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ORISKANY FALLS

HERMANN M. BIGGS, 21.D., State Commissioner of Health:

I beg to submit the following report upon an investigation of the sanitary condition of the public water supply of Oriskany Falls, made by Mr. C. 1. Baker, assistant engineer, on July 24, 1917.

General information

Location.- Southwestern part of Oneida county: 18 miles southwest of Utica, on the Utica division of the New York, Ontario and Festern railroad.

Population.- 973, 65 per cent of which is served with the water.

Source of supply.- Impounding, spring fed reservoir, 112 miles southwest of the village.

Consumption.- No definite information, possibly 100,000 gallons per day.

Distribution systeill.- Gravity system. Six miles of mains, 6 inches to 12 inches in diameter.

Service taps., 110, 10 of which are metered.
Pressure.- 70 to $0 pounds per square inch.
Storage.--Impounding reservoir, 13,000,000 gallons capacity.
Purification.- None.
References to previous investigations.- 35th Annual Report, page 381.

At the time of the previous investigation, in 1914, it was pointed out that under certain conditions there was possibility of pollution of the water in the reservoir, also that there was danger of contamination of the supply by pumping water from Oriskany creek as an auxiliary fire supply into the distribution system. Furthermore, it was found that trouble was at times experienced, due to disagreeable tastes and odors in the water.

In view of the above the following recomiendations regarding protecting the sanitary quality of the supply were then made:

1. That in case of further occurrence of disagreeable tastes and odors the village authorities consider the adaptability of the following remedial

measures:

(a) The removal of organic deposits from the bottom and sides of the reservoir.

(b) The covering of pockets of organic deposits with clean gravel.

(c) The aeration and filtration of the water. 2. That in order to reduce the danger of wilful or accidental pollution of the water supply to a minimum, notices be posted prohibiting trespassing and, during the highway construction in the vicinity, the village maintain a patrol of the water supply.

3. That in order to reduce to a minimum the possibility of the use of the creek water as a supplementary supply the village should put the reservoir into the best possible condition to maintain its maximum storage capacity. In case it should be found impossible to bring about this improvement the village should consider the installation of separate fire mains from the auxiliary pump to strategic points for fire protection. As previously pointed out, only in case of fire emergency should the polluteri creek water enter the village mains and should such an emergency occur. the extraordinary precaution as outlined before should be carefully carried out.

Recently there has been some correspondence regarding the location of a cemetery near the reservoir, this matter being brought to the attention of the Department by Dr. G. J. Pollard, health officer. In our letter to the health officer in reply to a communication from him dated June 20, 1917, it was suggested that the board of water commissioners make application to this Department for the enactment of rules and regulations protecting the sanitary quality of the supply.

As a result of the present investigation it appears that none of the recommendations either of the previous report or the letter mentioned above have

been carried out, although there have been some changes made in the supply.

Since the previous investigation two of the principal springs tributary to the supply have been directly connected with the intake well so as to deliver Water directly into the distribution system, thus eliminating the effect of algae growth in the reservoir. It is apparent, however, that the water from these springs is not sufficient to meet the present demand, since at certain seasons of the year the taste and odor frequently occur in water drawn from taps in the village. In connection with the construction of the state road along the eastern shore of the reservoir the ditches formerly provided for kiiverting surface wash were filled or destroyed, and have not yet been reconstructed. There is considerable opportunity for surface wash to find its way into the reservoir directly from the road. Furthermore, the ditch near the northeastern corner of the reservoir had become practically filled, and there appears to be considerable danger of pollution by drainage from pasture land in this vicinity. In fact it is apparent that adequate maintenance of these drainage ditches has not been provided.

The cemetery concerning which there has been correspondence as mentioned above, is located on the hill northeast of and on the opposite side of the road from the reservoir, the nearest point of the cemetery being about 500 feet from the reservoir. The topography is such, however, that there is no possibility of surface drainage from the cemetery finding its way into the reservoir, nor does it appear probable that the flow of the ground water would in any case be from the cemetery toward the reservoir. So far as could be determined by this inspection, therefore, there is no danger of pollution of the public water supply from this source. If, however, the cemetery should be extended to the southeast or nearer the reservoir, there would probably be danger of pollution of the ground water tributary to the water supply. It seems, therefore, that rules and regulations for the sanitary protection of the supply should be enacted in order that the village may have more effective control of tisnditions in tlie vicinity of the reservoir and on the watershed.

