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in his own name, and sent it to the emperor,


"this opinion no pope can eyer make me to recant, "except they first renounce any farther meddling with "princes, in any thing belonging to their temporal ju(/.) Works, " rifdiction (/)." Returning then to Bellarmine's res' ?l8* ply, he complains loudly of the lies contained in it, and of the ill-manners wherewith it abounds; and after a great deal of heavy stuff about the powder-plot, oath of allegiance, the villany of Garnet, &c. he addresses himself to the,kings and princes, and prays God that he and , they may not suffer the incroaching Babylonian monarch to gain ground upon them. It is very remarkable, that in this answer to Beliarmine, contained in the premonition, "James takes not the least notice of the account given by him of his having formerly written to the pope, and begged a cardinal's hat for one of his subjects, in order that through him he might be the more able to advance his affairs in the 6ourt of Rome. This, I fay, is remarkable, and argues in James acon. viction of the truth of what was alledged against him. Indeed, with no face could he pretend to deny it: for 'cwas well known to his own and foreign ministers, that his ambassador at the French court had frequently solicited it, and thereby had reflected on his honour and (r) Win- judgment (|f); and that he himself had negotiated with wood's me- the pope by means of cardinal Aido-brandini, in order, mortals, as was thought, to his becoming catholic (£). He had 33g.' '' not the face therefore to deny, in a work addressed to (b) Birch's foreigners, a fact which could so easily have been made negotiations, g00j againfl- nim< However, in order to amuse his own subjects, he pretended the letter written to the pope, produced in this controversy, was surreptitiously obtained by lord Balmeriho; and accordingly that lord, (i)SeeCal. following the dire£tion in all things of lord Dunbar (i), ^rwood» p'after having consessed that he himself drew the letter Spotswood without his majesty's knowledge or consent, and got p. i°7. him ignorantly to sign it, had sentence of death passed on him for this his action. No doubt of it, James,


and princes, to whom it was addressed. The prefacer of his majesty's works tells us of the great effects produced by this premonition (xx), but, if we deal impartially, we


thought hereby to have cleared himself in the eyes of his subjects of all correspondence with the pope. "But "when Balmerino was presently pardoned, and, after "a short confinement, restored to his liberty: all men "fays Burnet, believed that the king knew of the let"ter, and that the pretended consession of the secre"tary was only collusion to lay the jealousies of the *' king's favouring popery, which still hung upon him, "notwithstanding his writing on the Revelations, and "his affecting to enter on all occasions into controver"fy, asserting in particular that the pope was an'ti"christ (i)." —So that his artifice wai of no avail, M Burnet,

the covering was too thin; and all who had eyes must Voi-i'P' *• fee that there was but too much truth in what had been faid concerning him. Such are the effects of dissimulation ! whereas honesty, integrity, and fair-dealing, appear openly and above-board, and always on examination are honourable to those by whom they are practised, and generally profitable.

(xx) The prefacer to his majesty's works tells us of the great effects produced by this premonition.] He observes, "that upon the coming forth of that book, "there were no states that difavowed the doctrine of "it in the point of the king's power; and the Vent"tians maintained it in their writings, and put it in "execution; the Sorbens maintained it likewise in "France,"

2dly, " That their own writers that opposed it, so "oyerlashed, as they were corrected and castigated by '• men of their own religion.**

must acknowledge that it met but with a


3*31y, " That his majesty's consession of faith had "been so generally approved, as that it had converted "many of their party; and that had it not been for the "treatise of antichrist, he had been informed many "more would easily have been induced to subscribe to "all in that preface."

4thly, *' That kings and princes had by his majesty's "premonition a more clear insight, and a more per"sect discovery, into the injury offered to them by the '* pope in the point of their temporal power, than eves "they had, insomuch as that point was never so tho"roughly disputed in Christendom, as it had been by *' the occasion of his majesty's book."

