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NUNDA

HERMANN M. BIGGS, M.D., State Commissioner of Health:

I beg to submit the following report on an investigation of the public water supply of Nunda, made by Mr. C. M. Baker, assistant engineer, on August 3, 1917.

Nunda is an incorporated village of 1,140 inhabitants located in the southwestern corner of Livingston county on the Rochester Division of the Pennsylvania railroad, 75 miles south of Rochester. It is on the Keshequa creek, a tributary to Canaseraga creek and the Genesee river. No sewerage system is provided in the village, the houses being served by privies, cesspools, etc.

The water supply was installed, owned and operated by the Nunda Water Works Company until August 1, 1917, at which time it was purchased and taken over by the municipality. The supply was first put into operation about 1887, since when an additional spring has been added to the regular supply, also a second spring and pump station as an auxiliary supply. The regular supply is derived from 2 springs known as the Bradley and Sager springs, located 21,2 and 4 miles respectively south of the village. From these springs the water flows by gravity to a storage reservoir on the hill about 1 mile south of the village, thence to the distribution system. The auxiliary supply is pumped into the distribution system from a spring located in the southern edge of the village.

About 50 per cent of the population are served with the water, there being in all some 150 service taps. The distribution system consists of about 7 miles of mains ranging from 4 to 12 inches in diameter. From springs to reservoir and part way from reservoir to village the pipe line is of wood. The normal pressure is 50 pounds per square inch, but this may be increased to 80 pounds in case of fire. Due to lack of meters or other method of measuring the water used, no definite information could be obtained regarding the consumption.

The storage reservoir is constructed of stone and concrete, is 40 by 50 feet in plan by 12 feet deep and has a capacity of about 180,000 gallons. It has been the practice of the water company in the past to clean the reservoir yearly and to flush the mains twice each year. The pumping equipment in connection with the auxiliary supply consists of a Snow steam pump, which is operated as needed.

The Sager spring is located just east of the Pennsylvania railroad, at a point 4 or 412 miles south of the village. It consists of a small intake basin located in low land near a brook. Ground water flows into this basin from an open collecting gallery. The surface watershed tributary to this spring is probably 25 or 30 acres in area. The village owns about 3 acres, which is enclosed by a fence but no adequate provision is made to prevent surface wash from finding its way into the supply. There are no houses in the vicinity, the watershed being used as pasture land.

The Bradley spring consists of a system of collecting tile, located in a ravine, which collects the water and discharges it into a reservoir. The greater part of the ravine is enclosed by a fence, and drainage ditches are provided around its perimeter to divert surface wash. These ditches, however, were filled in in some places at the time of the inspection, and in some instances they are located outside of the enclosed area.

The spring from which the auxiliary supply is derived is located on low ground belonging to the former owner of the supply just below a small dam across one branch of Keshequa creek. At times of high water this spring is doubtless subject to surface wash.

Some difficulty was experienced in obtaining definite information regarding this supply. Various village officials were interviewed and apparently know little or nothing about the supply, but information was finally obtained from Mr. 0. J. Willard, former owner of the system. The assistant engineer was informed that the village contemplates some improvements of the supply.

No definite information, however, could be obtained as to the extent or nature of these improvements.

Samples of the water were collected at the time of the inspection and sent to the Division of Laboratories and Research for analyses, the results of which together with previous analyses are recorded in the appended table.

The results of these analyses show a water at times slightly colored and turbid, also a water high in hardness. The figures for nitrogen in its various forms are moderate but those for nitrates and chlorine appear to be somewhat above normal. The bacterial counts are usually high and at times are very high. These counts may, however, be due in part to delay in transit, 3 days elapsing from the time the samples were collccted at the time of the inspection until they were received at the laboratory. Colon bacilli are prevalent in the 10 c.c. inoculations, frequently present in the 1 c.c. and occasionally in the 1/10 c.c. inoculations, thus indicating the presence of active contamination. This pollution is probably due to surface wash finding its way into the various sources of supply. As a result of this investigation it may be concluded:

1. That the water supply of Nunda is derived from sources which are subject to pollution by surface wash.

2. That with proper development these sources of supply could probably be made satisfactory with respect to quality and the yield could

undoubtedly be increased. In view of the above I beg to recommend:

1. That a larger area of land be obtained about the Sager spring and that the spring be protected from surface wash by suitable" drainage ditches located within the enclosed area.