There was a very active growth of organic matter in the reservoir at the time of the inspection. A sample of this was collected and examined under the microscope and found to consist of pond weed and large numbers of algæ of Farious species, a number of which might, under favorable conditions, cause <lisagreeable tastes and odor in the water. The growth of these organisms is indoubtedly due largely to the organic matter present in the reservoir.

Samples of water were collected at the time of the inspection and sent to the Division of Laboratories and Research for analyses, the results of which are Jecorded in the appended table.

The results of the analyses of samples collected from a tap in the village show a water satisfactory in physical qualities with respect to color and turbidity. The figures for nitrogen in the form of free and albuminoid ammonia are low, but those for nitrates and chlorine are somewhat high, thus indicating that some pollution finds its way into the ground water tributary to the supply. The bacterial counts were high in the samples collected both from a tap in the village and from the reservoir, and furthermore, colon bacilli were found present in the sample collected from the reservoir, thus indicating the presence of active contamination. It is quite probable that this pollution is ilue to surface wash from the road and pasture land, the possibility of which has been pointed out above. As a result of this investigation it may be concluded:

1. That the recommendations of the previous report have not been carried out.

2. That due to the filling in or elimination of the drainage ditches about the reservoir, the supply is now subject to direct pollution by surface wash from roads and pasture land.

3. That, although there appears to be no danger of pollution of the supply from the cemetery as now located, should this cemetery be extended further to the south it might constitute a menace to the sanitary quality

of the supply. In view of the above, I beg to offer the following recommendations to be arted upon by the village authorities:

1. That the recommendations of the previous report as recorded elsewhere in this report be carried out.

2. That if it appears impractical or impossible for the village to eliminate the trouble from algae in the manner mentioned above, consideration be given to the treatment of the supply with copper sulphate, in order to eliminate this trouble.

3. That the village authorities make application to this Department for the enactment of rules and regulations protecting the sanitary quality of the supply, in order that more effective control may be placed upon the

sanitary conditions in the vicinity of the reservoir. Finally, I would recommend that copies of this report be transmitted to the various local officials, and to the sanitary supervisor of the district.

Respectfully submitted,
THEODORE HORTON,

Chief Engineer ALBANY, N. Y., September 20, 1917

Chief Engineer

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Results are expressed in parts per million. + Present. Absent.

Abbreviations used to describe odors of water: 0, none; 1, very faint; 2, faint; 3, distinct; 4, decided; 5, strong: 6, very strong; a, aromatic; d, disagreeable; e, earthy; f, fishy; g, grassy; m, musty; v, vegetable.

OTSEGO COUNTY TUBERCULOSIS HOSPITAL

(Plans for Water Supply and Sewage Disposal; see sec. I-a, p. 112)

OXFORD

HERMANN M. BIGGS, M.D., State Commissioner of Health:

I beg to submit the following report on an investigation of the sanitary condition of the public water supply of Oxford, made by Mr. C. M. Baker, assistant engineer, on April 11 and 12, 1917.

General information

Location.— Chenango county, on D. L. & W. and N. Y. O. & W. raillvads, 35 miles northeast of Binghamton.

Population.- 1,594, 70 per cent of which is served with the water.

Source of supply.- Present supply, springs 5 miles north of the village. Proposed auxiliary supply, well in northern edge of the village.

Consumption.- Estimated at 90,000 gallons daily, or 81 gallons per capita

per day.

Distribution system. Ten miles of mains, from 4 to 10 inches in diameter.
Taps.- 309, all of which are metered.
Pressure.-Approximately 90 pounds per square inch in main part of village.
Storage.- Masonry reservoir, 252,000 gallons capacity.
Purification.-- None.

Reference to previous report.- Report on previous investigation of ihis supply was transmitted under date of October 9, 1916.

