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Angelica is an incorporated village with a population of 1,138 located in the central part of Allegany county, on the Pittsburg, Shawmut and Northern railroad, about 40 miles west of the city of Hornell. The village contains the shops of this railroad but otherwise is largely a residential and trading center for the surrounding agricultural country. There is no public sewer system in the village, the houses being served by privies and cesspools.

The public water supply is derived from a spring located about 6 miles northeast of the village, a short distance beyond the station of Bennetts, on the Pittsburg, Shawmut and Northern railroad. The waterworks were constructed by contract in 1897 under the direction of the designing engineer, Mr. J. F. Whitmer. About 1902 or 1903, 3 miles of the pipe line leading from the spring to the village were relaid. The waterworks are owned and operated by the village under the direction of the board of water commissioners, of which Mr. David H. Dodson is president and Mr. C. D. Buchanan is superintendent.

Practically the entire population of the village is served by the supply and the average daily consumption may be estimated at 50,000 gallons. A few private wells in the village are still in use. There are about 12 miles of water mains ranging from 6 to 8 inches in diameter. Of the 300 service taps some 100 are metered.

The average pressure in the village is about 60 pounds per square inch. The spring is located at a sufficient elevation above the village to supply the water by gravity, but owing to the smallness of the pipe leading from the spring to the village and to some irregularity in alignment allowing the formation of air pockets, it is necessary to pump two or three times a week.

A reservoir on the side hill north of the village acts as a storage reservoir for a reserve supply in case of fire. The main leading to this reservoir is provided with check, gate and relief valves so adjusted as to prevent back flow from this reservoir except in the case of a serious drop in pressure in the distribution system or unless the gate valve is open. The reservoir is approximately 60 x 200 feet in plan, 12 feet deep and has a capacity of 450,000 gallons when filled to the point of overflow.

The spring has been developed by the construction of a masonry basin 14 x 22 feet in plan, 6 feet deep. This basin is covered with a wooden house. Approximately one-half of the surface of the basin is covered by a wooden flooring upon which is located the pumping equipment, consisting of a Rumsey triplex 6-inch by 8-inch pump, belted to a 7 horse-power Olin gas engine. The side walls of the basin extend a few inches above the surface of the surrounding ground and an overtlow pipe leads into a ditch at an elevation a very little lower than that of the water level in the basin. At one end and outside of the spring basin is a small uncovered circular well built of masonry extending 2 or 3 feet above the ground. This well enters the same ground water as that of the spring and is undoubtedly more or less intimately connected with the water therein. This well is used by the inhabitants of a nearby house, the water being drawn by a bucket and rope. This house is located about 200 feet distant and at a higher elevation than the spring. Back of this house and still nearer the basin is located a cesspool receiving sink drainage. About 150 feet distant and at a higher elevation, although at a point where surface drainage is away from the direction of the well, is located a privy of the ordinary rural type. About 200 feet distant and on land sloping away from the spring are located barns, sheds and other outbuildings. No other houses are located within 1,000 feet of the spring. Probably the most serious condition, however, liable to bring about contamination of the well is the overflowing of the low land in which the spring is located by the flood waters of Black creek, several hundred feet distant. At times of flood the low land is covered with water which backs up through the overflow pipe and enters the spring basin. Such a flood had occurred a week or so prior to the time of this inspection.

At the time of the inspection a sample of the water was collected from a tap in the village and the results of this analysis, together with others made in the past by the Division of Laboratories and Research, will be found in the appended table.

These analyses show a water usually clear and colorless and moderately soft. The figures for nitrogen in its various forms are usually low and indicate moderate amounts of decomposing and decomposable organic matter. At times, however, the water has been somewhat colored and turbid, and these results probably occurred at such times as the spring was contaminated by flood water. The bacterial counts are comparatively low, with a few exceptions, and organisms of the B. coli type usually absent in the 10 c.c. inoculations. At times, however, the bacterial counts have been high and organisms of the B. coli type present, indicating the occurrence of contamination by surface wash at times of flood. In view of the above facts the following conclusions may be drawn:

1. That the public water supply of Angelica is derived from a source which if properly protected from contamination should furnish a supply of satisfactory sanitary and physical quality.

2. That the open well adjacent to the north end of the spring basin affords a possible means whereby contamination of the ground water tributary to the spring may be brought about.

3. That the location of the pumping equipment in the spring house over the spring basin affords opportunity for accidental contamination of the supply by the attendants at the station.

4. That serious contamination of the spring may be brought about by flooding of the basin or by the backing up of surface water through the overflow therefrom.

5. That the barn yard, privy and cesspools belonging to the nearby farm-house constitute possible sources of contamination of the ground water tributary to the spring.

6. That the necessity of pumping is due in all probability to improper valignment of the pipe line to the village. I would, therefore, recommend:

1. That the well adjacent to the spring basin be covered and provided with a pump arranged in such a way that pumped water cannot flow back into the well.

2. That the walls of the spring basin and the overflow pipe therefrom be raised to an elevation above flood waters.

3. That, when the spring basin walls are raised, the pumping equipment be placed either in a separate building or that a portion of the spring house containing it be tightly sealed from the basin holding the spring water.

4. That care should be exercised to prevent contamination of the ground water from nearby sources of pollution and if, after the carrying out of the above recommendations, future analyses indicate contamination, steps be taken to secure the control of the nearby farm buildings and remove such sources of contamination as may menace the quality of the supply.

