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RESULTS OF WATER ANALYSES Abbreviations used to describe odors of water: 0, none; 1, very faint; 2, faint; 3, distinct; 4, decided; 5, strong; 6, very strong; a, aromatic;
d, disagreeable; e, earthy; f, fishy; g, grassy; m, musty; v, vegetable
52 v. 2 y.
Marcy, raw water.
2/ 7/17 12
2/ 9/17 D. 1208 Slark st.
2/9/17 H. 818 Varick st
2/ 9/17 J. 644 Eagle
2/ 9/17 K. Hotel Utica
2/9/17 Nail creek, raw
12 0 1 v. 20] 1 a. 2 v.
75 2.58.024 .80 6.0
7.01 215.0 194.0
West End Brewing Co. WARSAW
SIERMANS J. BIGGS, M.D., State Commissioner of Health:
I beg to submit the following report on an investigation of the public water supply of Warsaw, made by Mr. C. 11. Baker, assistant engineer, on August 2, 1917.
Warsaw is an incorporated village of 3,424 inhabitants, located in Wyoming county on the Hornell-Buffalo branch of the Erie railroad, also on the B. K. & P. R. R., about 46 miles southeast of Buffalo and about the same distance southwest of Rochester. Oatka creek flows through the village. That portion of the village east of the creek is provided with a municipal sewer system, the remainder of the village being served by privies, cesspools, etc.
The water supply is owned by the municipality and is controlled by the board of trustees. The main supply is derived from the west fork of Oatka crcek at a point about 5 miles south of the village. From the intake the water flows by gravity to a storage reservoir at Rock Glen, about 4 miles south of the village, thence to the distribution system in the village. No purification is employed. The western portion of the village near the Erie railroad station is supplied with water from a second reservoir fed by springs and known as the West Hill or Durchen reservoir. This reservoir is located about 2 miles northwest of the village.
The water supply system was first put in operation about 1895. Practically all of the population of the village is served with the water, there being in all some 1,000 service taps, of which only those supplying manufacturing concerns are metered. The distribution system consists of about 25 miles of mains ranging in size from 4 to 12 inches in diameter. The pressure in the village averages 110 to 120 pounds per square inch. Since no meters are provided or other method for measuring the amount of water used, no definite information could be obtained regarding the consumption.
The intake, which, as stated above, is located about 5 miles south of the village, consists of a small impounding reservoir formed by a dam across the bed of the stream. The storage reservoir located at Rock Glen is constructed by excavation and embankment and is lined with concrete. It is about 410 feet square and has a total capacity of approximately 10,000,000 gallons. The water enters the reservoir through a vertical pipe which acts as an aerator. The West Hill or Durchen reservoir is formed by a dam across a small ravine. Its capacity is roughly estimated at 4,000,000 gallons. The watershed tributary to the main supply is about 242 square miles in
Its total population is approximately 65, which is equivalent to about 26 persons per square mile. For a distance of half a mile above the intake the banks of the stream are very precipitous. Above this point, however, the watershed consists of gently sloping land. It is used principally for farming and agricultural purposes. The houses are all located well back from the stream and there appears to be little opportunity for direct pollution of human origin except at times of a heavy storm or in the spring. when pollution may be carried into the streams from the farms located on the watershed. A large portion of the watershed in the vicinity of the streams is used as pasture land. However, in addition to which two roads cross it, and the supply is therefore subject to pollution of animal origin.
Samples of the water were collected at the time of the inspertion and sent to the Division of Laboratories and Research for analyses, the results of which together with those of previous analyses are recorded in the appended table.
The results of the analyses of the tap sample show a water usually satisfactory with respect to color and turbidity hut one that is very hard. The figures for nitrogen in the form of free and albuminoid ammonia and nitrites are usually low but those for nitrates and chlorine are above normal. The bacterial results show high counts at times with colon bacilli present in practically all of the 10 r.c, and frequently in the 1 c.c. inoculations, thus indicating the presence of active and potentially dangerous contamination. Regard
ing the individual supplies, as indicated by the analyses of samples collected at the time of the inspection, the bacterial results show a high count for the sample collected from the Rock Glen supply with colon bacilli present in 2 of the 3 10 c.c. inoculations, while the samples collected from the West Hill reservoir show. a moderate bacterial count and the absence of the B. coli type. As pointed out above, the Rock Glen supply is subject to considerable pollution from surface wash, which undoubtedly accounts for the pollution indicated by the analyses. As a result of this investigation, it may be concluded:
1. That the main or Rock Glen supply is subject to considerable pollution by surface wash from farms located on the watershed, and consequently this supply cannot be considered safe for potable purposes at all times. Furthermore, as is true with all service supplies, there is the ever present possibility of accidental, incidental or wilful contamination by residents upon the watershed or by chance visitors thereto.
2. That the West Hill supply appears to be less subject to pollution than the Rock Glen supply, although it, too, may at times receive some
pollution from surface wash from cultivated fields or pasture land. In view of the above, I beg to offer the following recommendations to be acted upon by the village authorities:
1. That, with reference to the Rock Glen supply,
(a) Purification be provided by means of filtration supplemented by sterilization with liquid chlorine.
