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pameof Anmnius (aaa); and that afterwards


*( Wightman. He is also accused with believing himself "the comforter spoken of in St. John's gospel, and the fl Ellas to come; and that he was sent to perform his "part in the work of the falvation of the world." But for his holding the opinions of Manes, and Manichees, (as with great learning and judgment they are distinguished in the warrant) and Simon Magus, nothing at all appears even from the enumeration of his adverfaries. So that I guessed right, that the inserting of these hard names was to terrify and affright [b). I will insert {!») The a paragraph from the warrant for the execution of Le

connexian, being some

gate, with the reader's leave, which will shew us pretty choice col much the temper of James, and so conclude. "As auctions of "zealot of justice, and a desender of the catholic faith,some pr.incU

.J pal matters

"and willing to desend and maintain the holy church, ;n king •

"and rights and liberties of the fame, and the catholic James's

"faith, and such heresies and errors every where what in re'sTM' *

'' us lieth, to root out and extirpate, and to punish with Lond. 16&1.

"condign punishment such heretics so convicted, and

"deeming that such an heretic in form aforefaid, coh

"victed and condemned according to the laws and

"customs of this our kingdom of England, in this

f' part occasioned, ought to be burned with fire, we

"do command, &c." (c) (*)H.p«79.

(aaa) He falls very foul on the naTie of Arminius.] jfrminiifs was a man of fense; he faw the consequences of the calvinistical doctrines, and set himselsto oppose them; but he did it with candour and modesty. Whether his scheme be in all parts of it desensible, or whether he in any place has run into one extream in order to avoid another, and needlessly made innovations in the received doctrines of the reformed churches, Heave to divines to be considered. 'Tis sufficient here to observe that his doctrine was received by many men of great understandings, and that his manners were irreproachable. His memory therefore ought to have been dear to every good man, and his reputation should have


he contributed much to the condemnation of his followers, by sending his divines to the synod of Dgrt (bbb), where their doctrine

remained unsullied. But James attacked him; he calls him a " seditious aud heretical preaGher, an insector of (a)James's " Leyden with heresy, and an enemy of God (a); works, p. *s anj withal he complains of his hard hap not to hear ?«!3^' '' of him before he was dead, and that all the reforms' ed churches in Germany had with open mouths

(i) Id. ibid. " complained of him (b)." Hard hap indeed! to be

ignorant of the sentiments of a prosessor of divinity, and unable to enter the lists with him; for this pro^ bably he would have done, had he found any thing to have fastened on.'—r-But James's anger against Artninlus soon declined. Though he here branded him for an enemy to God, '' yet having seen the opinion of '• his followers, and their adverfaries, and the argu"ments by which they were suppprted, discussed at f' large, he tells the states general, it did not appear to "him that either of them were inconsistent with the "truth of the christian faith, and the falvation of (e) Abridge-" souls (c)." This letter is dated March 6,1613, and mentof is p]ajnjy contradictory to what I have just cited from hist, of the his writings. But a contradiction was nothing to him. reform*- A man shall be an enemy to God, or the contrary, just tion, Vol. as j,e takes it in his head ; for 'twas a small matter with andWm'. him to accuse, revile, and raik he was a king, and wood, Vol. he expected his word should be taken, though he renIII. p. 452. dered not a reason. However James's fit of good-humour lasted not long, with respect to the followers as Arminius in Holland; they soon again were bad men, held wicked doctrines, and such as were worthy of his care to extirpate, as we shall presently see. He joined with their adverfaries, and contributed to their undo-r ing; so that he had no stability of judgment, qr resq^ lution, but was various as the wind.

L.£ebb) He contributed much to the condemnatiqn of


trine Was rejected, the contrary thereunto


his followers, by sending his divines to the synod of Dort.~\ The end and design of this synod was to condemn the remonstrants; it was called by their prosessed < enemies, and composed of such as were most of all set against them. They took an oath indeed, " that in "examining and deciding, they would use no human "Writing, but only the word of God. And that "during all their discussions, they would aim only at the "gloT of God, the peace of the church, and efp'e"cially the preservation of the purity of doctrine (a)." (*} Abridge But this was no guard ; every thing was determirted ad- mentof cording to their preconceived opinions, and the contra- y0"u' -, ry was judged false and heretical. For 'tis the manner 417, of these assemblies to assume to themselves somewhat more wisdom than the writers of the New Testament ever pretended to. They know better how to express doctrines, how to guard against heresies, how to secure the peace of the church, and above all how to silence and convince gainsayers in the most effectual manner. But, somewhat unluckily,, it has happened out, that where they have once done good, they have ten times done hurt. Where one breach in the church has been made up by them, many have been caused ; and where one heresy, as 'tis called, has been suppressed, numbers have been occasioned by them. So that it would be a very difficult matter to fay what good purpose they have ever answered. To the members of them, indeed, they have been usesul. They have established their reputation for orthodoxy with the unthinking vulgar; given them an opportunity of gratifying their ambition and love of power; and above all of fatiating their revenge on those who have eclipsed their reputation, and hindered them from making the figure they were inclined to. But too fad a truth is it, that they never have promoted peace, unity, and love among christians, or the practice of those other virtues which are so firongly incul