5. That, in order to eliminate the necessity of pumping, a survey be made of the pipe line to the village in order to discover at what points the line rises above the hydraulic gradient and to correct such conditions

as may be found to retard the free flow of water through the mains. I would further recommend that copies of this report be transmitted to the local authorities and to the sanitary supervisor of the district.

Respectfully submitted,
THEODORE HORTON,

Chief Engineer ALBANY, N. Y., May 9, 1917

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d, disagreeable; e, earthy; f, fishy; g, grassy; m, musty; v, vegetable

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ARCADE
HERMANN M. BIGGS, M.D., State Commissioner of II eallh:

I beg to submit the following report on an investigation of the public water supply of Arcade made by Mr. C. M. Baker, assistant engineer, on September 6, 1917.

Arcade is an incorporated village of about 1,568 inhabitants located in the southwestern corner of Wyoming county. It is on the Olean-Buffalo Branch of the Pennsylvania railroad, 36 miles southeast of Buffalo and is the southern terminus of the Buffalo, Attica and Arcade railroad. The village is located on Cattaraugus creek. About three-fourths of the population are connected with private sewer systems which discharge without purification into the creek.

The water supply is owned by the municipality and is under the supervision of the board of trustees. The supply was first installed and put into operation about 1896 but was formerly owned and operated by the Wyoming Water Supply Company, being taken over by the village in 1905 or 1906. Shortly after the village took possession, a 6-inch main in addition to the 4-inch main then in service, was constructed from the springs to the village and an additional spring developed.

The supply is derived from three springs looated about 492 miles southeast of the village from which the water flows by gravity to the distribution system, the excess over consumption going to a storage reservoir located near the village. Practically all of the inhabitants of the village are served with the water, there being some 500 service taps, only a few of which are metered. The distribution system in the village consists of about 5 miles of mains ranging from 3 inches to 6 inches in diameter. There are two supply mains from the springs to the village, one 4 inches and the other 6 inches in diameter. The pressure averages 80 or $5 pounds per square inch. Due to the lack of meters or other method of measuring the amount of water used no definite information could be obtained regarding the consumption.

The reservoir which is constructed of masonry and located on a hill about one mile southwest of the village, has a capacity of about 220,000 gallons. At the time of the inspection, however, it had been shut off in order to repair leaks that had developed.

Spring No. 1 is located on the side of a hill and consists of a collecting gallery about 12 x 60 feet in plan, which is curbed with concrete walls and covered with a wooden roof. This spring is located in pasture land but there appears to be no opportunity for surface water to find its way directly into the supply, and but little, if any, chance for pollution by rapid infiltration of surface water since the slope about the spring is steep and is probably seldom frequented by cattle.

Spring No. 2 consists of a similar collecting gallery about 25 x 100 feet in plan located in swampy land in the bottom of a natural amphitheatre. The hill forming this amphitheatre rises to an elevation of about 100 feet above the level of the spring. To the northeast at a distance of about one-fourth of a mile is located a small lake or pond which has no visible outlet. A small brook fed by swampy land just above the collecting gallery flows near the western wall and a large portion of the water of this brook disappears along the wall and undoubtedly finds its way into the spring. The spring is located in pasture land and is not protected by a fence or drainage ditches and it seems probable, therefore, that polluted surface water at times finds its way into this spring. The area of the amphitheatre does not exceed 10 or 15 acres and by enclosing this area with a suitable fence and by constructing drainage ditches to divert surface wash, this pollution could be prevented.

Spring No. 3 is located near spring No. 1 in low, flat pasture land. This spring is at a lower elevation than spring No. 1, the flow from it being controlled by a pressure regulating valve which allows the water to flow into the main leading to the village only when the supply from spring No. 1 is exhausted. Spring No. 3 is not enclosed by a fence nor are drainage ditches provided to divert the surface wash.

Samples of water from the various sources were collected at the time of

the inspection and sent to the Division of Laboratories and Research for analyses, the results of which together with those of previous analyses are recorded in the appended table.

The results of these analyses show a water satisfactory in physical qualities with respect to color and turbidity but a water that is high in hardness. The figures for nitrogen in the form of free and albuminoid ammonia and nitrites are moderate but those for nitrates and chlorine appear to be somewhat above normal. The bacterial counts are low in all cases except in the samples collected at the time of the inspection, in which case the high counts are probably due to delay in transit, 4 days elapsing from the time samples were collected until they were received at the laboratory. Colon bacilli have been found present in only one of the 10 c.c inoculations of the 11 samples tested, thus indicating little active contamination. As a result of this investigation, it may be concluded:

1. That the public water supply of Arcade is derived from sources which if properly protected from pollution should furnish a satisfactory supply of water.

2. That there appears to be, however, some opportunity for surface wash from pasture land to find its way into springs Nos. 2 and 3. In view of the above, I beg to offer the following recommendations to be acted upon by the village authorities:

1. That the amphitheatre or a portion thereof about spring No. 2 be purchased by the village and enclosed by a suitable fence; also that drainage ditches be constructed within this area to divert surface wash from the pasture land above.

2. That a suitable area be enclosed by a fence about spring No. 3 and that drainage ditches be constructed within the enclosure to divert

surface wash from finding its way into this source of supply. Finally I would recommend that copies of this report be sent to the various local officials and to the sanitary supervisor of the district.

Respectfully submitted,
THEODORE HORTON,

Chief Engineer ALBANY, N. Y., December 21, 1917

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