Lastly, "That for the point of antichrist, he had "heard many consess, that they never faw so much "light given into it, as they had done by this perfor"mance." So that, adds he, "though controversies "be fitter subjects for scholars ordinarily, than for "kings, yet when there was such a necessity in under"taking, and such a success being performed, I leave "it to the world to judge, whether there was not 3 (a) Preface "special hand in it of God or no («)•"

to James's

works. ^nd I will leave the world to judge of the gross flat

tery, not to fay impiety, of this prelate in talking after this rate. What! must we attribute the squabbles of pedants to God? must his hand be concerned in ushering into the world the dull heavy performance of a king? far be such thoughts from us! when God acts, he acts like himself; all is wise, good, and successsul: nor can we more dishonour him than by calling him in as an encourager or assister of our whims and extravagancies. But this bishop had no sense of propriety; as Jong as he could praise he was fatisfied, let it be in ever

very indifferent reception abroad, especially


so wrong a place; by which his own character suffered, and his master was despised.

'Tis pleafant enough, however, to see such effects attributed to this work of James's. The Venetians, upon the coming out of this book, maintained the doctrine of the supream power of temporals in princes and free states. 'Tis true they did; and they had done it before ever James had put pen to paper,.on this subject;' for the quarrel with the pope, which produced the interdict, arose from thence: now this commenced anno 1606, and James's apology was not printed till the year 1609, and consequently neither it nor the premonition which came after it, could be the cause of their holding this doctrine (b). As to the Sorbonne, ever since the(£)Fathe* extinction of the civil wars in France, they had* taught f'?1'skIlse' . it; nor could be expected any sovereign state would prefixed to * difavow it: so that whatever the bishop might fay, 'tis his treatise certain nothing this way was produced. As for James's "[f^Jj."*1* adverfaries being opposed by men of their own reli-fices,p. 48. gion, 'tis not to be wondered at. There are every 8ro. Lond. where men who love controversy, and therefore that 5?Sfc',.a"

'11 -j- 1 r n J r r Birch S ne»

will oppose, it only for a lhew of their parts and gotiations, learning. How many were converted by his majesty's p-»98« consession of faith I cannot fay, I remember to have read but of one, the archbishop of Spalatto (c); but (,:) FrankI know very well that within a sew years of thisIand'san" controversy, great numbers of the British protestantn '»?•2'• subjects revolted to the Romish communion, none of which, I believe, were induced to return by this performance.- If many were converted by it, why

had they not been pointed out? we know Waddesworth, chaplain to Sir Charles Cornwallis, ambassador in Spain, (d) Winwa& reconciled to the church of Rome, and several ofwool3»Vo1* the faid Sir Charles's kinsmen (d): We know likewise xli'^' that Toby Matthews (afterwards Sir Toby) son to the 295',44i! archbishop of York, went over to it likewise (*); but (0 Cabala, their return is never mentioned, nor are there any con- \J^ ,663.


from most; of the princes and states to whom it was addressed (yy); though there were


versions by means of his majesty's book, except that one I have spoke of, recorded, and which, if true, was of no consequence: for it is well known that Spalatto went off from the protestants, and came to a most unhappy end at Rome: so that the bishop has been very unhappy in his assertions with respect to the consequences of the premonition, and cannot but be put down as an inventor. As to the fourth and last things mentioned as following from this book, I have nothing to fay to them: they are before the reader, and he may view them in what light he pleases.

(yy) It met with but a very indifferent reception

abroad, &c.J Let us hear a zealous hugonot: "This

"work [the apology and premonition prefixed] served

"for no more than to shew the little account the ca

"tholics made of the author. It was not looked upon

"in Spain; 'twas burnt in Florence; the inquisition at

*' Rome put it in the number of prohibited books;

"'twas ill received in France by the catholics, and the

"• king forbad it should be translated or printed. 'Twas

"only at Venice where the reading of it was not pro

'(a) History " hibited (a)." There is some truth in this, tho' the

of the edict account given is not very exact. Let us correct it as well

of Nantes, as we can from Winwooa"* state papers. Lord Salisbury,

4r i! 4'to.' *n a letter to Sir Charles Cornwallis, dated June 8, 1609,

Load. 1694.tells him that" his majesty had thought fit to send his

"book to the Emperor, to the French king, who hath

"received it, and all other christian kings and princes,

"as a matter which jointly concerns their absolute ju

(£) Win- "rifdiction and temporalities [b)." But though it was

wood, Vol. sent to all other christian kings and princes, it. was not

111.p. 51. received by them. The arch-dukes would not accept of

(c)U. p. it (c); and even the state of Venice, "after they had

68. "received the king's books, they did by public ordi

"nance forbid the publishing of the fame} which (fays

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