(b) That, pending the development of a complete purification plant, apparatus be provided and installed at once for sterilizing the supply
with liquid chlorine. 2. That suitable drainage ditches be provided to divert surface wash from the West Hill or Durchen reservoir or that the watershed tributary to this supply be purchased by the village and enclosed by suitable fences
to prevent possible pollution. Although sterilization of the supply with liquid chlorine would not improve the physical qualities of the water, it would, if properly operated, render it temporarily safe from a sanitary standpoint. The cost of such an apparatus would be nominal and it is urged that the village officials give this matter their immediate attention.
Finally, I would recommend that copies of this report be sent to the local authorities and to the sanitary supervisor of the district.
Chief Engineer ALBANY, N. Y., December 21, 1917
RESULTS OF WATER ANALYSES
d, disagreeable; e, earthy; f, fishy; g, grassy; m, musty; V, vegetable
Tap, public supply
5 Tap, public supply
3/30/12 20 5
9/27/12 10 Ti. Tap, public supply
11/20/12 15 1 Tap, public supply
1/11/13 5] T. Tap, public supply
3/ 7/13| Tr. Cl. Tap, public supply
4/18/13 5 Tr.. Tap, public supply
6/ 6/13| Tr.
5 Tap, public supply
97 2/13 Tap, Rock Glen supply 8/ 2/17 0
0 1 v. 2 g.
8/ West Hill or Durchen reser-| 87 2/17
0 2 v. 2 a
0041.030 010.701.60 0201.135.008 0.60 3.50
3.50! 125.8 122.0 3.50 74.3 71.0
HERMANN M. Biggs, M.D., State Commissioner of Health:
I beg to submit the following report on an investigation of the public water supply of Waterford made on June 21, 1917, by Mr. E. S. Chase, assistant engineer.
Waterford is an incorporated village with a population of 3,047, located in the southeastern part of Saratoga county on the west bank of the Hudson river and on the main line of the Delaware and Hudson railroad about 12 miles north of Albany. It is the southern terminal of the Champlain canal and contains several underwear mills and one large valve foundry. The village is provided with a sewer system which discharges without treatment into the Hudson river.
The waterworks were first installed in 1885 and were then owned by a private company, who controlled and operated them until 1915, at which time the waterworks were purchased by the village. The supply was obtained from the Hudson river and pumped directly into the distribution system without purification. Upon purchase of the waterworks by the village steps were taken to install a modern purification plant, which was first put into operation on April 1, 1915. The supply was continued to be derived from the Hudson river but is now subjected to purification by means of a gravity mechanical filter plant supplemented with liquid chlorine for final sterilization. The filtration plant was built after the designs of Vrooman and Perry, consulting engineers of Albany, associated with Mr. George E. Willcomb, sanitary engineer of Albany. The contractor for the plant was the New York Continental Jewel Filtration Company of New York city.
Practically the entire population of the village is served by the supply, in addition to a small population in the town of Waterford outside of the village limits. The average daily consumption is approximately 500,000 gallons per day, about 30 per cent of which is used for industrial purposes. At times of extreme cold weather the consumption has reached 1,250,000 gallons per day, while on Sundays or holidays it occasionally reaches a minimum of 250,000 gallons per day. There are 11 miles of water mains ranging from 4 to 12 inches in diameter. Of the 900 service taps some 90 per cent are metered. The filtered water is pumped directly into the mains against an average pressure of 75 pounds per square inch maintained by two standpipes, which also serve to store the excess over consumption. One of these standpipes is located on a hill about three-fourths of a mile northwest of the village center while the other standpipe is located about 114 miles southwest of the village on a hill opposite the city of Cohoes. These standpipes are 24 feet in diameter by 85 feet high and 30 feet in diameter by 52 feet high with capacities of 297,000 and 276,000 gallons respectively.
The waterworks are under the control of the board of water commissioners, of which Mr. C. H. Kavanaugh is president, and under the direct charge of Mr. H. C. Curran, superintendent. The force employed in connection with the work consists of two filter operators and one engineer. The purification plant is also under the technical supervision of Mr. Willcomb.
The intake consists of a 12-inch cast iron pipe laid in a rock trench terminating at a point about 110 feet from shore in about 10 feet of water. Water from this intake pipe flows through an Elliott twin basket strainer with 38-inch mesh, located in a manhole on shore. After passing through this strainer the water is pumped to the coagulation basin by low lift centrifugal pumps. The filters, pumping equipment, repair shop and general office of the waterworks are located in one building. The low lift pumps consist of two Lawrence horizontal centrifugal pumps with capacities of 2,000,000 gallons per day each, direct connected to Troy vertical steam engines. The high service pumps consist of two combined duplex Worthington plunger pumps of 1,000,000 gallons, and 1,000,000 gallons daily capacity, respectively. These pumps are operated by steam generated in two horizontal return tubular boilers.