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Bellarmlne also writ a letter to Blackwell, against the oath, and exhorted him to repair the fault he had committed, by taking of it, even though (rr) death should be the consequence. *

doubt not but he would have made as vile work as the worst, and most enterprizing of his predecessors. But the times in which he lived permitted him not to act agreeably to his wishes. Princes had more wisdom than to beeome his dupes, and excommunications vyere of little significancy, for learning and good sense now began to prevail, and where these are, ecclesiastical authority will be little regarded. However, this pope, we see, talked big; his briefs have an air of authority, and he did what in him lay to dispose the English catholics to behave contrary to their own interest and the laws of their country, and consequently to keep up a party dependent on himself, and subservient to his will, a thing of the worst consequence, and therefore loudly complained of by James, as we shall soon see.

(rr) Bellarmlne also writ a letter to Blackwell against the oath, &c] This letter begins with remembring

.Blackwell of the long friendship that had been between them; expresses his grief for BlackweWs sufferings; but more especially for his having, as it was seared, taken the oath, which he fays tends to this end, that the authority of the head of the church in England may be transserred from the successor of St. Peter to the successor of king Henry VIII. He declares that for this one '.head of doctrine, Fijher and More led the way to mar

. tyrdom to many others, to the exceeding glory of the English nation. And then he concludes with desiring him " not to preser a temporal liberty to the liberty of

. " the glory of the sons of God: neither for escaping a

"light and momentary tribulation, lose an eternal

"weight of glory, which tribulation itself doth work

"• in you. You have fought a good fight a long time;

quence. Hereupon James drew his pen, and published his apology for the oath of allegiance,

C' you have well near finished your course; so many years "have you kept the faith ; do not therefore lose the re"ward of such labours; do not deprive yourself of that "crown of righteousness, which so long ago is prepa"red for you; do slot make the faces of so many yours "both brethren and children, ashamed; upon you at "this time are fixed the eyes of all the church ; yea also ** you are made a spectacle to the world, to angels, to "men; do not so carry yourself in this your last act, that' "you leave nothing but laments to your friends, and C* joy to your enemies: but rather on the contrary, "which We assuredly hope, and for which we conti'' nually pour forth prayers to God, display gloriously "the banner of faith, and make to rejoice the church, *' which you have made heavy; so shall you net only "merit pardon at God's hands, but a crown. Fare"*, wel; quit you like a mart, and let your heart be "strengthned. This letter is dated from Rome, Sept. "28, 1607 («)." Bellarmine mistook the sense of the(a)Kmg Oath about which he writes, as we shall see by James's J*TM*'" , answer. But not to insist on this, for the present, I*6"» ''£' would ask whether there is not something very odd in this persuading mest to undergo martyrdom, when we ourselves are in ease, and like to continue so? does it come with a good grace from the mouth of a rich cardinal, who had aspired to the papacy, and even now enjoyed the greatest plenty of all things. When We see men under sufferings, triumph and rejoice in them, and contentedly bear them themselves, and exhort others to do so likewise, their exhortations will have great force „ and efficacy; their propriety is seen and acknowledged, and all virtuous men are edified. But to persuade others to submit to what we ourselves are strangers to, aryd which, probably, we should shrink at the undergoing, is not quite so well in the eyes of the world. But Bellarmine was at a distance; BlackiUcll's. reproaches could H t not.

since, against the two briefs of pope Pau/us Quintus (ss), and the letter of cardinal Bel


riot have made him hlush; and so the authority of the pop? was maintained, it mattered not who suffered. Modest man! good friend! happy for him to whom he writ, that he knew what was right, and for InVown interest, or else probably tribulation would have been

his portion, One would be apt to wonder how it

comes to pass, that those men who were so forward to send others on dangerous expeditions, to promote the interest of the church, and make men proselytes among infidels and heretics, and encourage them so much with she prospects of the highest rewards hereafter: I fay one would be apt to wonder why hardly any of these persons ever set out on these expeditions themselves, and strive so obtain those glorious crowns they set before the eyes of others. We see they chuse themselves that part of the vineyard where is the richest soil, and the least work to be done. In this they take their ease, and enjoy themselves comfortably, and never change unless it be for the better. What are we to conclude from hence? do not they believe what they teach to • others? are they disposed to procure their own advantage by the sweat, labour, and blood of the honest, the simple, the credulous? the unbelieving race would fay so; and those who belong not to that tribe of men, would yet be glad to know how, on this head, to confute them.

