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piece,, no one doubted but he was the author of it. It remained not long without replies (tt), containing such things as high

their ordinary payments, and bestowing favours and honours equally on them with the protestants. He then formally enters into the discussion of the pope's briefs, and by scripture, fathers, and councils, attempts to consute them. He proceeds to attack Bellarmine; and siiews that he had mistook the oath of supremacy for the oath of allegiance, and on this mistake had proceeded in his letter to Blackwell. . He asserts the oath of allegiance to be confirmed by the authority of antient councils; shews that no decision of any point of religion Is contained in it; that Bellarmine had contradicted his former writings; and that his authorities from the fathers were insufficient. This is the substance of this apology, in which, though there is nothing in it of great merit, we may justly fay James came off conqueror. However, we may remark, that though his favours to the catholics might manisest them guilty of ingratitude towards him, yet could they be no great recommendation of him to his protestant subjects. They (hewed an indifferency with respect to the two religions, which, I suppose, was not so well digested by them. But James was not one of those who foresaw consequences. What made for his present purpose he catched hold of, without reflecting that one day or other it might be made to serve against himself. An imprudence which controvertists frequently are guilty of. The least shadow of an argument they make use of; weaken, or endeavour to invalidate the most important doctrines which at any time stand in their way; and blab out those things which it is most their interest to conceal, and which hereafter they bitterly repent of, when they find the uses made of them by able or artsul opponents.

(tt) It remained not long without replies, containin"- such things as highly displeased him.] Tho' James's ° ° H 4 name

ly displeased him. Whereupon he writ his


name was not prefixed to the first edition of his apology, yet he made presents of it to the foreign ambasfadors in his own name, and his arms were put in the; (*) Works, frontispiece thereof, as himself tells us (a). This was p. 290. sufficient to put the author out of doubt. But notwithstanding his adverfaries treated him without ceremony. The famous Robert Parsons began the attack, in a book called the Judgment of a Catholic Gentleman, con-, cerning king James's apology for the oath of allegiance.

(£) Wood's Qu. S. Omers, 1608.'(b) Bellarmine continued it,

AthenœOx-under the seigned name of Matthcus Tortus, and .gave omeiys, ^ majesty the lye in express terms, and seven times 362. charged him with falfnood, which was thought by him

(c)King equivalent to a lye (c). The king is here told, that works Sp pope Clement thought him to be inclined to their reli294. gion; that he was a puritan in Scotland, and a perse

cutor of the protestant; that he was a heretic and nq christian. His majesty was also let know, " that some "os his officers of estate put the pope and cardinals in, "hope that he would prosess himself a catholic, when "he came to the crown of England ; yea, that he him"self had written letters sull of courtefie to the two "cardinals Aldo-hrandino and Bellarmine^ wherein he wood* 600 " craved» that one of the Scottish nation might be creS« the let- " ated cardinal; that by him, as an agent, he might ter itself in "the more easily and fasely do his business with the

write"'?. "pope id)-" This must have ve*ed 7fmes pretty

427. It is much, I suppose, as the reader, by comparing what is addressed to contained in notes (h) and (n), will be apt to think Lt there are there was some truth in it. A third answerer of this instructions apology was Francis Suarez, well known in the learned, afterwards vyorld. Sir Henry Seville, whose edition of St. Chry appiyineto s°flom ^as perpetuated his farne, being prevailed on, I the cardi- 'know not by what motive, to help translate James s book nais. See also into Latin ; it soon got to Rome; from thence Suarez Vol. TT ' was commanded to answer it, who performing his task, .162, it was published, and as soon as the copies came into


premonition (uu) to all most mighty mo*


England, one* of them was burnt (e).- Nicolaus(*) Wood,

Cœffeteau, bishop of Dardanie, preacher to Henry IV. v°l- i• c. of France, answered James, as his faid, very moderate]y and modestly. "But the king was nothing pleased f* with his fawning, nor took it in better part than if "(as he faidj he should have bid a t—d in his teeth, 5' and then cry Sir reverence If)." Let us observe here (/) W!nby the way, a mistake of Mr. Perrault, in speaking of J"j°° * ° . Cœffeteau, fays.he, " the king (Henry the Great) com- '' "mitted to him, at the solicitation of Perron, the an"swering of the king of England's book on the euf' charist, which he did with a great deal of cogency." [g) Now James never writ on the eucharist. The book (g) CharacCœffeteau answered, was his apology; consequently Per- '"s hlst°«rault is mistaken. Nor can I persuade myself he speaks Kegyricajt~ truly, when he fays, the then French king committed Vol. n.p. to him the answering James's book. The doctrine con- "• |v0' tained in it could not be displeasing to Henry, and I be- '7°S* lieve he would have been sorry it should have been subverted. I know of no more answers to James's apology; and whether I am as exact as I should be in my account of these, I cannot well determine; being far removed from libraries, from which help might be expected (£).- (b)Vii.At~


