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(b) No scales are provided to check the operation of the apparatus by the loss of weight in the chlorine cylinder.

(c) An extra cylinder of chlorine was not on hand to replace the

one connected with the apparatus when it should become empty. In view of the above I beg to offer the following recommendations to be acted upon by the villago authorities :

1. That the openings in the west wall of the well be tightly closed in order to prevent the possibility of surface wash finding its way into the well.

2. That, in view of the pollution indicated by analyses made before development of the supply, the chlorine plant be carefully operated until such time as subsequent analyses, covering a proper period of time and various seasons of the year, indicate a satisfactory quality of raw water. In this connection the superintendent should be fully informed regarding the plant, scales should be provided to check the rate of application of chlorine and the operation of the apparatus and extra chlorine should at all times be on hand.

Respectfully submitted,
THEODORE HORTON,

Chief Engineer ALBANY, N. Y., January 29, 1917

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Results are expressed in parts per miliiun. Present. Absent.

Abbreviations used to discribe odors of water: 0, none; 1, very faint; 2, faint; 3, distinct; 4, decided; 5, strong; 6, very strong; a, aromatic; d, disagreeable; e, earthy; f, fishy; g, grassy; in, musty; v, vegetable.

OLEAN

HERMANN M. BIGGS, M.D., State Commissioner of Icalth:

I beg to sumbit the following report upon the sanitary condition of the public water supply of Olear, covering both the present supply and a proposed Lew supply.

General information regarding present supply Location.— Cattaraugus county, on Erie railroad and the Buffalo division of the Pennsylvania railroad, also on the Allegany river.

Population.— 17,925.

lateruorks in charge of.- Board of water commissioners.

Source of supply.- Driven wells in low land adjacent to Allegany river in southern part of the city.

Consumption.— 2,000,000 gallons per day, or 111 gallons per capita. Distribution system.-- Water is pumped from wells to storage reservoir. whence it flows by gravity through a distribution system consisting of 47 miles of 4 to 24-inch pipe.

Service taps.- 4,500, all of which are metered.
Pressure.-110 pounds per square inch.

Storage:--Two reservoirs, one 8,000,000 and the other 2,000,000 gallons capacity.

Purification.- None.

References to previous investigalio1s.- Page 250, 30th Annual Report; page 947, 33d Report and page 519, 36th Report.

The preceding reports have pointed out that the present supply is subject to pollution at such times as the Allegany river overflows the area about the wells from which the supply is obtained. It has also been pointed out that there was danger of pollution from a privy located not far from a dug well tributary to the supply. As a result of these insanitary conditions the following recommendations were made in the last preceding report:

1. That the board of water commissioners take immediate steps to prevent possible contamination of the water supply.

a. By carefully protecting each well from the possibility of leakage of surface water into it.

b. By flood control methods in accordance with the recommendations of the previous reports. 2. That the board of water commissioners remove the privy near the Cook well to a distance of at least 500 feet from the well, or else provide it with water-tight containers, the contents of which shall be systematically removed and properly disposed of.

3. That the city authorities have regular and frequent analyses made of the supply, in order to detect at any time the presence of active contamination.

4. That, in case the analyses, after the carrying out of the improvements of recommendation No. 1, show that these measures are ineffective to prevent contamination, the board of water commissioners consider ahandoning the wells and securing a new supply of unquestioned sanitary quality or else, if practicable, install apparatus for the sterilization of the

supply with liquid chlorine. As a result of this investigation it is apparent that the city authorities have endeavored to secure the carrying out of these recommendations. The privy located near the “ Co

Cook » well has been removed and sewers installed. Analy ses of the water have been frequently made. Furthermore, plans are now being prepared for the development of a new supply by purification of the water from Olcan creek. No steps have been taken, however, to prevent overflooding of the wells. In fact, as a result of excavating directly over the wells for the construction of dykes in connection with flood prevention in the city, the possibility of pollution from the river is greater than at the time of previous inspections. At the time of the recent inspection the area about all of the driven wells was flooded and the inspector was informed that such a condition had existed for a month or more prior thereto.

During the past few years it has been necessary to draw upon these wells to their full capacity in order to furnish sufficient water; in fact, during the past winter it was necessary to shut off some of the largest consumers for about three weeks because of a shortage of water. The necessity of a more adequate supply was, therefore, apparent and as stated above, plans are now being prepared for the development of a new supply. In connection with the development of this new supply from Olean creek, it is proposed to take the water from the creek near the northern edge of the city, just below the Erie railroad bridge. The water is to be treated with alum and passed through a coagulating basin, thence through gravity mechanical filters into a clear water well. Sterilization is to be provided by means of liquid chlorine before the water enters the clear water well. The plans for this proposed plant were in the course of preparation at the time of the inspection, the general lay-out having been practically decided upon, but the details not having been completed.

