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The site consists of an area of about 34 acres, located on a hill about 4%. mile northeast of the Chenango Bridge station of the D. L. & W. R. R., and about 5 miles northeast of Binghamton. The elevation of the ground at the site ranges from about 1,100 feet to 1,350 feet above sea level. The Chenango river flows in the valley to the south of and about 94 of a mile from the site. The top soil on the property consists of a disintegrated shale, clay and gravel to a depth of 4 or 5 feet. Underneath this top soil is a substratum of a shaly limestone which outcrops at a number of points.
The buildings on the site are to consist of an administration building, a women’s pavilion and a men’s pavilion located on an elevation of about 1,160 feet above sea level and a pumping station and garage located north of and a few feet higher than the main buildings. According to the report of the architect who prepared the plans, an immediate present population of 80 and a future population of 100 is to be provided for. Plans for water supply and sewage disposal for this institution were first submitted for approval on November 13, 1917, but the plans were not in satisfactory condition for approval and they were therefore returned to the architect for modification on the same date.
The plans show that the water supply for the institution is to be obtained from a driven well located in the northwest corner of the pump house from which the water is to be pumped through a 3-inch wrought iron force main to a 15,000 gallon reservoir located about 500 feet north and at an elevation of about 140 feet above the main group of buildings. The distribution system is to consist of 3-inch wrought iron pipe. Four fire hydrants are also to be provided. Details of the construction of the well and pumping equipment are not shown but according to the report of the architect the well is driven through 11 feet of clayey loam or hard-pan and then through rock for the remainder of its depth. It is stated that the water stands at 70 feet below the surface of the ground and the pumping equipment is to be so arranged as to permit of pumping the well down to a depth of 90 feet below the top of the ground. There are no buildings on the watershed above the well. The pumping equipment is to consist of a 9 horse-power gasoline engine by means of which the water is to be pumped to the reservoir through the 3-inch discharge pipe. The reservoir is to be located near the top of the hill above the institution at such an elevation that the high water mark of the reservoir will be about 140 feet above the ground level of the building site. It is to be constructed of reinforced concrete and is to be located entirely below ground. A manhole opening is to be provided at the top. It is to be hopper shaped, 20 feet square at the top and 13 feet 6 inches deep below the high water mark. The proposed reservoir will have a capacity when full of about 15,000 gallons and will, therefore, provide for a storage period of about 1% days for a maximum population of 100 assuming a per capita rate of water consumption of 100 gallons per day. A 3-inch overflow and blow-off extending from the lowest point of the reservoir is to be provided. It is also planned to provide a "4-inch tell tale pipe extending from the high water mark to the pump house. This will enable the operator to determine when the reservoir is full, but will, of course, not indicate the level of the water in the reservoir below that point. This, however, could be done by installing an electrical signaling device operated by a float in the reservoir. As noted above the distribution system for the water Supply as shown on the plans consists of a 3-inch galvanized iron pipe about 600 feet long extending from the reservoir to the administration building, the center one of the three main buildings; and two branch lines of the same diameter extending from this point in each direction passing under the pavilions to points about 15 feet beyond them. Four fire hydrants are provided, all connected to these branch lines. Two of the hydrants are located between the administration building and the pavilions, one on each side of the administration building. Each of the other two hydrants are located about 15 feet beyond each pavilion. In order to save expense it is proposed at present to provide only 2-inch pipe from the hydrants between the administration building and the pavilions to the hydrants beyond the pavilions.
The system is a satisfactory one so far as providing water for domestic purposes is concerned but it could apparently be improved when considered in connection with the fire protection of the buildings. The size of the main and the laterals is such that it will be possible to use one 34-inch or two %-inch streams in case of fire. Such provision is not usually considered effective in controlling a fire in a large frame building, and cannot be considered as satisfactory in the present case for either controlling a fire in one of the buildings or preventing its spread from one to another. Furthermore, the location of the hydrants between the buildings and at points only 15 feet beyond the buildings will make it impossible to reach the hydrants In case of fire unless the wind is blowing from such a direction as to drive the flames and smoke away from them. It would seem advisable, therefore, to make the main supply line of 4-inch pipe, preferably of cast iron, and to distribute the water to the hydrants by means of a loop, rectangular in form, of 3-1nch pipe around the administration building. The hydrants could be located near the corners of the rectangle, and should be 50 or 75 feet distant from the buildings. Service pipes of galvanized iron, 2 inches in diameter or of other suitable size could be laid from the loop into the buildings for supplying water for domestic purposes. This arrangement would make it possible to obtain one good 1-inch stream of two 94-inch streams which would be much more effective than streams mentioned above. The arrangement of the plpe in the form of a loop would permit the water to reach the hydrants from either direction, and prevent the opening of a second hydrant from Interfering with the flow from the first.
The use of larger streams would, of course, increase the draught on the reservoir, and it would be desirable, therefore, if the size of the pipes was increased, to make the capacity of the reservoir about 25,000 gallons instead of 15,000 gallons in order that the quantity of water available will be sufficient for the maintenance of the fire streams for a period necessary for the proper protection of the institution. From the examination of the plans it would appear that by redesigning the reservoir and making it rectangular in form the additional capacity could be provided without any material increase in the cost of the structure.
