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stage and on the condition that if the plant should not give satisfactory results, satisfactory detailed plans for the efficient sedimentation of the sewage tributary to it together with general plans for supplementary or more complete treatment of such sewage shall be submitted for approval. Provision should also be made within a reasonable time for the interception and treatment of the entire sanitary sewage of the city at the proposed site or at some other suitable site for disposal.

I would, therefore, recommend that the plans be approved and a permit be issued allowing the discharge into Long Island Sound of effluent from the proposed sewage disposal works on the following conditions:

1. That should the proposed disposal plant not give satisfactory results, detailed plans for effective sedimentation of the sewage tributary to the proposed works together with general plans for supplementary or more complete treatment of such sewage shall be submitted for approval.

2. That on or before March 1, 1919, satisfactory detailed plans for the interception and treatment of the entire sanitary sewage of the city shall be submitted for approval and that after the approval of said plans any or all portions of the works provided for by such plans shall be constructed and put into operation whenever required by the State Commissioner of Health.

Respectfully submitted,
THEODORE HORTON,

Chief Engineer ALBANY, N. Y., May 21, 1917

PERMIT Application having been duly made to the State Commissioner of Health, as provided by section 77 of chapter 49 of the Laws of 1909, the “Public Health Law," as amended by chapter 553 of the Laws of 1911, constituting chapter 45 of the Consolidated Laws, permission is hereby given to the Department of Public Works of New Rochelle to discharge effluent from the proposed sewage disposal works for the Burling Brook District into the waters of Long Island Sound through the existing outlet sewer within the municipality of New Rochelle, in accordance with the plans accompanying the petition, under the following conditions:

1. That this permit shall be revocable at any time or subject to modification or change when in the judgment of the State Commissioner of Health such revocation, modification or change shall become necessary.

2. That the issuance of this permit shall not be deemed to affect in any way action by this Department on any future application that may be made for permission to discharge additional sewage or effluent into the waters of this State,

3. That only sanitary or domestic sewage and no storm water or surface water from streets, roofs or other areas shall be admitted to the proposed sewage disposal works.

4. That no sewage sludge from any part of the disposal works shall be discharged into Long Island Sound or into any other watercourse or body of water.

5. That should the proposed disposal plant fail to give satisfactory results, detailed plans for effective sedimentation of the sewage tributa to the proposed works together with general plans for supplementary works for more complete treatment of such sewage shall be submitted for approval and such works constructed and put in operation whenever required by the State Commissioner of Health.

6. That the outlet pipe from the disposal plant shall be extended into Long Island Sound under plans approved by this Department whenever required by the State Commissioner of Health.

7. That on or before March 1, 1919, satisfactory detailed plans for the interception and treatment of the entire sanitary sewage of the city shall be submitted to this Department for approval; and that upon the approval of said plans any or all portions of the works provided by such plans shall be constructed and put in operation at such time or times thereafter as the State Commissioner of Health may designate.

M. NICOLL, JR.,

Acting Deputy State Commissioner of Health May 29, 1917

NIAGARA COUNTY TUBERCULOSIS HOSPITAL

Supplementary plans for sewage disposal for the Niagara County Tuberculosis County Hospital were approved August 3, 1917.

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PERMIT Application having been duly made to the State Commissioner of Health, as provided by section 76 of chapter 49 of the Laws of 1909, the

“ Public Health Law," as amended by chapter 553 of the Laws of 1911, constituting chapter 45 of the Consolidated Laws, permission is hereby given to the Niagara County Tuberculosis Hospital to discharge effluent from the proposed sewage disposal plant to treat the sewage from said hospital into the ground waters tributary to Eighteen Mile Creek within the town of Lockport, in accordance with the plans accompanying the petition, under the following conditions:

1. That this permit shall be revocable at any time or subject to modification or change when in the judgment of the State Commissioner of Health such revocation, modification or change shall become necessary.

2. That the issuance of this permit shall not be deemed to affect in any way action by this Department on any future application that may be made for permission to discharge additional sewage or effluent into the waters of this State.

3. That the sewage disposal works shown by plans approved this day shall be fully constructed in complete conformity with such plans or approved amendments thereof.

4. That only sanitary or domestic sewage and no storm water or surface water from streets, roofs or other areas shall be admitted to the proposed sewers.

5. That no sewage sludge from any part of the disposal works shall be discharged into Eighteen Mile creek or any other body of water, and that satisfactory plans for the disposal of sludge from the settling tank be submitted to this Department for approval before the completion of the proposed disposal works.

6. That not less than 50 feet of tiling per person served equal to 7500 feet for 150 persons shall be provided for and that when the population contributing sewage to the proposed sewage disposal works shall exceed 150 the subsurface irrigation system shall be proportionately enlarged or extended in accordance with the approved plans.