2. That the drainage ditches be reconstructed about the Bradley spring so as to more adequately divert the surface wash and that they be located inside of the enclosed area or that the area be extended to include the

ditches. In order to secure the most satisfactory development of the supply it seems advisable that the municipality secure the services of a competent consulting expert to make a detailed study of the situation and advise as to the proper procedure in the development of the supply, both with respect to protecting its sanitary quality and to securing a larger yield from the various sources.

Finally I would recommend that copies of this report be sent to the various officials of the municipalities and to the sanitary supervisor of the district.

Respectfully submitted,

THEODORE HORTON, ALBANY, N. Y., Decennber 17, 1917

Chief Engineer

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10 c.c.

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B. coli type.

1 c.c. | 1/10 c.c.

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Results are expressed in parts per million, + Present. Absent.

Abbreviations used to describe odors of water: 0, none; 1, very faint; 2, faint; 3, distinct; 4. decided; 5. strong; 6, very strong; a, aromatic; d. disagreeable; e, earthy; f, fishy; g, grassy; m, musty; V vegetable.

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Results are expressed in parts per million. + Present. Absent.

Abbreviations used to describe odors of water: 0, none; 1, very faint; 2, faint; 3, distinct; 4, decided; 5, strong; 6, very strong; a, aromatic; d, disagreeable; e, earthy; f, fishy; g, grassy; m, Inusty; v, vegetable.

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Collected on.
Color
Odor, hot..
Odor, cold..
Turbidity
Solids, total.
Loss on ignition
Mineral residue.
Ammonia, free.
Ammonia, albuminoid
Nitritos.
Vitrates.
Oxygen consumed.
Chlorine..
Hardness, total.
Akalinity.
Bacteria per c.c..

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.034 .040 .001 0.70 1.40

3.00 140.0 135.0

200 3+04 1+20+3–

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B. coli type.

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10 c.c.

1 c.c. 1/10 c.c.

111

Results are expressed in parts per million. + Present. Absent.

Abbreviations used to describe odors of water: 0, none; 1, very faint; 2, faint; 3, distinct; 4, decided; 5, strong; 6, very strong; a, aromatic; d, disagreeable; e, earthy; f, fishy; g, grassy; m, musty; v, vegetable. * Samples three days in transit.

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Resulis are expressed in parts per million. — Present. -- Als:ni.

Abbreviations used to describe odors of water: 0, none; 1, very faint; 2, faint; 3, clistinct; 4, decided; 5, strong; 6, very strong; a, aromatic; d, disagreeable; e, earthy; f, fishy; &, grassy; in, musty; v, vegetable.

* Samples three days in transit.

OAKFIELD

HERMANY M. Biggs, V.D., State Cominissioner of Ilealth :

I beg to submit the following report on an investigation of the public water supply of Oakfield, made by Ir. C. M. Baker, assistant engineer, on October 3, 1916.

Oakfield is an incorporated village of 1,307 inhabitants, located in the north central part of Genesee county. It is on the West Shore railroad, about 34 miles west of Rochester and 6 miles northwest of Batavia. No sewer system is providel in the village, the houses being served by privies, cesspools, etc.

The supply is owned by the municipality and was first put into operation. about January 1, 1916. Water is obtained from a spring or shallow well located about one-fourth of a mile west of the village just outside the corporation line. Water is pumped from the well through the distribution system into an elevated tank located in the northwestern portion of the village. About 40 per cent of the population is served with the water, there being in all about 100 service taps, all of which are metered. According to the pump records the consumption averages about 30,000 gallons daily, except during a part of the month of August, when a large canning factory was in operation during the last summer, when the daily consumption was approximately 186,000 gallons. The pressure in the village averages 50 to 70 pounds per

The reservoir is located in the northwesterly corner of the village on a tower about 100 feet high and has a capacity of about 125,000 gallons.

