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RESULTS OF WATER ANALYSES Abbreviations used to describe odors of water: 0, none; 1, very faint; 2, faint; 3, distinct; 4, decided; 5, strong; 6, very strong; a, aromatic;

d, disagreeable; e, earthy; f, fishy; g, grassy; m, musty; v, vegetable

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PROSPECT (Prospect Spring Co.)

HERMANN M. BIGGS, M.D., State Commissioner of Health:

I beg to submit the following report on an investigation of the public water supply furnished by the Prospect Spring Company, also known as the Maxfield Supply, to a portion of the village of Prospect. The investigation was made of this supply by Mr. C. M. Baker, assistant engineer, on October 23, 1916.

Prospect is an incorporated village of 339 inhabitants, according to the 1915 census, located in Oneida county, on the Utica and Oneida branch of the N. Y. C. railroad, 18 miles north of Utica. It is in a prosperous dairying district. No sewers are provided in the village, the houses being served by privies, cesspools, etc.

The supply is owned by Mrs. R. B. Maxfield and was first put into operation about 1906. Water is obtained from springs about half a mile northwest of the village, whence it is conducted by gravity to the consumers. Twothirds of the population of the village are served with this water, there being in all 95 service taps, none of which are metered. The remainder of the village is served by another supply, known as the Chan-Glenn Spring supply. Since there are no meters nor other methods of measuring the water used, no definite information could be obtained regarding the consumption, but based upon a per capita rate of 100 gallons daily the total consumption would be about 33,000 gallons per day. There are about 2 miles of water mains, ranging in size from 1 to 3 inches in diameter. The pressure is only about 28 pounds per square inch, but the supply is used only for domjestic purposes, no fire protection being provided.

The springs are located near the foot of a hill and are enclosed by a fence. They are protected by concrete walls and covered so that surface drainage cannot find its way directly into them. Water flows from the springs by gravity to a collecting basin about 10 by 22 feet in plan and 5 feet deep, and having a capacity of a little over 2,000 gallons. From the collecting basin the water flows by gravity to the village. The water is also bottled and sold. No insanitary conditions were observed about the springs.

Samples of the water were collected at the time of the inspection and sent to the Division of Laboratories and Research for analyses, the results of which together with those previous analyses are recorded in the appended table.

The results of these analyses show a water that is satisfactory in physical qualities with respect to color and turbidity but a water that is quite hard. The figures for nitrogen in the form of free and albuminoid ammonia and nitrites are low but those for nitrates and chlorine appear to be somewhat above normal, thus indicating that pollution has found its way into the ground water tributary to the supply. The bacterial counts are low in all cases, however, and colon bacilli are in no case present, thus indicating the absence of active contamination at the time the samples were collected, and that the pollution mentioned above had been rendered inactive by the natural processes of purification.

As a result of this investigation it may be concluded that the water supply of the Prospect Spring Company is derived from a source which is well protected from pollution and that the springs if properly maintained at all times should furnish water of a satisfactory quality.

It therefore seems advisable to recommend at this time only that the water company continue their careful supervision of the supply in order that no insanitary conditions may at any time exist which will in any way pollute the water.

Respectfully submitted,
THEODORE HORTON,

Chief Engineer ALBANY, N. Y., January 8, 1917

RESULTS OF WATER ANALYSES Abbreviations used to describe odors of water: 0, none; 1, very faint; 2, faint; 3, distinct; 4, decided; 5, strong; 6, very strong; a, aromatic;

d, disagreeable; e, earthy; f, fishy; g, grassy; m, musty; v, vegetable

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QUEENS COUNTY WATER CO.

HERMANN M. BIGGS, M.D., State Commissioner of Health:

I beg to submit the following report on an investigation of the public water supply furnished by the Queens County Water Company to the incorporated villages of Lawrence, Cedarhurst, Lynbrook, East Rockaway and Woodsburgh; also to the unincorporated villages of Inwood, Valley Stream and Oceanside, in Nassau county, in addition to the Far Rockaway peninsula in Queens county. An investigation of this supply was made by Mr. C. M. Baker, assistant engineer, on September 27, 1916.

The territory in Nassau county supplied by this company is located in the southwestern corner of the town of Hempstead and includes a total population of about 17,500 persons. The population of the incorporated villages are as follows: Lawrence, 1,870; Cedarhurst, 2,657; Lynbrook, 3,055; East Rockaway, 1,607, and Woodburgh, 168, thus leaving a total population of 8,143 in the unincorporated territory. In the Queens county territory the population is about 12,500, thus making a total population tributary to the supply of about 30,000 persons. The population in these places is considerably increased during the summer by the influx of the summer residents. This is particularly true in the Queens county district, there being considerably less variation in the population in Nassau county. Practically none of the territory in Nassau county is provided with sewers, the houses being served with privies, cesspools, etc. The territory tributary to the supply is reached via the Far Rockaway branch of the Long Island Railroad and is 18 to 25 miles from New York city.