7. That whenever required by the State Commissioner of Health satisfactory detailed plans for some other suitable method of disposal of sewage from this hospital shall be submitted to this Department for approval and after the approval of said plans any or all portions of the proposed sewage disposal works provided for by such plans shall be constructed and put in operation.

M. NICOLL, JR.,

Deputy State Commissioner of Health August 3, 1917

NIAGARA FALLS

HERMANN M. Biggs, M.D., State Commissioner of Health:

I beg to submit the following report on an examination of plans for sewer extensions to be constructed in Second street, 24th street, Buffalo avenue, and across the lands of the Niagara Falls Power Company in the city of Niagara Falls, Niagara county, N. Y., submitted to this Department for approval by the city manager on behalf of the city on March 31, 1917. Additional information in regard to the plans and local conditions was furnished to the department on November 15, 1917.

Plans for a sewerage system for the village of Niagara Falls were approved by this Department on October 14, 1891. Amendments to these plans changing the route of the tunnel trunk sewer on Niagara and Falls streets were approved on January 11, 1893. Plans for a comprehensive sewerage system to serve the larger part of the city, or incorporating the existing sewers, were approved July 8, 1907, and plans for a trunk sewer and laterals to serve the section east of Sugar street were approved January 29, 1908. All of the sewers of the city are designed and constructed to carry both storm water and sanitary sewage.

The plans now submitted contemplate the construction of three separate extensions located in different parts of the city but all discharging into the present 7 feet by 9 feet tunnel trunk sewer in Niagara street which empties into the Niagara river about 14 mile below the Falls. No disposal plant of any kind is provided for the treatment of the sewage nor is the construction of such a plant contemplated by the present plans. As the minimum flow of the Niagara river is over 177,000 cubic feet per second, affording an ample dilution to prevent the creation of any nuisance, the matter of the purification of the sewage has not been given serious attention by the city authorities. It will be noted, however, that Youngstown, a village located about 12 miles below Niagara Falls, takes its water supply from the river; and that the village of Lewiston, about 6 miles below the city, is contemplating the construction of a water works system and intends to use the Niagara river as its source of supply. The treatment of the sewage of the city of Niagara Falls has been considered by the International Joint Committee on the Pollution of Boundary Waters, and a report dealing with the matter will be found on page 133 of the report of their consulting sanitary engineer, issued under date of March 8, 1916.

The Second street sewer, the first of the proposed sewers mentioned above, is to be constructed for the purpose of relieving the congested condition of the 24-inch line on the south side of Falls street west of Second street by diverting the flow from that portion of the line lying east of Second street to the present 7 by 9 trunk sewer in Niagara street. The sewer will be 830 feet long, and is to be built with a cross section 5 feet by 6 feet and a grade of 0.3 per cent. This size and grade will give a capacity considerably in excess of that required to care for the run-off from the area tributary to the sewer which is approximately 60 acres. In explanation of this fact, the engineer in his report states that on account of the heavy traffic on the street the use of an open cut will not be possible and that the section selected is the minimum which can be readily built by tunneling. The proposed grade of 0.3 per cent will give a satisfactory velocity if the invert is properly constructed. Shafts 8 feet by 10 feet in cross section are to be constructed at each end of the sewer to provide means of entrance for cleaning and inspecting the line.

The 24th Street trunk sewer is a part of the general sewerage system of the city, plans for which were approved by this Department on July 8, 1907. The plans now submitted differ from the original ones in that the dimensions of the different sections of the sewer have been increased. No changes, however, have been made in the route of the trunk line, nor in the size or arrangement of the laterals tributary to the trunk. The sewer is to extend along 24th Street from Falls street to LaSalle avenue and to vary in diameter from 78 inches at the former street to 66 inches at the latter. The sewer as originally planned varied in diameter from 58 inches to 48 inches between the same points. The minimum grade of the line is 0.2 per cent. Manholes are provided at frequent intervals, the maximum distance between the manholes being 736 feet, occurring on a section where the diameter of the sewer is 72 inches. The area tributary to this trunk is 183.5 acres and the maximum rate of run-off is estimated at 188 cubic feet per second, a flow which the proposed sewer can readily carry. It appears from the examination of the plans that the portion of this sewer between Falls street and Ferry street has already been constructed..

The sewer which it is proposed to build in Buffalo avenue and across the land of the Niagara Falls Power Company, is to be constructed to relieve the congested condition of the present Union street sewer which has proved to be of insufficient capacity to carry the wastes discharged from the manufacturing plants located in that part of the city. The sewer will extend from the tunnel trunk sewer in Royal avenue across the property of the Niagara Falls Power Company to Buffalo avenue and along Buffalo avenue to Union street, relieving the Union street sewer of the flow from the district above the intersection of Union street and Buffalo avenue. The total length of the line will be about 3500 feet, and the diameter will vary from 60 to 42 inches. The minimum grade is 0.2 per cent. Manholes are provided at frequent intervals for inspecting and cleaning the line. The area tributary to this trunk is about 120 acres and the maximum rate of run-off is estimated at approximately 120 cubic feet per second. In addition to this, the sewer will receive from the factories in the district a discharge of trade wastes estimated at 22 cubic feet per second, making the total flow to be taken care of about 142 cubic feet per second. The sewer as designed appears to be of sufficient capacity to care for the maximum flow that will probably reach it.

