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good subjects, and overcoming his adversaries in literary contests! but he had an absolute aversion to war (hhh). This led him

hastily

(i) Jame&u ;n his works (b)', an epitaph on the chancellor of Scotw.,rk»,P. jand, in Spot/wood (c); and another on that valiant, po(o'cii.hiS. lite, and learned gentleman, Sir Philip Sydney, in ColP-4"» lier's dictionary. This latter, being but short, I will give to the reader;, as a specimen of James's poetry.

When Venus faw the noble Sidney dying,
She thought it her beloved Mars had been;

And with the thought thereof she sell a crying,
And cast away her rings and carknets clean.

He that in death a goddess mock'd and griev'd,
(J) Great What had he done (trow you) if he had lived Id).

historical \. J J \ I

dictionary,

article Sid- This, I think, is one of the best of his poetical com£''..! s position?. The reader, a*fter this, nqed not be told that p 'James's talents for poetry were not extraordinary. Besides the pieces of poetry I have mentioned, I am informed by the very worthy and learned Dr. Birch, that there is extant in James's name, another intitled, "His majesty's lepanto, or heroical story, being part *' of his poetical exercises at vacant hours, London, '5 1603. in 4to." A fight of this, perhaps, might afford some diversion. This book being burnt among those of the honourable Charles York, Wfq; at Lincoln's Inn in the late fire there, Mr. Birch Could give no surther account of it.

(hhh) He had an absolute aversion to war.] "I "know not by what fortune the difion of Pacificist "was added to my title, at my coming into L"ng* rt land: that of the lyon expressing true fortitude, hav"ing been my dicton before: but I am not ashamed "of this addition; for king Solomon was a figure of "Christ in that, that he was a king of peace. The 'c greatest gift that our Saviour gave his apostles, imme. "diately

hastily to conclude a peace with Spain

(hi), to

"diately before his ascension, was, that he left his ** peace with thtm; he himself having prayed for his "persecutors, and forgiven his own death, as the pros' verb is (a)." in the first audience the duke of fa) King

Sully had of James, he told him, " that if he had-J"'""'5 "found the EngliJI) at war with the French, his endea- 5q0,' "vours would, nevertheless, have been to live in peace "with a prince, [Henry the fourth] who, like himself, "had been called from the crown of Navarre to that "of France: it being always commendable, faid he, "to overcome evil with good (b)" These are good W Sul)y*» sentiments enough for private persons; but they may v^i'l"^ be carried much too far by princes. Forgiveness and 45. impunity from these only draw on fresh injuries; and he who will not at any time avenge wrongs received, wiil be sure to meet with enough of them. Princes owe protection to their subjects; but this cannot be afforded many times, unless chastisement be inflicted on those who injure them. Wars therefore are sometimes necessary; and a warlike prince will be always reipectablc to his neighbours. But the known coward will be looked on with contempt. He will be affronted perpetually, and every oppor»unity will be taken to ridicule and oppress him. So that though the iove of peace in prin< es be commendable, yet, when it is carried too far, it degenerates into a fault, and gives just; ground for the subjects complaints. Happy the pc<v'.<j who have a prince who neither loves nor fears to .'aw bis sword! They may be sure of being des 'nded in ti.cirjust: rights, by him; of bein* guarded from unjust invasions, and secured by his valour from the evi:s whicii threaten them. His power will mike him considerable in the eyes of his neighbours ; they will attend to his reasons, and be influenced by his persuasions. For they will not slightly provoke one known not tamely to put up injuries. So that the prosession of fortitude and resolution', of courage and magnanimity, becomes better

(1n), to the amazement and great advantage

of

the mouths of princes, than that of meekness and forgiving of injuries: for the former may, possibly, be of use and service, but the latter can answer no good purpose in the present state of the world.

(in) This led him to conclude a peace with Spain, &c] The peace was concluded Aug. 18, 1604. But before this, in a sew weeks after James came into England,- he revoked the letters of reprifal on the subjects of Spain, which had been granted by Elizabeth, without staying to be solicited on that head, or to be complimented on his accession to the throne, by the king (a) OH- of Spain (a). So that he difarmed his subjects before castle's re- he had provided for their better security. He stopt them *?ar£?stonof in the course of doing themselves justice, before he was England, p. sure of obtaining reparation for their past Josses.——— ajs. and The king of Spain had now reduced himself to a very »dtaregia, jQW cjjjj^ by his wars with England and the Netherlands, in which, for the most part, he had been unsuccessful. The king of Spain, fays Sir Walter Raleigh, in bis discourse touching a war with Spain, written before the conclusion of the peace, and intended to be presented to James. "The king of Spain, fays he, is now *? so poor, as he employed his Jesuits to beg for him at "every church-door in Spain.