(ss) James published his 2pology for the oath of allegiance against the two briefs, &c.j Take the following account of the occasion of this apology from bishop Mountague, James's prefacer. "After the pope had put "forth his briefs, and the cardinal had sent his letters to "the arch-priest j the one to enjoin the people not to u take the oath of allegiance, affirming that they could ** not take it with fasety of their falvation: the other *' to reprove the arch-priest for that he had taken it, and


larmine to G. Blackwell the arch-priest.


"to draw him to a penitency for so foul a lapse. His "majesty, like as became a prudent and religious prince, "thought it not meet, that these things should pass for "current, hut that it was, expedient his people should "know, that the taking this oath was so far from en"dangering their fouls, as that it intended nothing but '* civil obedience, and without touching any point 6t "their conscience, made the state secure of their alte- '. "giance. To perform this work, his majesty thought "the bishop of Winchejier * [Dr. Bilson, if I rightly '* remember] that then was, a very fit man, both for his '' singular learning, as for that he had long laboured *' in an argument, not much of a diverse nature from "this; whereupon his majesty calling for pen and ink, '' to give my lord of Winchester directions how and in '' what manner to proceed in this argument, I know "not how it came to pass, but it sell out true that the '* poet faith,

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"for the king's pen ran so fast, that in the compass of "six days, his majesty had accomplished that which "he nowcalleth his apology ; which when my lord of "Canterbury [Bancroft'} that then was, and my lord of *' Ely [Andrews} had perused, being indeed delivered by "bis majesty but as brief notes, and in the nature of'a % H 3 "minute

* This tisliopwas Dr. T. Bilson, who was advanced to that see in 1597* and died in 1616. The book of his reserred toby bifliop Montague, was probably that printed at Oxford 15S5. in 4^0, and intitled, "Tbe true dijsf rente betiueene cbrijiian subjection and anticbrijiian rebellion j tvberein tbt princes lawfull po<wcr and command for truetb, and indeprtvable rigbt to heart the sword are defended ugai/iji the pope's censures, and the Jesuits sopbismes uttered in tbeir apologie and defence of Engtijh catbolikes ivitb a d'monstration, tbat the things refourmed in the ebureb of England by tbt- laituts of this realmi are truly catbolike, notioitbjlanding tbe vaine Jhe-w made to tbe contrary in their late Rhemith Testament, by Thomas Billon, warden of fyin*btJhT,' Pc* rused and allowed bypublike authorilie.

Though James had not set his name to this


*' minute to be explicated by the bishops in a larger vo"lume; yet they thought it so sufficient an answer "both to the pope and cardinal, as there needed no "other. Whereupon his majesty was persuaded to give "way to the coming of it forth, but was pleased to - "conceal his name; and so have we the apology be

(a) Preface *c y0nd nis majesty's own purpose or determination (a)."

to king T-,/ , . J { r, ,r. , i- i r

James's -I ne reader is welcome to believe as much or as little ot works- all this as he pleases. For my own part, I doubt nor, but James was well enough pleased to engage in a controversy in which he was almost sure of success. For the pope, with all his infallibility, had urged nothing material against the oath of allegiance, and the cardinal had quite mistook the sense of it; as every one upon comparing the briefs of the one, and the letter of the other with the oath, will plainly see, as James in this piece has sully shewn. Indeed all objections of the latter are pointed against the oath of supremacy, which is a very different thing from the oath of allegiance. In this piece James, after mentioning the powder plot, takes notice of the intention of the oath, which he fays, "was specially to make a separation between so '' many of his subjects, who although popishly affect"ed, yet retained in their hearts the prints of their "natural duty to their sovereign ; and those who being "carried away with the like fanatical zeal that the "powder-traytors were, could pot contain themselves "within the bounds of their natural allegiance, but "thought diversity of religion a fafe pretext for all "kinds of treasons and rebellions against their soveh) Kin "reiSn (b)" He then mentions the good effects the James's oath had produced; the mischiefs of the pope's briefs; votksi p, the incivility of the pope in condemning him unheard; ** and after that proceeds to a formal examination of them.

In this part of his work he sets forth his great favour to the catholics, in admitting them to his presence, dubbing many of them knights,, freeing recufants from

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