The trunk sewer in Niagara and Fall streets into which the proposed trunk lines will discharge is an unlined tunnel 7 feet high and 9 feet wide, built with a fall of about 2.5 feet per thousand feet. The question as to whether or not the capacity of this sewer is sufficient to care for the flow from the district drained has been und'er consideration for some time. In a report dated March 24, 1915, Mr. F. S. Parkhurst, Jr., then city engineer of Niagara Falls, stated that the capacity of the trunk was not sufficient to care for the drainage of the district then tributary to it if the district were fully built up, and that it could not possibly carry the additional sewage that would reach it from the new trunks, the construction of which was then under consideration, Assuming that 20 per cent of the rainfall would reach the sewer, Mr. Parkhurst estimated that the rate of flow in the sewer from the district then tributary to it would at times reach 1,000 cubic feet per second. The capacity of the sewer flowing full he estimated at 320 cubic feet per second. While this estimate of the capacity of the sewer appears to he too low for this sewer if it is properly constructed, the line ohviously will not care for the estimated runoff from the district even though additional head is obtained by the sewage backing up in the manholes at the upper end of the line. No trouble has, however, been experienced as yet, due to the fact that a considerable part of the district drained is not closely built up and that a large part of the storm water is consequently absorbed by the ground. The building of the proposed trunk sewers, increasing the drainage area tributary to the main trunk, and the construction of more pavements and buildings on the present drainage area, increasing the percentage of storm water reaching the sewers will, undoubtedly, overtax the capacity of the Niagara street trunk in the near future. It would appear advisable, therefore, that the city authorities consider at an early date the making of such alterations or additions to the present system of trunk lines as may be necessary to provide sufficient capacity for the maximum rate of flow that will probably occur within a reasonable future period.

In view of the results of our examination of these plans after careful consideration of the design of the proposed trunk lines and of the local conditions, I heg to recommend that the plans be approved, and a permit issued for the discharge of the sewage from the proposed extensions through the existing trunk sewer into the Niagara river at the foot of Niagara street in the city of Niagara Falls on the following conditions:

1. That whenever required by the State Commissioner of Health satisfactory plans for alterations to the tunnel trunk line in Niagara and Falls streets or for the construction of an additional trunk line or of additional trunk lines designed to provide ample capacity to care for the run-off from the district now tributary to or which may become tributary to the present Niagara street trunk line shall be submitted to this Department for approval.

2. That whenever required by the State Commissioner of Health, satisfactory plans for the preliminary treatment of the sewage of the city shall be submitted to this Department for approval.

Respectfully submitted,
THEODORE HORTON,

Chief Engineer ALBANY, N. Y., November 27, 1917

PERMIT Application having been duly made to the State Commissioner of Health, as provided by section 77 of chapter 49 of the Laws of 1909, the “Public Health Law," as amended by chapter 553 of the Laws of 1911, constituting chapter 45 of the Consolidated Laws, permission is hereby given to the Common Council of the city of Niagara Falls to discharge sewage from the sewer extensions in Second street, 24th street and Buffalo avenue and across the land of the Niagara Falls Power Co. in the city of Niagara Falls into the waters of the Niagara river at the foot of Niagara street within the municipality of Niagara Falls in accordance with the plans accompanying the petition, under the following conditions:

1. That this permit shall be revocable at any time or subject to modification or change when in the judgment of the State Commissioner of Health such revocation, modification or change shall become necessary.

2. That the issuance of this permit shall not be deemed to affect in any way action by this Department on any future application that may be made for permission to discharge additional sewage or effluent into the waters of this State.

3. That whenever required by the State Commissioner of Health satisfactory plans for alterations to the tunnel trunk line in Niagara and Falls streets or for the construction of an additional trunk line or of additional trunk lines designed to provide ample capacity to care for the run-off from the district now tributary to or which may become tributary to the present Niagara street trunk line shall be submitted to this Department for approval.

4. That whenever required by the State Commissioner of Health satisfactory plans for the preliminary treatment of the sewage of the city shall be submitted to this Department for approval.

M. NICOLL, JR.,

Deputy State Commissioner of H calth December 4, 1917

NORTH HEMPSTEAD (East Williston School) HERMANN M. BIGGS, M.D., State Commissioner of Health:

I beg to submit the following report on our examination of the plans for sewage disposal for the East Williston school at Williston, Nassau county,

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