It is proposed to dispose of the sewage in a sewage disposal plant consisting of a settling tank and an auxiliary sludge drying bed located about 60 feet southwest of the women’s pavilion. The effluent is to be discharged into the Chenango river. The sewage from the buildings is to be conveyed to the settling tank by means of 6-inch sewers. The sewer between the men's pavilion and the manholes opposite the women’s pavilion is shown with a slope of only about 0.3 per cent. It would be better to increase this slope to not less than 1 per cent in order to give better assurance that there will be self-cleansing velocities of the sewer. This could be done without increasing the cost of construction and there is ample fall available to permit of increasing the slope of the sewer.
The settling tank is to be a covered single compartment tank located about 60 feet southwest of the women’s pavilion. It is to be a covered concrete structure, 20 feet long by 8 feet wide inside dimensions with a depth below the flow line of from 3% to 6% feet. It will have a capacity when clean of about 5,400 gallons and will, therefore, provide for a detention period of the sewage of from 12 to 16 hours on the basis of the design used.
Provisions are to be made for drawing off the sludge from the tank and discharging it to a sludge bed by gravity flow. This bed is to be divided into two units 10 feet square each, giving a total area of 200 square feet which should be adequate for the needs of the institution. The sludge beds are to be placed in excavation and are to be filled to a depth of 12 inches with filtering material consisting of a lower layer of broken stone 9 inches deep and a top layer of sand 4 inches deep. The beds are to be provided with 4 lines of underdrains spaced about 2% feet on centers and a main 4 inch drain which will empty into the manhole on the effluent pipe from the settling tank. The plans do not show the location nor alignment of the effluent pipe from the settling tank beyond the limits of the hospital property. The report of the architect states, however, that details of this sewer are to be submitted as soon as the necessary surveys for the installation of this line are completed. The sewer should not be less than 6 inches in diameter and should be constructed with a slope of not less than 0.65 per cent. It would appear from the topographical maps submitted with the plans that there is ample fall to obtain the required slope for the pipe. The outlet end of the pipe should be so located that it will be submerged at low water stage of the river. In conclusion I would state that as a result of our examination of these plans and after careful consideration of general and local conditions and requirements, we find that the plans as submitted are not in satisfactory condition for approval by this Department. I would, therefore, recommend that they be returned to the architect for modification and amendment according to the suggestions contained herein.
THEODORE HORTON, ALBANY, N. Y., November 24, 1917 Chief Engineer
The plans were revised in accordance with the recommendations of the report, and the revised plans approved November 27, 1917.
Application having been duly made to the State Commissioner of Health, as provided by section 76 of chapter 49 of the Laws of 1909, the “Public Health Law,” as amended by chapter 553 of the Laws of 1911, constituting chapter 45 of the Consolidated Laws, permission is hereby given to the Board of Supervisors of Broome county to discharge effluent from the sewage disposal plant to be constructed at the Broome County Tuberculosis Hospital in the town of Chenango into the waters of Chenango river near Chenango bridge within the town of Chenango in accordance with the plans accompanying the petition, under the following conditions:
1. That this permit shall be revocable at any time or subject to modification or change when in the judgment of the State Commissioner of Health such revocation, modification or change shall become necessary. 2. That the issuance of this permit shall not be deemed to affect in any way action by this Department on any future application that may be made for permission to discharge additional sewage or effluent into the waters of this State. 3. That only sanitary or domestic sewage and no storm water from roofs or other areas shall be admitted to the proposed sewage disposal plant. 4. That satisfactory detailed plans showing the outlet sewer from the disposal plant to the Chenango river shall be submitted to this Department for approval before the disposal plant is constructed. 5. That whenever required by the State Commissioner of Health satisfactory detailed plans for additional works for more complete treatment of the sewage of the Broome County Tuberculosis Hospital shall be submitted for approval; and after approval of said plans any or all portions of such additional or supplementary works for more complete treatment of the sewage shall be constructed and put in operation at such time or times thereafter as said Commissioner may designate.