At the time of the previous investigation the supply was apparently in good condition and the only recommendation then made, therefore, was regarding the maintenance of the satisfactory conditions then existing. Since this previous investigation, however, some improvements have been made to the supply. New houses of more substantial construction have been built over the springs and the area about the main group of springs has been covered with concrete, and ditches have been provided to better protect them from surface wash. It is apparent that the sanitary condition of the present supply is still satisfactory and that the village authorities are exercising careful supervision in order that these conditions may be maintained.

Although no serious shortage has occurred in connection with the present supply, it is feared that at times sufficient water may not be available. A well has, therefore, been recently drilled in the northern edge of the village to furnish an auxiliary supply. It is proposed to pump water from this well into the distribution system when necessary, although the pumps are not yet. provided and the well is not connected up. The well is located on the bank of a small stream, near Grant street, in the northern edge of the village. It is a drilled well 6 inches in diameter and 300 feet deep. The strata consist of drift gravel for a distance of about 40 feet, then blue sandstone to a depth of about 285 feet, the remainder of the depth being through red sandstone which is the water bearing stratum. A small amount of water was obtained at a depth of about 200 feet, but the greater portion of the flow, which is estimated at 20 gallons per. minute, is derived from the lower level. The well driller informed the engineer that a saline stratum underlies this section at a depth of about 25 feet below the bottom of the well, and that further drilling was, therefore, not deemed advisable.

A residence and a han are located about 200 feet froin the well and within 500 feet are some 7 houses, and within about 1,000 feet and beyond this distance are 14 or 15 houses. There appears, however, to be no opportunity for direct contamination of the well water from these premises, due both to the contour of the ground and the strata through which the well is drilled.

Containers had not arrived at the time of the inspection for the collection of samples. Samples were collector later, however, by Dr. Hall, health officer, and sent to the Division of Laboratories and Research for analysis, the results of which are recorded in the appended table.

The results of the analysis of the sample from the regular supply show low figures for nitrogen in its various forms, also a low bacterial count and the absence of colon bacilli, thus indicating that no active contamination was present at the time of the inspection.

The results of the analysis of the well water show a water turbid at the time of the collection, probably due, however, to the fact that the well has not been pumped out. The figures for nitrogen in its various forms are low, and although the figure for chlorine is rather high, this is probably due to saline deposits. The bacterial count was low and colon bacilli were not found present. It appears, therefore, that this supply is of a satisfactory sanitary quality, and that if proper sanitary conditions are maintained in the vicinity of the well a water satisfactory for potable purposes should be obtained. As a result of this investigation it may be concluded:

1. That the village authorities appear to be exercising proper care in order to maintain the regular water supply in a proper sanitary condition.

2. That the new well, which it is proposed to use as an auxiliary supply, although located comparatively close to a number of buildings, will probably furnish a satisfactory supply of water providing proper sanitary

conditions are at all times maintained in its vicinity. In view of the above, I beg to offer the following recommendations to be acted upon by the village officials:

1. That the present careful supervision of the regular supply be maintained.

2. That with the development of the new well as an auxiliary supply, no privy with earthen vaults or leaching cesspools be allowed within a radius of 500 feet, it thus being necessary to provide all privies or cess

pools within this area with water tight containers. Finally I would recommend that copies of this report be sent to the water commissioners of Oxford, to the local lealth officer, and to the sanitary superVisor of the district.

Respectfully subinitted,
THEODORE HORTON,

Chief Engineer ALBANY, N. Y., May 31, 1917

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Results are expressed in parts per million. + Present. Absent.

Abbreviations used to describe odors of water: 0, none; 1, very faint; 2, faint; 3, distinct; 4, decided; 5, strong; 6, very strong; a, aromatic; d, disagreeable; e, earthy; f, fishy; g, grassy; m, bil usty"; ", vegetable.

PAWLING

HERMANN M. BIGGS, M.D., State Commissioner of Health :

I beg to submit the following report upon a reinspection of the public water supply of the village of Pawling, made by Mr. M. F. Sanborn, assistant engineer, on April 25, 1917.

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