"His revenues are mortgaged in such sort, as of "twenty-five millions, he has but five millions free; *' his ships are worn-out and consumed., and his people "in general exceeding poor.

"He hath of late received many affronts and losses; "and in Peru many of the chiesest and best towns are "recovered from him by the natives.

"And commonly, when great monarchies begin . *• once in the least to decline, their dissipation will soon '? follow after.

"The Spanish empire hath been greatly shaken, and 'i hath begun of late years to decline; and it is a prin

"ciplej

of the Spaniards; who thereby had an opportunity

*' ciple in philosophy, that omnis diminutlo ejl preparatia . "ad corruptionem. That the lea/1 delay of any part is a "forerunner of the destruction of the whole.

"And though it may be a while upheld, as the state "of Rome was by Vefpafian and Trajan; yet follow." ing the former declination, retro Jlatim fub-lapfa fer"tur usque dum plane subversa suit. It presently fell "back again, and never left declining till the Roman *c Jlate was utterly overthrown.

"But if now the king of Spain can obtain peace "upon any condition reasonable, so as he may fortify his "weakness, both in Europe and the Indies, and gather "again sufficient riches, putting the English from the . "exercise of war in those parts, and so make us to for"get his Indies, till those be consumed that know "them; he will soon grow to his former greatness and "pride: and then if your majesty (hall leave the low "Countries, and he finds us by ourselves, it will not be "long e'er he remembers his old practices and attempts

"(b)." But no such considerations as these could (£) The

have any influence on James. He had revoked the let- g|"r^fet ters of reprisal,_and a peace he was determined to have. Raieigh»Kt.

You shall now understand (fays lord Cecyll to Mr. political,

Winwood, in a letter dated Ap. 12, 1604.) "that the ""'""'t1,

conitable of Castile is come to Dunkirk, and resolv- phiwi, by t "ed presently to take his passage; so as there is now The Birch, "nothing so certain as a treaty, and in my opinion no- JJ' A\^°1, "thing more likely than a peace. For as it is most gv'o.pLond. ". true, that his majesty's mind is most inclinable there- ,1751. "unto, and that in contemplation thereof, things "have been so carried here, as if a war were now "somewhat unseasonable, so you may see by the king "of Spain's great descent from the heighth of his "forms towards other princes, as he is determined to "go through with it; bein<r now it seems confirmed '' in the French position, qui a le profit a I'honneur. A ''matter I do consess to you I do clearly foresee he will

portunity given them of retrieving their almost

<c have, unless the estates of those poor countries [the "Netherlands] have sorhe more adjuvances towards

{<r)win- "their subsisting (r)." The treaty was ibon con

Ji P ,g°* eluded, of friendship and amity, and mutual trade to

{</)Id.p.M. each others dominions (d) 'Tis very remarkable,

that low as the Spaniards were, depending on James's pacific disposition, they stiffly denied the English free (e)Id.p. a2, trade and commerce with the East and West Indies (e) j and got it inserted in the articles that no aid or assistance whatsoever should be given to the enemies or re-' be!s on either part ; yea moreover they had the English {f)W.p.29- jn Spain subjected to the power of the inquisition (/)• Cecyll indeed faid it were vanity to have expected more than they had concerning the matter of trade to the Indies, and the inquisition. But it does not appear that he had reason for his affirmation. For the Spaniards were in so much want of a peace, that they would have submitted to almost any thing to obtain it; and they themselves were surprized to find that it was made on so advantageous conditions. Sir Charles Cornwallis, in a letter to the fame Cecyll, lord viscount Cranborne, principal secretary to his majesty, from Spain, dated June 2, 1605. has the following remarkable expressions. "I "find here by many arguments that this peace came "opportunely for this kingdom, and is admired of all "Europe, yea of this kingdom itself, how it was pos"sible with so advantageous conditions to them, and so "little profitable to our realm it could be effected. *' The duke of Anera discoursing with one of great "privacie and trust with him, after he had heard that '* the peace was in such forme concluded, faid in plain - " termes, that the king and counsellors of England "had not their senses when in such sort they agreed "upon it. And some Spaniards have lately reported, "that the king of Spain's money purchased this quiet; "otherwise peace, with so good conditions could never ** have been obtained. I know that besides your lord

"shipt's

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