(uu) Whereupon he writ his premonition to all most mighty monarchs, &c] "After the apology was out, ^' fays Dr. Mountague, his majesty divers times would "be pleased to utter a resolution of his, that if the ** pope and cardinal would not rest in his answer, and "sit down by ir, take the oath as it was intended for a '* point of allegiance and civil obedience, he would "publish the apology in his own name, with a preface *1 to all the princes in Christendom; wherein he would '' publish such a confession of his faith, persuade the *' princes so to vindicate their own power, discover so V. much of the mystery of iniquity unto them, as the


narchs, kings, free princes, arid states of


"pope's bulls should pull in their horns, and himself "wish he had never meddled with this matter. The "cardinal contending against the apology, his majesty "confirmed his resolution, and with the like celerity in "the compass of one week, wrote his monitory pre"face; and being so written, published it and the apo"logy in his own name, and made good his word, sent "it to the emperor, and all the kings and free princes (a) Preface " in Christendom (a)." Great dispatch* this ! but as we to James's have a bishop's word for it, we cannot resuse to sub* ! scribe to the truth of it. In his dedication to the emperor RodolphW. and the princes and states of Christendom, he stiles himself prosessor, maintainer, and desender of the true, christian, catholic, and apostolic faith, prosessed by the antient and primitive church, and sealed with the blood of so many holy bishops, and (J) James's otner faithsul crowned with the glory of martyrdom (b).

zZ%T'9'' He then in a particular manner addresses himself

unto them, and tells them, "that the cause in which "he is engaged is general, and concerneth the autho"rity and privilege of kings in general, and all suss) H. p. "per-eminent temporal powers (c)." He proceeds to z89. give reasons for printing the apology without his name;

shews why he thought now proper to avow it, and goes on to shew the occasion of it. He lets them know, that the publishing his book had brought such two answerers, or rather railers, upon him, as all, the world might wonder at. He then falls foul on Parsons, for whom he fays a rope is the fittest answer; and proceeds to Mattheus Tortus, who called himself Bellarmine's chaplain. "An obscure author, fays he, utterly un"known to me, being yet little known to the world "for any other of his works; and therefore must be a "very desperate sellow in beginning his apprentisage, Mid. p. "not only to resute, but to rail upon a king (</)." One a9j. would think by this James knew not that in the repub

lic of letters no man holds any other rank than what he


Christendom, published it, and the apology


can procure by his own industry and abilities. For which reason if the greatest prince commences a member of it, he is to expect, injustice, no other regard than what his sellow-members (hall judge he really merits. If he would not be treated like an author, heshould not commence author. The moment he acts publicly in that character, he is liable to be resuted, ridiculed, or exposed; nor has he any body but himself to thank for it. But let us go on with Our subject, James, from some pasfages, concludes that Bellarmine was his real answerer, under the seigned name of Tortus, and as such he speaks of him. After mentioning the epithets bestowed on himself by his answerer, he asks the princes whether this be mannerly dealing with a king? and he doubts not but that they will resent such indignities done to one of their quality. He then shews the insufficiency of the cardinal's reply to his apology, aggravates the power he gives to the popes, shews that they formerly were in subjection to christian emperors, and that their assent was necessary to their elections, and that they had been deposed by them. Kings also, he fays, ha^e denied the temporal superiority of the popes, more especially his own predecessors. Apostate he (hews he is none, arid heretic that he cannot be, as believing all the three creeds, and as " acknowledging for orthodox all "those other forms of creeds, that either were devised "bycouncilsorparticular fathers, against such particular "heresies as most reigned in their times (e)." He then (*) Works, gives a long-winded confession of faith, with reasons, p-3OI* such as they are, of his belief; and afterwards spends no less than twenty folio pages on the subject of Antichrist, which he thus concludes, " Thus has the cardi'' nals shameless wresting two of those places of scrip"ture, pasce oves meas, & tibi dabo claves, for proving "the pope's temporal authority over princes,animated me "to prove the pope to be the antichrist out of the book w of scripture; so to pay him his own money again. And ,

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