The main offices of the company are at Far Rockaway. Mr. Henry DeForest Baldwin, 49 Wall street, New York city, is president of the company. The supply was first put into operation in 1885 or 1886. Since the original installation extensions have been made to the distribution system and an auxiliary plant consisting of wells, pumping equipment and standpipe, has been constructed at Rockaway Beach. The main pumping plant, which is a part of the original installation, is located about 1 mile southwest of Valley Stream. From the wells located at this place water is pumped into the distribution system after being aerated and passed through slow sand filters for the purpose of removing iron that is in the water. The supply is equalized by standpipes at Far Rockaway and Rockaway Beach. Water is pumped from the Rockaway Beach plant during the summer only, since, due to the heavy consumption and limited capacity of the trunk main, the supply at times is somewhat inadequate in this section.

Practically all of the population tributary to the supply in Queens county are supplied with the water, there being in all about 6,000 service taps in this section. In Nassau county, however, only a portion of the people are supplied, there being only 4,000 service taps. All services are metered. The consumption averages about 2,000,000 gallons daily in the winter and about 4,000,000 gallons with a possible maximum of 5,000,000 gallons during the summer. Only about 1/4 of the water pumped during the summer months is used by the Nassau county consumers, the remainder being used in Queens county. This is due in part to the greater number of service taps in Queens county and also probably to some extent to the class of people tributary to the supply, it being apparent that the majority of people in Queens county are more extravagant users. At the time of the inspection about 3,000,000 gallons of water per day were being used by the people directly tributary to the supply. In addition to this, however, the company was supplying about 5,000,000 gallons daily to New York city, making a total yield of 8,000,000 gallong. There are in all about 190 miles of water mains, 100 of which are in Nassau county. The size of the mains ranges from 144 inches to 24 inches in diameter. The pressure averages about 60 pounds per square inch.

The pumping equipment at the main plant consists of three 190-horsepower steam boilers, 3Tod pumps with capacities of 6,000,000, 7,500,000 and 8,000,000 gallons per day respectively; also 5 Worthington pumps with capacities ranging from 1,700,000 gallons to 5,000,000 gallons per day and one

Davidson pump with a capacity of 6,000,000 gallons daily. Because of filtration it is necessary to pump the water twice. The pumps are housed in a brick building. At the Far Rockaway Park plant there

are 3 Worthington pumps with a total capacity of 3,500,000 gallons daily. The actual pumpage at this plant averages about 150,000 or 200,000 gallons daily during the summer only. The Far Rockaway standpipe is 20 feet in diameter, 140 feet high and has a capacity of 329,000 gallons. The standpipe at Rockaway Park is 18 feet in diameter, 180 feet deep, its capacity being 247,000 gallons, thus making å total storage of 576,000 gallons.

At the main plant located near Valley Stream there are 75 shallow wells ranging in depth from 22 to 32 feet, also 53 deep wells ranging in depth from 143 to 204 feet. The shallow wells are 5 inches in diameter except one which is 10 inches, while the deep wells are all 6 inches in diameter. The strata through which the shallow wells pass consist of sand only while the deep wells are driven through 32 feet of sand, 7 feet of clay and 40 feet of blue clay into a stratum of sand and coarse gravel. The wells are direct connected with the suction lines. About this plant the company owns about 250 acres of land. There are no houses in the vicinity and no insanitary conditions were observed.

At the Rockaway Park plant there are three deep wells. It is probable that water from this plant never leaves the Nassau county district, being all consumed on the Rockaway peninsula.

Due to the large amount of iron in the water it is unsatisfactory for domestie purposes in its raw state. For the purpose of removing the iron therefore the water is first aerated, then passed through slow sand filters. The plant at the main pumping station consists of 3 filters, each 100 by 200 feet in plan, and 2 fountain aerators. The area of each of the filters is thus nearly 12 acre and since two are operated continuously one usually being out of service rate of filtration therefore ranges from 2,000,000 gallons per acre per day in the winter to 4,000,000 in the summer and was about 8,000,000 gallons per acre per day at the time of the inspection. Each filter is cleaned after 30,000,000 or 40,000,000 gallons of water pass through it.

Samples of the water were collected at the time of the inspection and sent to the Division of Laboratories and Research for analyses, the results of which are recorded in the appended table.

The results of these analyses show that both the raw and filtered waters were satisfactory with respect to color and turbidity and that the water is low in hardness. The figures for nitrogen in its various forms are low and the figures for chlorine appear to be practically normal. The raw water contained 1 part per million of iron while the filtered contained only 1/10 part, thus indicating a substantial removal of the iron from the water in the process of purification. The samples were delayed in transit, two days elapsing from the time they were collected until received at the laboratory. The high bacterial counts in the filtered water are therefore apparently due in part at least to this delay. Colon bacilli were not found present in either the raw or filtered water.

As a result of this investigation it may be concluded that the water supply of the Queens County Water Company is derived from a source which should furnish water of a satisfactory sanitary quality, it being necessary, however, to treat the water for the removal of iron. Some complaints have been made on the Rockaway peninsula regarding the taste of iron in the water when raw water was being pumped from the Rockaway Park plant, although apparently no complaints have been made in this respect by the Nassau county

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consumers.

In view of the above it seems advisable to recommend at this time only that the company continue their careful supervision of the supply in order that the water may continue to be of a satisfactory quality.

Respectfully submitted,
THEODORE HORTON,

Chief Engineer ALBANY, N. Y., January 6, 1917

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