M. NICOLL, JR., Deputy State Commissioner of Health November 28, 1917
BUFFALO (Bird Island Outfall)
HERMANN M. BIGGS, M.D., State Commissioner of Health :
I beg to submit the following report on our examination of plans for a proposed extension of the so-called Bird Island pier outfall sewer in the city of Buffalo, submitted to this Department for approval by the city engineer on April 2, 1917. It is assumed at the outset that the approval of these plans is requested merely as a temporary measure to enable the construction of water front improvements to proceed at once. In fact it is impracticable to consider this proposition in any other light inasmuch as the problem of interception and disposal of the sewage of the city has not been worked out definitely but as We are informed is the subject of thorough investigation by a commisSioner of Sanitary engineers appointed for that purpose. The Bird Island sewer, according to data submitted by the city engineer, is a trunk and intercepting sewer which serves the business section and the easterly central portion of the city and discharges into the Niagara river at the present water’s edge, between Albany and Ferry streets, after passing under the Black Rock shipping canal by means of an inverted siphon. It appears that the city is to construct a new pier wall on the bulkhead line of the river about 50 feet beyond the present outlet, and . that it is proposed to extend the present outlet to the bulkhead line. The plans also provide for extending a branch from the outlet on the inside of the bulkhead or pier line along the river toward Squaw island for a distance of about 600 feet, which is as far as it is proposed to carry the river improvements at present. The present outlet section of the Bird Island sewer is 8% feet in diameter and the invert of the outlet is about 18 feet below the level of the river. The proposed extension of the outlet to the bulkhead line is also to be 8% feet in diameter and is to consist of a steel pipe encased in concrete. A stop plank gate is to be provided near the outlet end of the proposed steel pipe extension. It would appear that the proposed extension of the outlet to the bulkhead line, a distance approximately 50 feet, should not alter appreciably the hydraulic conditions of the Bird Island sewer, and that the construction of the proposed extension should not materially affect any plans that may be drawn up for the interception and treatment of the sewage tributary to this SeVer. The branch interceptor of the Bird Island sewer to be constructed along the new pier inside of the bulkhead line is also to be 8% feet in diameter. The upper 60 feet section of this sewer extending from a “Y” branch some 25 feet from the proposed outlet to a gate manhole is also to be a steel pipe laid in concrete. The remainder of this branch extension is to be constructed either of reinforced concrete pipe or of wood stave pipe and is to terminate at a manhole about 540 feet below the proposed gate manhole. It appears from the report submitted by the city engineer in connection with the plans that the proposed branch extension is to extend in the direction of one of the proposed sewage disposal plants to be constructed either on the pier below the proposed outlet or on Squaw island, the site recommened by the International Joint Commission for sewage disposal, and that it is proposed to continue the extension simultaneously with the river front improvement. The slope on which the proposed branch extension is to be laid is not shown by the plans nor have any data been submitted as to the present and probable future flow of sewage tributary to the Bird island outlet, so that it is impracticable to determine the capacity and adequacy of this extension. furthermore, in the absence of any definite statement or plans for the interception and disposal of the sewage of the city we have no means of judging if the proposed branch extension will fit into a comprehensive scheme for such interception and disposal of the sewage of the city. It is impossible, therefore, to finally pass upon this feature of the present plans
and it would seem that approval of the plans could consistently be given at this time only on condition that this sewer be modified, supplemented or relieved if necessary, in the future to make it conform suitably with the comprehensive plans for the interception and treatment of the sewage of the city when these have been definitely developed. In view of the above I would recommend that the plans be approved and a permit be issued allowing the discharge of the sewage from the proposed outlet into the Niagara river on the following conditions:
1. That within two years complete plans for the interception and treatment of the entire sewage of the city of Buffalo shall be submitted to this Department for approval. 2. That no sewage shall be discharged into the proposed branch extenSion until complete plans for the interception and treatment of the entire sewage of the city of Buffalo have been submitted to and approved by this Department as provided by condition 1. 3. That the proposed branch extension be modified, supplemented or relieved, if necessary, in such manner as will properly conform with said complete plans for the interception and treatment of the entire sewage of the city, to be submitted and approved as provided in condition 1. 4. That upon the completion of the works for the interception and treatment of the sewage of the city, the sewage then discharging through the proposed outlet shall be diverted into the new system of intercepting Sewers and Sewage treatment works, and said outlet shall be abandoned or otherwise modified or rearranged in such manner as may be required or approved by the State Department of Health.
THEODORE HORTON, ALBANY, N. Y., April 25, 1917 Chief Engineer
Application having been duly made to the State Commissioner of Health, as provided by section 77 of chapter 49 of the Laws of 1909, the “Public Health Law,” as amended by chapter 553 of the Laws of 1911, constituting chapter 45 of the Consolidated Laws, permission is hereby given to the Council of the city of Buffalo to discharge sewage from the proposed extension of the Bird Island pier outfall sewer into the waters of Niagara river at the point of discharge chosen by the plans, within the municipality of Buffalo, in accordance with the plans accompanying the petition, under the following conditions:
1. That this permit shall be revocable at any time or subject to modification or change when in the judgment of the State Commissioner of Health such revocation, modification or change shall become necessary.
2. That the issuance of this permit shall not be deemed to affect in any way action by this Department on any future application that may be made for permission to discharge additional sewage or effluent into the waters of this State.
3. That on or before May 1, 1919, satisfactory complete plans for the interception and treatment of the entire sewage of the city of Buffalo shall be submitted to this Department for approval.
4. That no sewage shall be discharged into the proposed branch extension until complete plans for the interception and treatment of the entire sewage of the city have been submitted to and approved by this Department as provided by condition 3.
5. That the proposed branch extension shall be modified, supplemented or relieved, if necessary, in such manner as will properly conform with said complete plans for the interception and treatment of the entire jo of the city, to be submitted and approved as provided in conition 3.