The pumping equipment is housed in a brick building, 20 by 30 feet in planı situated directly over the well. The equipment consists of a 15 horsepower electric motor, directly connected with a Deming triplex single-acting pump, having a capacity of 250,000 gallons per day, also a 24 horsepower gasoline engine, directly connected with a similar pump. An electrical connection with the standpipe automatically starts the inotor when the standpipe is half empty, the current being autoinatically shut off when the tank is full.

The well or spring from which the supply is derived was formerly known as the Seymour spring. It is located near a small stream at the foot of a steep bank. Measurement of the flow of the spring made in April, 1915, before

square inch.

the construction of the well, showed a yield of 250,000 gallons per day, and similar measurements in June of the same year showed a yield of 175,000 gallons daily. A well or reservoir 18 by 28 feet in plan and 10 feet deep has been constructed about the spring. The walls of this well are of concrete and rest on the limestone formation from which the water is obtained. The floor of the pumping station, which is directly over the well, appears to be watertight and was in a satisfactory condition at the time of the inspection. About four acres of land are owned by the village in the immediate vicinity of the well. This area was formerly low and at times became flooded, but since the construction of the well it has been filled in with soil from the nearby bank, so that there now appears to be little if any danger of inundation. Openings in the west wall of the well, however, allow water from the well to discharge below the overflow provided for this purpose. It is possible also that under certain conditions at flood time, surface water may find its way into the supply back through these openings. No insanitary conditions were observed in the immediate vicinity of the well at the time of the inspection.

Bacterial analyses of the water submitted by the village authorities to the Conservation Commission before the supply was put into operation were not entirely favorable. Apparatus was, therefore, provided for sterilizing the water with liquid chlorine. This apparatus consists of a Wallace & Tiernan solution feed, type "A," manual control apparatus.

The superintendent in charge of the plant apparently had had little instruction regarding the operation of the chlorine apparatus. At the time of the inspection the apparatus was clogged in some part, either in or beyond the control valve, so the chlorine was not then being applied to the water. The chlorine cylinder was very nearly empty and no provision had been made for obtaining another. No scales are provided for checking the apparatus by the actual loss of weight in the chlorine cylinder. Although, as previously stated, no insanitary conditions were observed in the vicinity of the well, in view of the unsatisfactory bacterial results previously obtained, more careful supervision should be maintained over the operation of the liquid chlorine apparatus.

Samples of the water were collected at the time of the inspection and sent to the Division of Laboratories and Research for analyses, the results of which are recorded in the appended table.

The results of these analyses show a water satisfactory in physical qualities with respect to color and turbidity, but one that is exceedingly hard. While the hardness of the water does not affect its sanitary quality, it is a matter for serious economic consideration, and it also causes considerable inconvenience to the consumers. This difficulty, however, could doubtless be overcome by the installation and operation of a suitable softening plant.

The figures for nitrogen in the form of free and albuminoid ammonia and nitrites are low but those for nitrates and chlorine are rather high, thus indicating that pollution finds its way into the ground water tributary to the supply. The bacterial counts were low in all cases and colon bacilli were not found present. As a result of this investigation it may be concluded:

1. That although otherwise satisfactory from a physical standpoint, the water is exceedingly hard.

2. That although bacterial analyses of the spring water before the supply was developed were not entirely favorable, the location and development of the present source of supply indicate that there is little danger of pollution except as pointed out above, that which might arise from surface water finding its way into the well through openings in the west wall at time of foods.

3. That the liquid chlorine plant was not being properly supervised and operated at the time of the inspection in that

(a) The superintendent was not sufficiently informed regarding the operation of the apparatus, with the result that clogging of the apparatus had occurred and remained uncorrected at the time of the inspection

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