Confirmed, and they themselves stigmatized


(j) See An- cated In the gospel (£). And therefore well were it for drew Mar- the world, if it had an assurance of their never more essay touch- coming into reputation j for the mischiefs they always

ing general cause are innumerable. -No wonder then that the

councils, synod of Dort turned out as it did. It had been a mitad forti^s racle if peace had been the consequence of it.- For preface to his whatever has been the pretence, I believe it hardly ever remarks on was the real end of the meetings of this sort. But let history', VoU us ^ee what hand James had in this synods and how he I. p. 14. contributed to the condemnation of the followers of Jrminius.——The synod began to meet Nov. 13,1618. It consisted of thirty-six ministers of the United Provinces, and five prosessors, together with twenty elders; to these were added twenty-eight foreign divines, among whom were the following sent by James, George Carlettm bishop of Landaff, Joseph Hall dean of Worcester, John Davenant prosessor of divinity and master of queen's college at Cambridge, and Samuel Ward archdeacon of Taunton, head of Sydney college at Cambridge, and sometime after, Walter Balcanqual, a Scotch divine, was added to them, to represent the

(c) Abridg- churches of his country [c). [The ever memorable mentof John Hales also attended the synod, not as a member, H*ndt4o6. but was scnt by Sir Dudley Carleton, the English am

(d) Haies's bassador at Holland, whose chaplain he was, to give golden re- him an account of what passed in the synod (d).~] These mams, p. Jivines sent by James were not as surious in their be

454. OVO. 1 n 1 •

Lond. 1687'haviour towards the remonstrants, as their own countrymen; but they performed the errand for which they were sent* the condemnation of the opinions of Armimus, and establishment of those of Calvin. For this purpose these gentlemen, though one of them a bishop, and most of the other dignified in an episcopal church; these gentlemen, I fay, took on them to handle the controverted points, and to engage against the errors of the Arminians, in^ a.synod made up of mere presbyters, and the president-os which' was only one of the lame character.

ds introductors of novelties, obstinate and


raster (*). They made speeches to overthrow certain W Hales** distinctions framed by the remonstrants, for the main- ^TMains, p* tenance of their positions, and evasion from the contraremonstrants arguments (f). They differed among is) H. p. themselves (g), and sell into heats with some of the fA9Jd other members (h); but they agreed in approving the 470. Belgic consession of faith, and the Heidelberg catechism (*) Id. p-. («'). In short, they dispatched the work intended, and *£ an contributed to the woes which followed soon after upon (/) Abridg

the poor Arminians. 'Tis remarkable also that seven TMentof

years did not suffice to allay the wrath of '"fames against j"" ' °' yorjiius .•' for almost at the conclusion of the synod, his clergy read an extract of that prosessor's errors; they called those errors blasphemies against the nature of God, and faid that the fale of Forjiius's book should be prohibited. Lastly, they demanded that his book de De» should be burned in a solemn manner; and they produced a decree of the university of Cambridge, by virtue of which that book had been burnt publickly (k). ^j u, _r The effect of these representations I have mentioned in-$i4» note (xx). If it be asked why the part the English clergy took in the affairs at Dort, is attributed to James? the answer is, that they themselves owned, that they had been deputed to the synod by the king, and not by the church of England (/). And so intent was he on(/)id.p. the business of the synod, " that he commanded them 5°*» to give him a weekly account of all its memorable passages, with the receipt of which he was highly "pleased (/»)." "Yea, they were instructed at all(«> Fuller'* "times to consult with the English ambassador f Sirchurch hist"Dudley Carkton] who was acquainted with the form-,TM l7' * "of the Low Countries, understood well the questions "and differences amongst them, and from time to time

"received James's princely directions (»)." So that(^) Id. p.7s,

he was properly the actor in this place, and the condemner of the opinions held by the enemy of God (0), (*) See note and his followers. Whoever calls to mind the depriva- (AAA^

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