter Raleigh's, and from it, it clearly appears ,p' that we needed not have been afraid to have insisted on almost any thing from it; and consequently much less have submitted to a deprivation of the Indian trade arid to the inquisition. Butyœmes's earnest inclination


war with the Dutch, against whom the^


for peace, and the king-of Spain's money procured this treaty: for money was distributed in abundance among the English courtiers who promoted the peace, as appears not only from what is asserted by Sir Charles! Cornwallis in the above letter, but from other Unquestionable authorities. In the memoirs of Sully we read, '' That no sooner was the Spanish ambassador arrived "in London, than he multiplied the number of his »* creatures, by his extraordinary liberalities to all those (A)Sully's '' whom he considered as necessary to be gained (h)." memorials, And Sir Henry Neville in a letter to Mr. Winwood, daVoL II. p. ted Aug<; J9^ l6o4 writeS, it. We fay the Spanish am

"bassadors have taken up many jewels here (we sup"pose to bestow upon our grandees; so not to leave "any advantage to the French, who began thar ang*' ling fashion unto them) with the king's privity and

(OWin- "all men's wonder (/')." And after the peace was

rr"!'^0'* maae* the earl of Nottingham, lord admiral, ambassador extraordinary into Spain, had bestowed on him at his departure, in plate, jewels and horses, to the value of twenty thoufand pounds, by that king. And to some other of his principal attendants were given chains (h) Win- andjewels of great value (k). And it appears from Sir J°.0f'%g°' Charles Cornwallis's letter to the earl of Salisbury, out and Birch's of Spain, that there were many pensions given in the »egotia- Court of England (i). OJbirn, therefore, seems to have (ma,pp2q6.reason for faying, "that James cast himself as it were •• blindfold into a peace with Spain, far more destruc"tive to England than a war; for it hath not only "found that prince an opportunity to recover his «' strength (much abated by the queen's happy successes •* at sea) but gave him a fair advantage to establish "himself in the kingdom of Portugal, and quiet the "distempers of his own people. And as this peace, "adds he, was of infinite consequence to the Spaniard, "so he spared for no cost to procure it: and to prevent "the inserting any article that might obstruct his re


<4vere, in a manner, implacable, on account
Jbf their revolt for religion and liberty. But \


*k course to or from the Indies (the rhagazihe of strise) "either on this side Or beyond the line (thought by the c* Englijh commissioners not Included, however the con'c trary was after pretended, and no farther disputed by "King James, than with patience' and a quiet submi'f'' sion of his subjects to their sense, not rarely punish"ingsuch as transgrest, at their coming home) he pre"sented all, both Scotijh and Englijb with gifts, and "those no small ones; for by that the earl of Norihamp'c ton, brother to Suffolk, had, he was alone able to "raise and finish the goodly pile he built in the strand.— *' Nor are there a sew others no less brave houses fresh "iil my memory, that had their foundations, if not *• their walls and roofs, plastered with the fame mortar. ~ ,c This I shall add as no improbable conjecture made by "many in those days, that his catholic majesty was so '' frighted by the apprehension of a possibility that our *' kingi according to the nature, no less than the obli"gation of his country^ might fall into a conjunction "with France, that he would scarce atthat time have de"nied him any thing, to the half of his Indies. And from "hence all princes may calculate the vast difference that '* lies between a council suborned, and one free *c from corruption." (a) This last reflection, appears M°^0rn'8 to me very judicious. "A gift blindeth the wise, and4?0"perverteth the words of the righteous,'' fays the great Hebrew legislator (b). No prince can ever be fase (*) Exod. who permits his counsellors to take presents from foreign 28princes. For their judgments will be biassed, their afiections be engaged, and they be disposed to serve others, more than their own master; so that of the utmost consequence is it to have ministers depend wholly on their prince,if they receive presents from others, they must earn them ; by giving counsel suitable to the instructions they receive, or by divulging those resolutions which ought most of all to be concealed. They must be spies L to

notwithstanding, the articles of the peace were but poorly observed by them, [kikk] and produced not the effect expected in point



to those who bribe them, and unfaithsul to their master by whom they are intrusted. So that 'tis amazing that James should consent to his grandees receiving the Spanijh presents; for a moment's reflection would have set before him the pernicious consequences of it. The prince who would preserve his reputation, and accomplish his ends, should keep his councils secret. He should have a strict eye on the ambassadors sent to him, that they gain not the weak by their address, the proud by their fawning, or the interested by their bounty. For nothing is more certain than that by flattery, cunning and seduction, they endeavour to delude ministers into a discovery of the secrets of state. In short, as a great writer expresses it, " they do all the mischief they '* can j their prosession allows them to transgress j they "sin out of duty, and are sure of impunity: 'tis against 4* the wiles of those spies that princes ought to be chiefly (*•) Anti- "on their guard (c)."


t. Ji6. [kkk] The articles of the peace were but poorly ob

served by them, &c] My authorities for this will not be disputed. Sir Henry Neville, in a letter to Mr. Winwood., dated London, December 8, 1604, writes, "It "is commonly reported that our merchants are ill-used "in Spain by the inquisition ; and besides that, that the "trade proves nothing so beneficial as was expected; "partly by reason that the merchants there are become "poor by these wars, and not able to buy but upon days, "and many of those that have been trusted, have play"ed bankrupts, insomuch as some of ours have brought "back their commodities, rather than they would sell "upon credit; and partly, by reason, that in this time "of long restraint of trade, they have been forced to "betake themselves to the making of cloth there, and .*' do make it now in that quantity, as they care not


bf profit, by the English, to whom the peace soon became very disagreeable, by reason of


"much for ours, which was wont to be our chiesest

"trade thither. And as for corn, the French, both by •

"reason of their nearness and abundance, will ever sur

"nish them better cheap than we can. So as there ap

*c pears little hope of any fruit of our peace in that re

"gard; which joined with some other confiderations

"of state, that have reserence to your affairs there*

"[Holland] begins to cool that ardent affection which

"carried us so strongly to that treaty, and begets some

"discourses, (even amongst our greatest governors)

"that this will be but a short peace." (a) (<*) win

And Sir Charles Cornwallis in a letter to the earl of J£°^ TM* Salifiury, dated Valludolid, October 18, 1605. O. S. an'dPCaba'u, tells him, '* the Spaniards had made a general stay of p. 199. "justice to all or any of the king his matters subjects." (b) And the fame gentleman, in a letter written from (I) winMadrid, in May 1606, tells lord Salisbury also, "that]^;TM; "'tis written to him from Seviil, that Doit Lewis Firar." do, in his voyage, met with certain ships-from Eng"land, loaden with corn and bound to Seviil. That he "first took the masters, and first set their necks in the "stocks; after removed them to the Admiral, and "there with his own hands did as much to their leggs; "revileing them, and calling them heretiques, Luthe"ran dogs and enemies of Christ, threatning to hang "them; and in conclusion having taken from them "what he thought fit, returned them into their own "ships. Besides the cruelty he shewed to those of Mr* "Edward's ship in the Indies, he holdeth still in the "gallies all the marriners of Mr. Halss and Mr. El"driers ships, also those of Mr. Bromley." (c) Tbefry^P^ letters of Sir Charles are full of the wrongs the English fo(JalMbf received, and the endeavours he used in order to get fa-p. 201. tisfaction, tho'. many times in vain. When he complained to the duke of Lerma, prime minister of Spain, of the behaviour of Firardo with regard to confiscating L 2 the

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