The area of the watershed of Olean creek above the proposed intake is about 170 square miles, and the population is equivalent to about 36 persons per square mile. The land is used principally for farming and agricultural purposes. There are two incorporated villages located on the bank of streams tributary to the creek. One, Franklinville, has a population of 2,065, and is provided with a sewer system and disposal plant, the effluent from which discharges into the stream. Cuba, the other village, is located on a tributary of the creek and has a population of 1,645. It is not provided with a sever system and, so far as could be determined hy the inspection, no sewers discharge into the stream at this place.

An inspection of the watershed at the time of this investigation showed the following insanitary conditions which may be considered as indicative of the general conditions on the watershed:

1. At Ischua, about 12 miles above the proposed intake on property of the Baxter estate, the toilet from a house discharges into a small tributary that finds its way into the creek about 300 feet distant. A privy is also located on the bank of this tributary.

2. At the farm of Edward Anderson, 1 mile ahore Ischua, or 13 miles above the intake, a privy is located on the bank of a tributary.

3. At a farm 3 miles above Ischua, or 15 miles above the intake, a priry with no vault is 100 feet from the stream.

4. At the farm of Leo Reed, 112 miles south of Franklinville, or about 28 miles above the intake, a privy is located on the bank of the stream. These insanitary conditions if allowed to exist would constitute a serious menace to the sanitary quality of the proposed supply. By the enactment of rules and regulations by this Department, however, these conditions could probably be satisfactorily controlled.

The proposed purification plant is to have a capacity of about 2,000,000 gallons per day, which is that of the present consumption. The present supply is to be held in reserve and used in connection with this supply if necessary. The coagulating basin, which is to be divided into two parts, is to have a total detention period of about four hours. There are to be 6 filter units. each 11 feet by 13 feet 6 inches, thus giving a total filter area of about .02 of an acre and providing for a rate of filtration of about 100,000,000 gallons per acre per day. Provision is to be made for a rapid wash without agitation, the wash water to rise at a rate of 3 feet per second, an equivalent of about 22 gallons per square foot of filter surface. The walls of the waste water gutters are to be 2 feet above the surface of the sand. Arrangement is to be made for filtering to waste after washing. From the filters the water will pass into the clear water well, which will be located beneath the filters. Liquid chlorine will be applied to the effluent from the filters before it enters the clear water well.

Samples of the present supply and of Olean creek water were collected at the time of the inspection and sent to the Division of Laboratories and Research for analyses, the results of which together with those of other analyses made since the preceding investigation are recorded in the appender table.

The results of these analyses indicate that the water of the present supply

satisfactory with respect to color and turbidity, but that it is very hard. The bacterial counts are occasionally high and in the samples collected at the time of this investigation colon bacilli were somewhat prevalent, thus indicating the presence of active and potentially dangerous contamination. This pollution was probably due to the overflowing of the land about the driven wells.

The result of the analyses of the samples collected from Olean creek show clearly the contaminated condition of this water, and that at the time of the inspection it was high in color and turbidity. This water, however, is decidedly less hard than the present supply, and with proper purification should be satisfactory with respect to both physical and sanitary qualities. As a result of this investigation it may be concluded: 1. That regarding the present supply,

(a) As pointed out in previous reports, it is subject to intermittent pollution, due to overflowing of the land in the vicinity of the wells.

(b) The wells do not furnish an adequate supply of water for the present needs of the city. 2. That although the water of Olean creek is subject to considerable contamination this water can undoubtedly be satisfactorily purified to furnish a satisfactory supply, providing:

(a) Proper sanitary conditions are maintained on the watershed. (b) The purification plant is properly designed and constructed.

(c) That, after being constructed, the plant is continuously and

efficiently operated. As a result of the above, I beg to offer the following recommendations to be acted upon by the city officials.

1. That apparatus be provided and the present supply be sterilized with liquid chlorine. 2. That in connection with the development of the new supply,

(a) Application be made to this Department for the enactment of rules and regulations protecting the sanitary quality of the supply.

(b) That care and proper supervision be at all times maintained in order that the new purification plant be effectively operated after its completion.

(c) In view of the possibility of pollution finding its way directly to the supply from toilets on trains, if the intake is located just below the Erie railroad bridge, it is recommended that the intake be located

above this bridge. Finally, I would recommend that copies of this report be sent to the various city officials, and to the sanitary supervisor of the district.

Respectfully submitted,
THEODORE HORTON,

Chief Engineer ALBANY, N. Y., August 8, 1917

RESULTS OF WATER ANALYSES Abbreviations used to describe odors of water: 0, none; 1, very faint; 2, faint; 3, distinct; 4, decided; 5, strong; 6, very strong; a, aromatic;

d, disagreeable; e, earthy; f, fishy; g, grassy; m, musty; v, vegetable

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